Lipid accumulation and dendritic cell dysfunction in cancer.
ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DCs), a type of professional antigen-presenting cells, are responsible for initiation and maintenance of immune responses. Here we report that a substantial proportion of DCs in tumor-bearing mice and people with cancer have high amounts of triglycerides as compared with DCs from tumor-free mice and healthy individuals. In our studies, lipid accumulation in DCs was caused by increased uptake of extracellular lipids due to upregulation of scavenger receptor A. DCs with high lipid content were not able to effectively stimulate allogeneic T cells or present tumor-associated antigens. DCs with high and normal lipid levels did not differ in expression of major histocompatibility complex and co-stimulatory molecules. However, lipid-laden DCs had a reduced capacity to process antigens. Pharmacological normalization of lipid abundance in DCs with an inhibitor of acetyl-CoA carboxylase restored the functional activity of DCs and substantially enhanced the effects of cancer vaccines. These findings suggest that immune responses in cancer can be improved by manipulating the lipid levels in DCs.
Project description:DCs are a critical component of immune responses in cancer primarily due to their ability to cross-present tumor-associated antigens. Cross-presentation by DCs in cancer is impaired, which may represent one of the obstacles for the success of cancer immunotherapies. Here, we report that polymorphonuclear myeloid-derived suppressor cells (PMN-MDSC) blocked cross-presentation by DCs without affecting direct presentation of antigens by these cells. This effect did not require direct cell-cell contact and was associated with transfer of lipids. Neutrophils (PMN) and PMN-MDSC transferred lipid to DCs equally well; however, PMN did not affect DC cross-presentation. PMN-MDSC generate oxidatively truncated lipids previously shown to be involved in impaired cross-presentation by DCs. Accumulation of oxidized lipids in PMN-MDSC was dependent on myeloperoxidase (MPO). MPO-deficient PMN-MDSC did not affect cross-presentation by DCs. Cross-presentation of tumor-associated antigens in vivo by DCs was improved in MDSC-depleted or tumor-bearing MPO-KO mice. Pharmacological inhibition of MPO in combination with checkpoint blockade reduced tumor progression in different tumor models. These data suggest MPO-driven lipid peroxidation in PMN-MDSC as a possible non-cell autonomous mechanism of inhibition of antigen cross-presentation by DCs and propose MPO as potential therapeutic target to enhance the efficacy of current immunotherapies for patients with cancer.
Project description:Dendritic cells (DCs) play an important role in the generation of anti-cancer immune responses, however there is evidence that DCs in cancer patients are dysfunctional. Lipid accumulation driven by tumor-derived factors has recently been shown to contribute to DC dysfunction in several human cancers, but has not yet been examined in mesothelioma. This study investigated if mesothelioma tumor cells and/or their secreted factors promote increases in DC lipid content and modulate DC function. Human monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs) were exposed to human mesothelioma tumor cells and tumor-derived factors in the presence or absence of lipoproteins. The data showed that immature MoDCs exposed to mesothelioma cells or factors contained increased lipid levels relative to control DCs. Lipid accumulation was associated with reduced antigen processing ability (measured using a DQ OVA assay), upregulation of the co-stimulatory molecule, CD86, and production of the tolerogenic cytokine, IL-10. Increases in DC lipid content were further enhanced by co-exposure to mesothelioma-derived factors and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, but not low-density lipoproteins. In vivo studies using a murine mesothelioma model showed that the lipid content of tumor-infiltrating CD4+ CD8?- DCs, CD4- CD8?- DCs DCs and plasmacytoid DCs increased with tumor progression. Moreover, increasing tumor burden was associated with reduced proliferation of tumor-antigen-specific CD8+ T cells in tumor-draining lymph nodes. This study shows that mesothelioma promotes DC lipid acquisition, which is associated with altered activation status and reduced capacity to process and present antigens, which may impair the ability of DCs to generate effective anti mesothelioma T cell responses.
Project description:Cross-presentation is a critical function of dendritic cells (DCs) required for induction of antitumor immune responses and success of cancer immunotherapy. It is established that tumor-associated DCs are defective in their ability to cross-present antigens. However, the mechanisms driving these defects are still unknown. We find that impaired cross-presentation in DCs is largely associated with defect in trafficking of peptide-MHC class I (pMHC) complexes to the cell surface. DCs in tumor-bearing hosts accumulate lipid bodies (LB) containing electrophilic oxidatively truncated (ox-tr) lipids. These ox-tr-LB, but not LB present in control DCs, covalently bind to chaperone heat shock protein 70. This interaction prevents the translocation of pMHC to cell surface by causing the accumulation of pMHC inside late endosomes/lysosomes. As a result, tumor-associated DCs are no longer able to stimulate adequate CD8 T cells responses. In conclusion, this study demonstrates a mechanism regulating cross-presentation in cancer and suggests potential therapeutic avenues.
Project description:Dendritic cells (DCs) play important roles in the initiation and maintenance of the immune response. The dysfunction of DCs contributes to tumor evasion and growth. Here we report our findings on the dysfunction of DCs in radiation-induced thymic lymphomas, and the up-regulation of the expression of the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and the fatty acid binding protein (FABP4), and the level of triacylglycerol (TAG) in serum after total body irradiation, which contribute to DCs lipid accumulation. DCs with high lipid content showed low expression of co-stimulatory molecules and DCs-related cytokines, and were not able to effectively stimulate allogeneic T cells. Normalization of lipid abundance in DCs with an inhibitor of acetyl-CoA carboxylase restored the function of DCs. A high-fat diet promoted radiation-induced thymic lymphoma growth. In all, our study shows that dysfunction of DCs in radiation-induced thymic lymphomas was due to lipid accumulation and may represent a new mechanism in radiation-induced carcinogenesis.
Project description:Fatty acid synthase (FASN), the key metabolic enzyme of de novo lipogenesis, provides proliferative and metastatic capacity directly to cancer cells have been described. However, the impact of aberrant activation of this lipogenic enzyme on host anti-tumor immune milieu remains unknown. In this study, we depicted that elevated FASN expression presented in ovarian cancer with more advanced clinical phenotype and correlated with the immunosuppressive status, which characterized by the lower number and dysfunction of infiltrating T cells. Notably, in a mouse model, we showed that tumor cell-intrinsic FASN drove ovarian cancer (OvCa) progression by blunting anti-tumor immunity. Dendritic cells (DCs) are required to initiate and sustain T cell-dependent anti-tumor immunity. Here, our data showed that constitutive activation of FASN in ovarian cancer cell lead to abnormal lipid accumulation and subsequent inhibition of tumor-infiltrating DCs (TIDCs) capacity to support anti-tumor T cells. Mechanistically, FASN activation in ovarian cancer cell-induced the resulting increase of lipids present at high concentrations in the tumor microenvironment. Dendritic cells educated by FASNhigh OvCa ascites are defective in their ability to present antigens and prime T cells. Accordingly, inhibiting FASN by FASN inhibitor can partly restore the immunostimulatory activity of TIDCs and extended tumor control by evoking protective anti-tumor immune responses. Therefore, our data provide a mechanism by which ovarian cancer-intrinsic FASN oncogenic pathway induce the impaired anti-tumor immune response through lipid accumulation in TIDCs and subsequently T-cells exclusion and dysfunction. These results could further indicate that targeting the FASN oncogenic pathway concomitantly enhance anti-tumor immunity, thus offering a unique approach to ovarian cancer immunotherapy.
Project description:Targeting viral vectors encoding tumor-associated antigens to dendritic cells (DCs) in vivo is likely to enhance the effectiveness of immunotherapeutic cancer vaccines. We have previously shown that genetic modification of adenovirus (Ad) 5 to incorporate CD40 ligand (CD40L) rather than native fiber allows selective transduction and activation of DCs in vitro. Here, we examine the capacity of this targeted vector to induce immune responses to the tumor antigen CEA in a stringent in vivo canine model. CD40-targeted Ad5 transduced canine DCs via the CD40-CD40L pathway in vitro, and following vaccination of healthy dogs, CD40-targeted Ad5 induced strong anti-CEA cellular and humoral responses. These data validate the canine model for future translational studies and suggest targeting of Ad5 vectors to CD40 for in vivo delivery of tumor antigens to DCs is a feasible approach for successful cancer therapy.
Project description:The spatiotemporal distribution of cytokines orchestrates immune responses in vivo, yet the underlying mechanisms remain to be explored. We showed here that the spatial distribution of interleukin-4 (IL4) in invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells regulated crosstalk between iNKT cells and dendritic cells (DCs) and controlled iNKT cell-mediated T-helper type 1 (Th1) responses. The persistent polarization of IL4 induced by strong lipid antigens, that is, ?-galactosylceramide (?GC), caused IL4 accumulation at the immunological synapse (IS), which promoted the activation of the IL4R-STAT6 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 6) pathway and production of IL12 in DCs, which enhanced interferon-? (IFN?) production in iNKT cells. Conversely, the nonpolarized secretion of IL4 induced by Th2 lipid antigens with a short or unsaturated chain was incapable of enhancing this iNKT cell-DC crosstalk and thus shifted the immune response to a Th2-type response. The nonpolarized secretion of IL4 in response to Th2 lipid antigens was caused by the degradation of Cdc42 in iNKT cells. Moreover, reduced Cdc42 expression was observed in tumor-infiltrating iNKT cells, which impaired IL4 polarization and disturbed iNKT cell-DC crosstalk in tumors.
Project description:Despite the importance and promise of cancer vaccines for broader prevention and treatment of cancer, limited clinical responses are observed, suggesting that key rational designs are required for inducing potent immune responses against cancer. Here we report a mesoporous silicon vector (MSV) as a multi-functional microparticle for formulating an efficient cancer vaccine composed of B16 melanoma derived-tyrosinase related protein 2 (TRP2) peptide and dual toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists. We demonstrated that MSV microparticles protected the peptide from rapid degradation for prolonged antigen presentation to immune cells. Moreover, MSV enabled co-delivery of two different TLR agonists [CpG oligonucleotide and monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA)] along with TRP2 peptide into the same dendritic cell (DC), thus increasing the efficiency and capacity of DCs to induce potent TRP2-specifc CD8+ T cell responses against B16 melanoma. Furthermore, this MSV-based DC vaccine could significantly prolong the median survival of tumor-bearing mice by orchestrating effective host immune responses involving CD8+ T cells, CD4+ T cells and macrophages. Our study provides rational and potentially translational approach to develop durable and potent immunotherapy for patients with cancer by delivering various combinations of tumor antigens, neoantigens and innate immune agonists.
Project description:Induced B7-H1 expression in the tumor microenvironment initiates adaptive resistance, which impairs immune functions and leads to tumor escape from immune destruction. Antibody blockade of the B7-H1/PD-1 interaction overcomes adaptive resistance, leading to regression of advanced human cancers and survival benefits in a significant fraction of patients. In addition to cancer cells, B7-H1 is expressed on dendritic cells (DCs), but its role in DC functions is less understood. DCs can present multiple antigens (Ags) to stimulate dominant or subdominant T cell responses. Here, we show that immunization with multiple tumor Ag-loaded DCs, in the absence of B7-H1, vastly enhances cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses to dominant Ag. In sharp contrast, CTL responses to subdominant Ag were paradoxically suppressed, facilitating outgrowth of tumor variants carrying only subdominant Ag. Suppressed CTL responses to subdominant Ag are largely due to the loss of B7-H1-mediated protection of DCs from the lysis of CTL against dominant Ag. Therefore, B7-H1 expression on DCs may help maintain the diversity of CTL responses to multiple tumor Ags. Interestingly, a split immunization approach, which presents dominant and subdominant Ags with different DCs, promoted CTL responses to all Ags and prevented tumor escape in murine tumor models. These findings have implications for the design of future combination cancer immunotherapies.
Project description:Dendritic cells (DCs) are equipped for sensing danger signals and capturing, processing, and presenting antigens to naive or effector cells and are critical in inducing humoral and adaptive immunity. Successful vaccinations are those that activate DCs to elicit both cellular and humoral responses, as well as long-lasting memory response against the target of interest. Recently, it has become apparent that tumor cells can provide new sources of antigens through nonsynonymous mutations or frame-shift mutations, leading to potentially hundreds of mutation-derived tumor antigens (MTAs) or neoantigens. T cells recognizing MTA have been detected in cancer patients and can even lead to tumor regression. Designing MTA-specific vaccination strategies will have to take into account the adjuvant activity of DC subsets and the best formulation to elicit an effective immune response. We discuss the potential of human DCs to prime MTA-specific responses.