Replication of CLU, CR1, and PICALM associations with alzheimer disease.
ABSTRACT: To test for replication of the association between variants in the CLU, CR1, and PICALM genes with Alzheimer disease.Follow-up case-control association study.The Mayo Clinics at Jacksonville, Florida, and Rochester, Minnesota.Community-based patients of European descent with late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) and controls without dementia who were seen at the Mayo clinics, and autopsy-confirmed cases and controls whose pathology was evaluated at the Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville. Additional samples were obtained from the National Cell Repository for Alzheimer Disease (NCRAD). A total of 1829 LOAD cases and 2576 controls were analyzed.The most significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms in CLU (rs11136000), CR1 (rs3818361), and PICALM (rs3851179) were tested for allelic association with LOAD. Main Outcome Measure Clinical or pathology-confirmed diagnosis of LOAD.Odds ratios for CLU, CR1, and PICALM were 0.82, 1.15, and 0.80, respectively, comparable in direction and magnitude with those originally reported. P values were 8.6 x 10(-5), .014, and 1.3 x 10(-5), respectively; they remain significant even after Bonferroni correction for the 3 single-nucleotide polymorphisms tested.These results show near-perfect replication and provide the first additional evidence that CLU, CR1, and PICALM are associated with the risk of LOAD.
Project description:Genetic variants at the CLU, CR1, and PICALM loci associate with risk for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) in genomewide association studies. In this study, our aim was to determine whether the LOAD risk variants at these three loci influence memory endophenotypes in black and white subjects.We pursued an association study between single nucleotide polymorphism genotypes at the CLU, CR1, and PICALM loci and memory endophenotypes. We assessed black subjects (AA series: 44 with LOAD and 224 control subjects) recruited at Mayo Clinic Florida and whites recruited at Mayo Clinic Minnesota (RS series: 372 with LOAD and 1690 control subjects) and Florida (JS series: 60 with LOAD and 529 control subjects). Single nucleotide polymorphisms at the LOAD risk loci CLU (rs11136000), CR1 (rs6656401, rs3818361), and PICALM (rs3851179) were genotyped and tested for association with Logical Memory immediate recall, Logical Memory delayed recall, Logical Memory percent retention, Visual Reproduction immediate recall, Visual Reproduction delayed recall, and Visual Reproduction percent retention scores from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised using multivariable linear regression analysis, adjusting for age at exam, sex, education, and apolipoprotein E ?4 dosage.We identified nominally significant or suggestive associations between the LOAD-risky CR1 variants and worse Logical Memory immediate recall scores in blacks (P = .068-.046, ? = -2.7 to -1.2). The LOAD-protective CLU variant is associated with better logical memory endophenotypes in white subjects (P = .099-.027, ? = 0.31-0.93). The CR1 associations persisted when the control subjects from the AA series were assessed separately. The CLU associations appeared to be driven by one of the white series (RS) and were also observed when the control subset from RS was analyzed.These results suggest for the first time that LOAD risk variants at CR1 may influence memory endophenotypes in blacks. In addition, the CLU LOAD-protective variant may confer enhanced memory in whites. Although these results would not remain significant after stringent corrections for multiple testing, they need to be considered in the context of the LOAD associations with which they have biological consistency. They also provide estimates for effect sizes on memory endophenotypes that could guide future studies. The detection of memory effects for these variants in clinically normal subjects, implies that these LOAD risk loci might modify memory prior to clinical diagnosis of AD.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To determine whether genotypes at CLU, PICALM, and CR1 confer risk for Alzheimer disease (AD) and whether risk for AD associated with these genes is influenced by apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes. DESIGN:Association study of AD and CLU, PICALM, CR1, and APOE genotypes. SETTING:Academic research institutions in the United States, Canada, and Israel. PARTICIPANTS:Seven thousand seventy cases with AD, 3055 with autopsies, and 8169 elderly cognitively normal controls, 1092 with autopsies, from 12 different studies, including white, African American, Israeli-Arab, and Caribbean Hispanic individuals. RESULTS:Unadjusted, CLU (odds ratio [OR], 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85-0.96 for single-nucleotide polymorphism [SNP] rs11136000), CR1 (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.07-1.22; SNP rs3818361), and PICALM (OR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.84-0.94, SNP rs3851179) were associated with AD in white individuals. None were significantly associated with AD in the other ethnic groups. APOE ?4 was significantly associated with AD (ORs, 1.80-9.05) in all but 1 small white cohort and in the Arab cohort. Adjusting for age, sex, and the presence of at least 1 APOE ?4 allele greatly reduced evidence for association with PICALM but not CR1 or CLU. Models with the main SNP effect, presence or absence of APOE ?4, and an interaction term showed significant interaction between presence or absence of APOE ?4 and PICALM. CONCLUSIONS:We confirm in a completely independent data set that CR1, CLU, and PICALM are AD susceptibility loci in European ancestry populations. Genotypes at PICALM confer risk predominantly in APOE ?4-positive subjects. Thus, APOE and PICALM synergistically interact.
Project description:We investigated the association between apoE protein plasma levels and brain amyloidosis and the effect of the top 10 Alzheimer disease (AD) risk genes on this association.Our dataset consisted of 18 AD, 52 mild cognitive impairment, and 3 cognitively normal Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative 1 (ADNI1) participants with available [(11)C]-Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) and peripheral blood protein data. We used cortical pattern matching to study associations between plasma apoE and cortical PiB binding and the effect of carrier status for the top 10 AD risk genes.Low plasma apoE was significantly associated with high PiB SUVR, except in the sensorimotor and entorhinal cortex. For BIN1 rs744373, the association was observed only in minor allele carriers. For CD2AP rs9349407 and CR1 rs3818361, the association was preserved only in minor allele noncarriers. We did not find evidence for modulation by CLU, PICALM, ABCA7, BIN1, and MS4A6A.Our data show that BIN1 rs744373, CD2AP rs9349407, and CR1 rs3818361 genotypes modulate the association between apoE protein plasma levels and brain amyloidosis, implying a potential epigenetic/downstream interaction.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Several genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have associated variants in late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) susceptibility genes; however, these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have very modest effects, suggesting that single SNP approaches may be inadequate to identify genetic risks. An alternative approach is the use of multilocus genotype patterns (MLGPs) that combine SNPs at different susceptibility genes. METHODS:Using data from 1,365 subjects in the National Institute on Aging Late-Onset Alzheimer's Disease Family Study, we conducted a family-based association study in which we tabulated MLGPs for SNPs at CR1, BIN1, CLU, PICALM, and APOE. We used generalized estimating equations to model episodic memory as the dependent endophenotype of LOAD and the MLGPs as predictors while adjusting for sex, age, and education. RESULTS:Several genotype patterns influenced episodic memory performance. A pattern that included PICALM and CLU was the strongest genotypic profile for lower memory performance (? = -0.32, SE = 0.19, p = 0.021). The effect was stronger after addition of APOE (p = 0.016). Two additional patterns involving PICALM, CR1, and APOE and another pattern involving PICALM, BIN1, and APOE were also associated with significantly poorer memory performance (? = -0.44, SE = 0.09, p = 0.009 and ? = -0.29, SE = 0.07, p = 0.012) even after exclusion of patients with LOAD. We also identified genotype pattern involving variants in PICALM, CLU, and APOE as a predictor of better memory performance (? = 0.26, SE = 0.10, p = 0.010). CONCLUSIONS:MLGPs provide an alternative analytical approach to predict an individual's genetic risk for episodic memory performance, a surrogate indicator of LOAD. Identifying genotypic patterns contributing to the decline of an individual's cognitive performance may be a critical step along the road to preclinical detection of Alzheimer disease.
Project description:The traditional Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) has shown beneficial effects on cognitive decline. Nevertheless, diet-gene interactions have been poorly evaluated. We aimed to investigate diet-gene interaction in the PREDIMED-NAVARRA randomized trial. A total of 522 participants (67 ± 6 years at baseline) enrolled in the PREDIMED-NAVARRA trial were randomly allocated to one of three diets: two MedDiets (supplemented with either extra-virgin olive oil or nuts) or a low-fat diet. They were evaluated with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Clock Drawing Test (CDT) after 6.5 years of intervention. Subjects were genotyped for CR1-rs3818361, CLU-rs11136000, PICALM-rs3851179 and Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genes. We studied MedDiet-gene interactions for cognition and assessed the effect of the MedDiet on cognition across different genetic profiles. A significant interaction (p = 0.041) between CLU-rs11136000 and the MedDiet intervention on the MMSE was found with a beneficial effect of MedDiet among carriers of the T minor allele (B = 0.97, 95 % CI 0.45-1.49). Similar effect was observed for CR1-rs3818361, but no significant interaction was observed (p = 0.335). For PICALM-rs3851179, the MedDiet intervention showed a beneficial effect in both genotype groups. No apparent interaction was found for the CDT between intervention and gene variants. Similarly, participants randomly allocated to MedDiet groups, with favorable profiles of CR1, CLU and PICALM genes, significantly improved CDT scores compared to controls with the same genetic profile. Cognitive performance was better for non-ApoE4 and for ApoE4 carriers of MedDiet groups compared to controls, but for CDT performance, we only found statistical significant differences for non-ApoE4 carriers. A MedDiet intervention modulates the effect of genetic factors on cognition. The effect of MedDiet might be greater for subjects with a more favorable genetic profile.
Project description:Recent GWAS studies focused on uncovering novel genetic loci related to AD have revealed associations with variants near CLU, CR1, PICALM and BIN1. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide association study in an independent set of 1034 cases and 1186 controls using the Illumina genotyping platforms. By coupling our data with available GWAS datasets from the ADNI and GenADA, we replicated the original associations in both PICALM (rs3851179) and CR1 (rs3818361). The PICALM variant seems to be non-significant after we adjusted for APOE e4 status. We further tested our top markers in 751 independent cases and 751 matched controls. Besides the markers close to the APOE locus, a marker (rs12989701) upstream of BIN1 locus was replicated and the combined analysis reached genome-wide significance level (p?=?5E-08). We combined our data with the published Harold et al. study and meta-analysis with all available 6521 cases and 10360 controls at the BIN1 locus revealed two significant variants (rs12989701, p?=?1.32E-10 and rs744373, p?=?3.16E-10) in limited linkage disequilibrium (r²? =? 0.05) with each other. The independent contribution of both SNPs was supported by haplotype conditional analysis. We also conducted multivariate analysis in canonical pathways and identified a consistent signal in the downstream pathways targeted by Gleevec (P?=?0.004 in Pfizer; P?=?0.028 in ADNI and P?=?0.04 in GenADA). We further tested variants in CLU, PICALM, BIN1 and CR1 for association with disease progression in 597 AD patients where longitudinal cognitive measures are sufficient. Both the PICALM and CLU variants showed nominal significant association with cognitive decline as measured by change in Clinical Dementia Rating-sum of boxes (CDR-SB) score from the baseline but did not pass multiple-test correction. Future experiments will help us better understand potential roles of these genetic loci in AD pathology.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The incidence of Alzheimer's disease, particularly in developing countries, is expected to increase exponentially as the population ages. Continuing research in this area is essential in order to better understand this disease and develop strategies for treatment and prevention. Genome-wide association studies have identified several loci as genetic risk factors of AD aside from apolipoprotein E such as bridging integrator (BIN1), clusterin (CLU), ATP-binding cassette sub-family A member 7 (ABCA7), complement receptor 1 (CR1) and phosphatidylinositol binding clathrin assembly protein (PICALM). However genetic research in developing countries is often limited by lack of funding and expertise. This study therefore developed and validated a simple, cost effective polymerase chain reaction based technique to determine these single nucleotide polymorphisms. METHODS: An allele-specific PCR method was developed to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms of BIN1 rs744373, CLU rs11136000, ABCA7 rs3764650, CR1 rs3818361 and PICALM rs3851179 in human DNA samples. Allele-specific primers were designed by using appropriate software to permit the PCR amplification only if the nucleotide at the 3'-end of the primer complemented the base at the wild-type or variant-type DNA sample. The primers were then searched for uniqueness using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool search engine. RESULTS: The assay was tested on a hundred samples and accurately detected the homozygous wild-type, homozygous variant-type and heterozygous of each SNP. Validation was by direct DNA sequencing. CONCLUSION: This method will enable researchers to carry out genetic polymorphism studies for genetic risk factors associated with late-onset Alzheimer's disease (BIN1, CLU, ABCA7, CR1 and PICALM) without the use of expensive instrumentation and reagents.
Project description:We tested association of nine late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) risk variants from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with memory and progression to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or LOAD (MCI/LOAD) in older Caucasians, cognitively normal at baseline and longitudinally evaluated at Mayo Clinic Rochester and Jacksonville (n>2000). Each variant was tested both individually and collectively using a weighted risk score. APOE-e4 associated with worse baseline memory and increased decline with highly significant overall effect on memory. CLU-rs11136000-G associated with worse baseline memory and incident MCI/LOAD. MS4A6A-rs610932-C associated with increased incident MCI/LOAD and suggestively with lower baseline memory. ABCA7-rs3764650-C and EPHA1-rs11767557-A associated with increased rates of memory decline in subjects with a final diagnosis of MCI/LOAD. PICALM-rs3851179-G had an unexpected protective effect on incident MCI/LOAD. Only APOE-inclusive risk scores associated with worse memory and incident MCI/LOAD. The collective influence of the nine top LOAD GWAS variants on memory decline and progression to MCI/LOAD appears limited. Discovery of biologically functional variants at these loci may uncover stronger effects on memory and incident disease.
Project description:The most recent late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) genome-wide association study revealed genome-wide significant association of two new loci: rs744373 near BIN1 (p = 1.6 × 10-11) and rs597668 near EXOC3L2/BLOC1S3/MARK4 (p = 6.5 × 10-9). We have genotyped these variants in a large (3,287 LOAD, 4,396 controls), independent dataset comprising eleven case-control series from the USA and Europe. We performed meta-analyses of the association of these variants with LOAD and also tested for association using logistic regression adjusted by age-at-diagnosis, gender, and APOE ?4 status. Meta-analysis results showed no evidence of series heterogeneity and logistic regression analysis successfully replicated the association of BIN1 (rs744373) with LOAD with an odds ratio (OR = 1.17, p = 1.1 × 10-4) comparable to that previously reported (OR = 1.15). The variant near EXOC3L2 (rs597668) showed only suggestive association with LOAD (p = 0.09) after correcting for the presence of the APOE ?4 allele. Addition of our follow-up data to the results previously reported increased the strength of evidence for association with BIN1 (11,825 LOAD, 32,570 controls, rs744373 Fisher combined p = 3.8 × 10-20). We also tested for epistatic interaction between these variants and APOE ?4 as well as with the previously replicated LOAD GWAS genes (CLU: rs11136000, CR1: rs3818361, and PICALM: rs3851179). No significant interactions between these genes were detected. In summary, we provide additional evidence for the variant near BIN1 (rs744373) as a LOAD risk modifier, but our results indicate that the effect of EXOC3L2 independent of APOE ?4 should be studied further.
Project description:Down's syndrome (DS) is caused by either complete or partial triplication of chromosome 21, affecting approximately 1/1000 live births, and it is widely accepted that individuals with DS are more likely to develop dementia of Alzheimer's disease (DAD) compared with the general population. Recent collaborative genome-wide association studies of large case control data sets of individuals with and without Alzhemier's disease (AD) have revealed new risk variants for dementia, as well as confirming previously identified risk variants. In this study, nine AD-derived SNPs, near or within the CR1 (rs3818361), BIN1 (rs744373), CD2AP (rs9349407), EPHA1 (rs11767557), CLU (rs1532278), MS4A6A/4A (rs610932), PICALM (rs561655), ABCA7 (rs3764650) and CD33 (rs3865444) genes were genotyped in 295 individuals with DS.There were no significant associations between these nine GWAS-derived SNPs and DAD in British Caucasian individuals with DS. Interestingly the CR1 rs3818361 variant appeared to be associated with mortality in our cohort, particularly in the subjects without dementia. To our knowledge, this is the first time that this variant has been implicated as a determinant of mortality and the finding warrants further investigation in other cohorts with DS.This study shows negative associations of nine AD-derived SNPs with DAD in DS. This may be due to the modest size of our cohort, which may indicate that our study is insufficiently powered to pick up such associations. We cannot conclusively exclude a role for these SNPs in DAD in DS. Clearly, efforts to investigate genetic variants with small effects on disease risk require a much larger cohort of individuals with DS. In fact, we hypothesize that a sample size of 4465 individuals with DS would be needed to determine the role in DAD in DS of the nine AD-derived SNPs investigated in this study. We therefore recommend that all national and international clinics with access to individuals with DS should contribute DNA samples to form DS consortia.