Genetic Polymorphisms of CYP2E1, GSTP1, NQO1 and MPO and the Risk of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in a Han Chinese Population of Southern China.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Southern China is a major area for endemic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Genetic factors as well as environmental factors play a role in development of NPC. To investigate the roles of previously described carcinogen metabolism gene variants for NPC susceptibility in a Han Chinese population, we conducted a case-control study in two independent study population groups afflicted with NPC in Guangdong and Guangxi Provinces of southern China. METHODS: Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of CYP2E1-rs2031920, CYP2E1-rs6413432, GSTP1-rs947894, MPO-rs2333227 and NQO1-rs1800566 were genotyped by PCR-based RFLP, sequencing and TaqMan assay in 358 NPC cases and 629 controls (phase I cohort). Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). To confirm our results, sixteen tag SNPs for GSTP1, MPO, NQO1 (which 100% covered these genes), and 4 functional SNPs of CYP2E1 were genotyped in another cohort of 213 NPC cases and 230 controls (phase II cohort). RESULTS: No significant associations in NPC risk were observed for the five polymorphisms tested in the phase I cohort. In an additional stratified analysis for phase I, there was no significant association between cases and controls in NPC high risk population (EBV/IgA/VCA positive population). Analysis of 14 tagging SNPs within the same genes in an independent phase II cohort were in agreement with no SNPs significantly associated with NPC. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that polymorphism of CYP2E1, GSTP1, MPO and NQO1 genes does not contribute to overall NPC risk in a Han Chinese in southern China.
Project description:Epidemiological studies have indicated that the incidence of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is associated with environmental exposure to mutagens and carcinogens. To determine whether the basal expression level of genes involved in metabolism of carcinogens is associated with the risk of ESCC, a case-control study of 100 patients with newly diagnosed, untreated ESCC and 117 healthy controls was performed, and the relative expression levels of four metabolism genes (CYP2E1, GSTP1, MTHFR, and NQO1) were determined with quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Analyzed with the mean of relative expression level in the controls as the cut-off point, the result exhibited that the increased risk for ESCC was significantly associated with reduced expression of GSTP1 (odds ratio [OR]=3.644, 95% confidence interval [CI: 1.947-6.823) and NQO1 (OR=1.870, 95% CI: 1.046-3.345). When adjusted for age, sex, smoking status, and alcohol use, the increased risk for ESCC was significantly associated with reduced expression of GSTP1, MTHFR, and NQO1, and GSTP1 mRNA showed a steady association with the risk for ESCC (OR=2.640) in the model of stepwise regression analysis. Reduced expression of GSTP1 in PBMCs was significantly associated with the risk for ESCC, suggesting an important etiology clue to the early progression of ESCC in the Huaian population of China.
Project description:Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is rare in most parts of the world but is more prevalent in Southern China, especially in Guangdong. The cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) has been recognized as one of the critically important enzymes involved in oxidizing carcinogens and is probably to be associated with NPC carcinogenesis. To systematically investigate the association between genetic variants in CYP2E1 and NPC risk in Cantonese, two independent studies, a family-based association study and a case-control study, were conducted using the haplotype-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphism approach. A total of 2499 individuals from 546 nuclear families were initially genotyped for the family-based association study. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs9418990, rs915908, rs8192780, rs1536826, rs3827688 and one haplotype h2 (CGTGTTAA) were revealed to be significantly associated with the NPC phenotype (P = 0.045-0.003 and P = 0.003, respectively). To follow up the initial study, a case-control study including 755 cases and 755 controls was conducted. Similar results were observed in the case-control study in individuals <46 years of age and had a history of cigarette smoking, with odds ratios (ORs) of specific genotypes ranging from 1.88 to 2.99 corresponding to SNP rs9418990, rs3813865, rs915906, rs2249695, rs8192780, rs1536826, rs3827688 and of haplotypes h2 with OR = 1.65 (P = 0.026), h5 (CCCGTTAA) with OR = 2.58 (P = 0.007). The values of false-positive report probability were <0.015 for six SNPs, suggesting that the reported associations are less probably to be false. This study provides robust evidence for associations between genetic variants of CYP2E1 and NPC risk.
Project description:AIM:Myeloperoxidase (MPO) and glutathione S-transferase pi 1 (GSTP1) are important carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the common polymorphisms of MPO and GSTP1 genes and lung cancer risk in Chinese Han population. METHODS:A total of 266 subjects with lung cancer and 307 controls without personal history of the disease were recruited in this case control study. The tagSNPs approach was used to assess the common polymorphisms of MOP and GSTP1 genes and lung cancer risk according to the disequilibrium information from the HapMap project. The tagSNP rs7208693 was selected as the polymorphism site for MPO, while the haplotype-tagging SNPs rs1695, rs4891, rs762803 and rs749174 were selected as the polymorphism sites for GSTP1. The gene polymorphisms were confirmed using real-time PCR, cloning and sequencing. RESULTS:The four GSTP1 haplotype-tagging SNPs rs1695, rs4891, rs762803 and rs749174, but not the MPO tagSNP rs7208693, exhibited an association with lung cancer susceptibility in smokers in the overall population and in the studied subgroups. When Phase 2 software was used to reconstruct the haplotype for GSTP1, the haplotype CACA (rs749174+rs1695 + rs762803+rs4891) exhibited an increased risk of lung cancer among smokers (adjust odds ratio 1.53; 95%CI 1.04-2.25, P=0.033). Furthermore, diplotype analyses demonstrated that the significant association between the risk haplotype and lung cancer. The risk haplotypes co-segregated with one or more biologically functional polymorphisms and corresponded to a recessive inheritance model. CONCLUSION:The common polymorphisms of the GSTP1 gene may be the candidates for SNP markers for lung cancer susceptibility in Chinese Han population.
Project description:Germline polymorphisms are linked with differential survival outcomes in cancers but are not well studied in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Here, a two-phase association study is conducted to discover germline polymorphisms that are associated with the prognosis of NPC. The discovery phase includes two consecutive hospital cohorts of patients with NPC from Southern China. Exome-wide genotypes at 246 173 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are determined, followed by survival analysis for each SNP under Cox proportional hazard regression model. Candidate SNP is replicated in another two independent cohorts from Southern China and Singapore. Meta-analysis of all samples (n = 5553) confirms that the presence of rs1131636-T, located in the 3'-UTR of RPA1, confers an inferior overall survival (HR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.20-1.47, P = 6.31 × 10-8). Bioinformatics and biological assays show that rs1131636 has regulatory effects on upstream RPA1. Functional studies further demonstrate that RPA1 promotes the growth, invasion, migration, and radioresistance of NPC cells. Additionally, miR-1253 is identified as a suppressor for RPA1 expression, likely through regulation of its binding affinity to rs1131636 locus. Collectively, these findings provide a promising biomarker aiding in stratifying patients with poor survival, as well as a potential drug target for NPC.
Project description:Lung injury resulting from oxidative stress contributes to bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) pathogenesis. Nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor-2 (NFE2L2) regulates cytoprotective responses to oxidative stress by inducing enzymes containing antioxidant response elements (ARE). We hypothesized that ARE genetic variants will modulate susceptibility or severity of BPD in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants.Blood samples obtained from VLBW infants were used for genotyping variants in the SOD2, NFE2L2, GCLC, GSTP1, HMOX1, and NQO1 genes. SNPs were genotyped utilizing TaqMan probes (Applied Biosystems (ABI), Grand Island, NY), and data were analyzed using the ABI HT7900. Genetic dominance and recessive models were tested to determine associations between SNPs and BPD.In our cohort (n = 659), 284 infants had BPD; 135 of whom developed severe BPD. Presence of the hypomorphic NQO1 SNP (rs1800566) in a homozygous state was associated with increased BPD, while presence of the NFE2L2 SNP (rs6721961) was associated with decreased severe BPD in the entire cohort and in Caucasian infants. In regression models that adjusted for epidemiological confounders, the NQO1 and the NFE2L2 SNPs were associated with BPD and severe BPD, respectively.Genetic variants in NFE2L2-ARE axis may contribute to the variance in liability to BPD observed in preterm infants. These results require confirmation in independent cohorts.
Project description:Many phytochemicals possess cancer-preventive properties, some putatively through phase II metabolism-mediated mutagen/oxidant quenching. We applied human lung cells in vitro to investigate the effects of several candidate phytopreventive agents, including green tea extracts (GTE), broccoli sprout extracts (BSE), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), sulforaphane (SFN), phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), and benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), on inducing phase II enzymes glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) at mRNA and protein levels. Primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE), immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC), and lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549) were exposed to diet-achievable levels of GTE and BSE (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 mg/L), or individual index components EGCG, SFN, PEITC, BITC (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 micromol/L) for 24 h, 48 h, and 6 d, respectively. mRNA assays employed RNA-specific quantitative RT-PCR and protein assays employed Western blotting. We found that in NHBE cells, while GSTP1 mRNA levels were slightly but significantly increased after exposure to GTE or BSE, NQO1 mRNA increased to 2- to 4-fold that of control when exposed to GTE, BSE, or SFN. Effects on NQO1 mRNA expression in HBEC cells were similar. NQO1 protein expression increased up to 11.8-fold in SFN-treated NHBE cells. Both GSTP1 and NQO1 protein expression in A549 cells were constitutively high but not induced under any condition. Our results suggest that NQO1 is more responsive to the studied chemopreventive agents than GSTP1 in human lung cells and there is discordance between single agent and complex mixture effects. We conclude that modulation of lung cell phase II metabolism by chemopreventive agents requires cell- and agent-specific discovery and testing.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Glioblastoma (GBM) is a universally lethal tumor with frequently overexpressed or mutated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). NADPH quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and glutathione-S-transferase Pi 1 (GSTP1) are commonly upregulated in GBM. NQO1 and GSTP1 decrease the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which mediates the oxidative stress and promotes GBM cell proliferation.<h4>Methods</h4>High-throughput screen was used for agents selectively active against GBM cells with EGFRvIII mutations. Co-crystal structures were revealed molecular details of target recognition. Pharmacological and gene knockdown/overexpression approaches were used to investigate the oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo.<h4>Results</h4>We identified a small molecular inhibitor, "MNPC," that binds to both NQO1 and GSTP1 with high affinity and selectivity. MNPC inhibits NQO1 and GSTP1 enzymes and induces apoptosis in GBM, specifically inhibiting the growth of cell lines and primary GBM bearing the EGFRvIII mutation. Co-crystal structures between MNPC and NQO1, and molecular docking of MNPC with GSTP1 reveal that it binds the active sites and acts as a potent dual inhibitor. Inactivation of both NQO1 and GSTP1 with siRNA or MNPC results in imbalanced redox homeostasis, leading to apoptosis and mitigated cancer proliferation in vitro and in vivo.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Thus, MNPC, a dual inhibitor for both NQO1 and GSTP1, provides a novel lead compound for treating GBM via the exploitation of specific vulnerabilities created by mutant EGFR.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is endemic in Southern China, displays a strong relationship with genetic susceptibility and associates with Epstein-Barr virus infection. Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) plays an important role in the antivirus response. Therefore, we examined the association between TLR3 gene polymorphisms and NPC susceptibility. METHODS: We performed a case-control study of 434 NPC cases and 512 healthy controls matched on age, sex and residence. Both cases and controls are of Cantonese origin from Southern China. Genetic variants in TLR3 were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based DNA direct sequencing and four SNPs were genotyped in all samples. RESULTS: Our results showed that allele C for SNP 829A/C increased NPC risk significantly ((p = 0.0068, OR = 1.49, 95%CI:1.10-2.00). When adjusted for age, gender and VCA-IgA antibody titers, the NPC risk was reduced significantly among individuals who carried the haplotype "ATCT" compared to those who carried the most common haplotype "ACCT" (p = 0.0054, OR = 0.028; 95% CI (0.002-0.341). CONCLUSION: The TLR3 polymorphisms may be relevant to NPC susceptibility in the Cantonese population, although the reduction in NPC risk is modest and the biological mechanism of the observed association merits further investigation.
Project description:Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is rare malignancy in most parts around the world but common in Southern China and Southeast Asia, Annually, approximately 80,000 new NPC cases and 50,000 deaths are reported worldwide. In NPC, recent advances have shown that many genes that are predominantly or even exclusively silenced by DNA methylation in epithelial cells during pathogenesis of NPC. However, the causal relationship between DNA methylation status and outcome in NPC remains not well understood. To investigate this problem, we used Illumina 450K BeadChips to examined methylation patterns and survival in NPC. and ultimately provided insight into prognostic value of DNA methylation in NPC clinical management. We employed Illumina Human Methylation450K Beadchip to analyze a genome-wide of DNA methylation in a cohort of 48 samples (between 24 nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissues and 24 normal nasopharyngeal epithelial tissues) to identify aberrant methylation genes.
Project description:UNLABELLED:Genetic factors, as well as environmental factors, play a role in development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). A number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been reported to be associated with NPC. To confirm these genetic associations with NPC, two independent case-control studies from Southern China comprising 1166 NPC cases and 2340 controls were conducted. Seven SNPs in ITGA9 at 3p21.3 and 9 SNPs within the 6p21.3 HLA region were genotyped. To explore the potential clinical application of these genetic markers in NPC, we further evaluate the predictive/diagnostic role of significant SNPs by calculating the area under the curve (AUC). RESULTS:The reported associations between ITGA9 variants and NPC were not replicated. Multiple loci of GABBR1, HLA-F, HLA-A, and HCG9 were statistically significant in both cohorts (P(combined) range from 5.96 × 10(-17) to 0.02). We show for the first time that these factors influence NPC development independent of environmental risk factors. This study also indicated that the SNP alone cannot serve as a predictive/diagnostic marker for NPC. Integrating the most significant SNP with IgA antibodies status to EBV, which is presently used as screening/diagnostic marker for NPC in Chinese populations, did not improve the AUC estimate for diagnosis of NPC.