Spatial regulation of membrane fusion controlled by modification of phosphoinositides.
ABSTRACT: Membrane fusion plays a central role in many cell processes from vesicular transport to nuclear envelope reconstitution at mitosis but the mechanisms that underlie fusion of natural membranes are not well understood. Studies with synthetic membranes and theoretical considerations indicate that accumulation of lipids characterised by negative curvature such as diacylglycerol (DAG) facilitate fusion. However, the specific role of lipids in membrane fusion of natural membranes is not well established. Nuclear envelope (NE) assembly was used as a model for membrane fusion. A natural membrane population highly enriched in the enzyme and substrate needed to produce DAG has been isolated and is required for fusions leading to nuclear envelope formation, although it contributes only a small amount of the membrane eventually incorporated into the NE. It was postulated to initiate and regulate membrane fusion. Here we use a multidisciplinary approach including subcellular membrane purification, fluorescence spectroscopy and Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)/two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) to demonstrate that initiation of vesicle fusion arises from two unique sites where these vesicles bind to chromatin. Fusion is subsequently propagated to the endoplasmic reticulum-derived membranes that make up the bulk of the NE to ultimately enclose the chromatin. We show how initiation of multiple vesicle fusions can be controlled by localised production of DAG and propagated bidirectionally. Phospholipase C (PLCgamma), GTP hydrolysis and (phosphatidylinsositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P(2)) are required for the latter process. We discuss the general implications of membrane fusion regulation and spatial control utilising such a mechanism.
Project description:The functions and morphology of cellular membranes are intimately related and depend not only on their protein content but also on the repertoire of lipids that comprise them. In the absence of in vivo data on lipid asymmetry in endomembranes, it has been argued that motors, scaffolding proteins or integral membrane proteins rather than non-lamellar bilayer lipids such as diacylglycerol (DAG), are responsible for shaping of organelles, local membrane curvature and fusion. The effects of direct alteration of levels of such lipids remain predominantly uninvestigated. Diacylglycerol (DAG) is a well documented second messenger. Here we demonstrate two additional conserved functions of DAG: a structural role in organelle morphology, and a role in localised extreme membrane curvature required for fusion for which proteins alone are insufficient. Acute and inducible DAG depletion results in failure of the nuclear envelope (NE) to reform at mitosis and reorganisation of the ER into multi-lamellar sheets as revealed by correlative light and electron microscopy and 3D reconstructions. Remarkably, depleted cells divide without a complete NE, and unless rescued by 1,2 or 1,3 DAG soon die. Attenuation of DAG levels by enzyme microinjection into echinoderm eggs and embryos also results in alterations of ER morphology and nuclear membrane fusion. Our findings demonstrate that DAG is an in vivo modulator of organelle morphology in mammalian and echinoderm cells, indicating a fundamental role conserved across the deuterostome superphylum.
Project description:Dysregulation of nuclear envelope (NE) assembly results in various cancers; for example, renal and some lung carcinomas ensue due to NE malformation. The NE is a dynamic membrane compartment and its completion during mitosis is a highly regulated process, but the detailed mechanism still remains incompletely understood. Previous studies have found that isolated diacylglycerol (DAG)-containing vesicles are essential for completing the fusion of the NE in nonsomatic cells. We investigated the impact of DAG depletion from the cis-Golgi in mammalian cells on NE reassembly. Using advanced electron microscopy, we observed an enriched DAG population of vesicles at the vicinity of the NE gaps of telophase mammalian cells. We applied a mini singlet oxygen generator-C1-domain tag that localized DAG-enriched vesicles at the perinuclear region, which suggested the existence of NE fusogenic vesicles. We quantified the impact of Golgi-DAG depletion by measuring the in situ NE rim curvature of the reforming NE. The rim curvature in these cells was significantly reduced compared with controls, which indicated a localized defect in NE morphology. Our novel results demonstrate the significance of the role of DAG from the cis-Golgi for the regulation of NE assembly.
Project description:Nuclear envelope (NE) formation in a cell-free egg extract proceeds by precursor membrane vesicle binding to chromatin in an ATP-dependent manner, followed by a GTP-induced NE assembly step. The requirement for GTP in the latter step of this process can be mimicked by addition of bacterial PI-PLC [phosphoinositide (PtdIns)-specific phospholipase C]. The NE assembly process is here dissected in relation to the requirement for endogenous phosphoinositide metabolism, employing recombinant eukaryotic PI-PLC, inhibitors and direct phospholipid analysis using ESI-MS (electrospray ionization mass spectrometry). PtdIns (phosphatidylinositol) species analysis by ESI-MS indicates that the chromatin-bound NE precursor vesicles are enriched for specific PtdIns species. Moreover, during GTP-induced precursor vesicle fusion, the membrane vesicles become partially depleted of the PtdIns 18:0/20:4 species. These data indicate that eukaryotic PI-PLC can support NE formation, and the sensitivity to exogenous recombinant PtdIns-5-phosphatases shows that the endogenous PLC hydrolyses a 5-phosphorylated species. It is shown further that the downstream target of this DAG (diacylglycerol) pathway does not involve PKC (protein kinase C) catalytic function, but is mimicked by phorbol esters, indicating a possible engagement of one of the non-PKC phorbol ester receptors. The results show that ESI-MS can be used as a sensitive means to measure the lipid composition of biological membranes and their changes during, for example, membrane fusogenic events. We have exploited this and the intervention studies to illustrate a pivotal role for PI-PLC and its product DAG in the formation of NEs.
Project description:Spindle pole bodies (SPBs), like nuclear pore complexes, are embedded in the nuclear envelope (NE) at sites of fusion of the inner and outer nuclear membranes. A network of interacting proteins is required to insert a cytoplasmic SPB precursor into the NE. A central player of this network is Nbp1 that interacts with the conserved integral membrane protein Ndc1. Here, we establish that Nbp1 is a monotopic membrane protein that is essential for SPB insertion at the inner face of the NE. In vitro and in vivo studies identified an N-terminal amphipathic ?-helix of Nbp1 as a membrane-binding element, with crucial functions in SPB duplication. The karyopherin Kap123 binds to a nuclear localization sequence next to this amphipathic ?-helix and prevents unspecific tethering of Nbp1 to membranes. After transport into the nucleus, Nbp1 binds to the inner nuclear membrane. These data define the targeting pathway of a SPB component and suggest that the amphipathic ?-helix of Nbp1 is important for SPB insertion into the NE from within the nucleus.
Project description:PtdIns is a minor membrane phospholipid that is important in signal transduction. Recently, derivatives of PtdIns phosphorylated at the 3-position of the inositol ring have been implicated in the regulation of constitutive membrane traffic and in membrane fusion events. Assembly of the nuclear envelope (NE), a crucial step in the progress of mitosis, is also likely to involve membrane fusion reactions. We therefore investigated the role of PtdIns and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI-3K) activity in NE formation in vitro. GTP-induced NE formation was blocked by wortmannin and LY294002, two specific inhibitors of PI-3K, suggesting a role for PtdIns phosphorylated at the 3-position. PtdIns-specific phospholipase C mimicked GTP hydrolysis as an inducer of NE formation. This induction was dependent on a membrane vesicle subfraction (MV1) that was highly enriched in PtdIns, as determined by heteronuclear two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. On the basis of these results, we suggest that the MV1 population serves as a source of membranes rich in PtdIns that might facilitate fusion, possibly through the production of the membrane-destabilizing lipid diacylglycerol.
Project description:(1) The removal of the nuclear envelope from isolated rat-liver nuclei by washing with Triton X-100 (TX-100) was assessed by electron microscopy. All the envelope was removed by 0.04% (w/v) TX-100. (2) After this removal, phosphorylation of inositol lipids and diacylglycerol (DAG) from [gamma-32P]ATP still occurs, despite the near complete absence of detectable (by mass assay) DAG and PtdIns. This suggests that the majority of these two lipids in nuclei are present in the nuclear membrane, but the small amounts remaining after extraction, defined as intranuclear, are available for phosphorylation by lipid kinases (36% for DAG and 24% for PtdIns respectively, when expressed as a percentage of incorporation of intact nuclei). (3) PtdIns(4,5)P2 did not follow the same pattern as PtdIns and DAG; after removal of the nuclear membrane, 40% of the mass of this lipid was left in the nucleus. Moreover, a similar amount of PtdIns(4,5)P2 was also resistant to extraction with even higher concentrations of detergent, suggesting that PtdIns(4,5)P2 has a discrete intranuclear location, probably bound to nuclear proteins. (4) Addition of exogenous substrates, PtdIns, PtdIns(4)P and DAG, to membrane-depleted nuclei resulted in reconstitution of the majority of lipid phosphorylations from [gamma-32P]ATP (70%, 90% and 94% of intact nuclei respectively), suggesting a predominantly intranuclear location for the respective kinases. (5) Nuclei also showed phosphomonoesterase and phosphatidic acid hydrolase activity; dephosphorylation of pre-radiolabelled PtdIns(4)P, PtdIns(4,5)P2 and phosphatidic acid was observed when [gamma-32P]ATP was removed. However, some of the radioactivity was apparently resistant to these enzymes, suggesting the existence of multiple pools of these lipids. (6) Addition of excess non-radiolabelled ATP to nuclei pre-labelled with [gamma-32P]ATP resulted in an initial increase in the label in PtdIns(4,5)P2, implying a precursor-product relationship between the radiolabelled pools of PtdIns(4)P and PtdIns(4,5)P2. This was confirmed by analysis of the incorporation of 32P into the 4'-phosphate group of PtdIns(4)P and the individual 4'- and 5'-phosphate groups of PtdIns(4,5)P2. The data from these experiments also indicated that PtdIns(4,5)P2 can be produced from a pre-existing pool of PtdIns(4)P, as well as de novo from PtdIns. (7) Taken together our data suggest that isolated rat-liver nuclei have an intranuclear inositol lipid metabolism mechanism utilizing enzymes and substrates equivalent to those found in cytosol and plasma membrane, and that there may be some, but not complete, compartmentalization of the components of the nuclear inositol cycle.
Project description:Chromosomal translocations involving the nucleoporin NUP98 have been described in several hematopoietic malignancies, in particular acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In the resulting chimeric proteins, Nup98's N-terminal region is fused to the C-terminal region of about 30 different partners, including homeodomain (HD) transcription factors. While transcriptional targets of distinct Nup98 chimeras related to immortalization are relatively well described, little is known about other potential cellular effects of these fusion proteins. By comparing the sub-nuclear localization of a large number of Nup98 fusions with HD and non-HD partners throughout the cell cycle we found that while all Nup98 chimeras were nuclear during interphase, only Nup98-HD fusion proteins exhibited a characteristic speckled appearance. During mitosis, only Nup98-HD fusions were concentrated on chromosomes. Despite the difference in localization, all tested Nup98 chimera provoked morphological alterations in the nuclear envelope (NE), in particular affecting the nuclear lamina and the lamina-associated polypeptide 2? (LAP2?). Importantly, such aberrations were not only observed in transiently transfected HeLa cells but also in mouse bone marrow cells immortalized by Nup98 fusions and in cells derived from leukemia patients harboring Nup98 fusions. Our findings unravel Nup98 fusion-associated NE alterations that may contribute to leukemogenesis.
Project description:Proper functioning of intracellular membranes is critical for many cellular processes. A key feature of membranes is their ability to adapt to changes in environmental conditions by adjusting their composition so as to maintain constant biophysical properties, including fluidity and flexibility. Similar changes in the biophysical properties of membranes likely occur when intracellular processes, such as vesicle formation and fusion, require dramatic changes in membrane curvature. Similar modifications must also be made when nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are constructed within the existing nuclear membrane, as occurs during interphase in all eukaryotes. Here we report on the role of the essential nuclear envelope/endoplasmic reticulum (NE/ER) protein Brl1 in regulating the membrane composition of the NE/ER. We show that Brl1 and two other proteins characterized previously-Brr6, which is closely related to Brl1, and Apq12-function together and are required for lipid homeostasis. All three transmembrane proteins are localized to the NE and can be coprecipitated. As has been shown for mutations affecting Brr6 and Apq12, mutations in Brl1 lead to defects in lipid metabolism, increased sensitivity to drugs that inhibit enzymes involved in lipid synthesis, and strong genetic interactions with mutations affecting lipid metabolism. Mutations affecting Brl1 or Brr6 or the absence of Apq12 leads to hyperfluid membranes, because mutant cells are hypersensitive to agents that increase membrane fluidity. We suggest that the defects in nuclear pore complex biogenesis and mRNA export seen in these mutants are consequences of defects in maintaining the biophysical properties of the NE.
Project description:The fusogenic lipid diacylglycerol is essential for remodeling gamete and zygote nuclear envelopes (NE) during early embryogenesis. It is unclear whether upstream signaling molecules are likewise conserved. Here we demonstrate PLC? and its activator SFK1, which co-operate during male pronuclear envelope formation, also promote the subsequent male and female pronuclear fusion. PLC? and SFK1 interact directly at the fusion site leading to PLC? activation. This is accompanied by a spatially restricted reduction of PtdIns(4,5)P2. Consequently, pronuclear fusion is blocked by PLC? or SFK1 inhibition. These findings identify new regulators of events in the early embryo and suggest a conserved "toolkit" of fusion machinery drives successive NE fusion events during embryogenesis.
Project description:The nuclear envelope (NE) is a distinct subdomain of the ER, but few membrane components have been described that are specific to it. We performed a visual screen in tissue culture cells to identify proteins targeted to the NE. This approach does not require assumptions about the nature of the association with the NE or the physical separation of NE and ER. We confirmed that screening a library of fusions to the green fluorescent protein can be used to identify proteins targeted to various subcompartments of mammalian cells, including the NE. With this approach, we identified a new NE membrane protein, named nurim. Nurim is a multispanning membrane protein without large hydrophilic domains that is very tightly associated with the nucleus. Unlike the known NE membrane proteins, it is neither associated with nuclear pores, nor targeted like lamin-associated membrane proteins. Thus, nurim is a new type of NE membrane protein that is localized to the NE by a distinct mechanism.