Foxp3+ CD4 regulatory T cells limit pulmonary immunopathology by modulating the CD8 T cell response during respiratory syncytial virus infection.
ABSTRACT: Regulatory Foxp3(+) CD4 T cells (Tregs) prevent spontaneous inflammation in the lungs, inhibit allergic and asthmatic responses, and contribute to tolerance to inhaled allergens. Additionally, Tregs have previously been shown to suppress the CD8 T cell response during persistent virus infections. However, little is known concerning the role that Tregs play in modulating the adaptive immune response during acute respiratory virus infections. We show following acute respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection that Foxp3(+) CD4 Tregs rapidly accumulate in the lung-draining mediastinal lymph nodes and lungs. BrdU incorporation studies indicate that Tregs undergo proliferation that contributes to their accumulation in the lymph nodes and lungs. Following an acute RSV infection, pulmonary Tregs modulate CD25 expression and acquire an activated phenotype characterized as CD11a(high), CD44(high), CD43(glyco+), ICOS(+), and CTLA-4(+). Surprisingly, in vivo depletion of Tregs prior to RSV infection results in delayed virus clearance concomitant with an early lag in the recruitment of RSV-specific CD8 T cells into the lungs. Additionally, Treg depletion results in exacerbated disease severity, including increased weight loss, morbidity, and enhanced airway restriction. In Treg-depleted mice there is an increase in the frequency of RSV-specific CD8 T cells that coproduce IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha, which may contribute to enhanced disease severity. These results indicate that pulmonary Tregs play a critical role in limiting immunopathology during an acute pulmonary virus infection by influencing the trafficking and effector function of virus-specific CD8 T cells in the lungs and draining lymph nodes.
Project description:The inflammatory response to lung infections must be tightly regulated, enabling pathogen elimination while maintaining crucial gas exchange. Using recently described "depletion of regulatory T cell" (DEREG) mice, we found that selective depletion of regulatory T cells (Tregs) during acute respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection enhanced viral clearance but increased weight loss, local cytokine and chemokine release, and T-cell activation and cellular influx into the lungs. Conversely, inflammation was decreased when Treg numbers and activity were boosted using interleukin-2 immune complexes. Unexpectedly, lung (but not draining lymph node) Tregs from RSV-infected mice expressed granzyme B (GzmB), and bone marrow chimeric mice with selective loss of GzmB in the Treg compartment displayed markedly enhanced cellular infiltration into the lung after infection. A crucial role for GzmB-expressing Tregs has not hitherto been described in the lung or during acute infections, but may explain the inability of children with perforin/GzmB defects to regulate immune responses to infection. The effects of RSV infection in mice with defective immune regulation closely parallel the observed effects of RSV in children with bronchiolitis, suggesting that the pathogenesis of bronchiolitis may involve an inability to regulate virus-induced inflammation.
Project description:We examined the formation, participation, and functional specialization of virus-reactive Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) in a mouse model of influenza virus infection. "Natural" Tregs generated intrathymically, based on interactions with a self-peptide, proliferated in response to a homologous viral Ag in the lungs and, to a lesser extent, in the lung-draining mediastinal lymph nodes (medLNs) of virus-infected mice. In contrast, conventional CD4(+) T cells with identical TCR specificity underwent little or no conversion to become "adaptive" Tregs. The virus-reactive Tregs in the medLNs and the lungs of infected mice upregulated a variety of molecules associated with Treg activation, as well as acquired expression of molecules (T-bet, Blimp-1, and IL-10) that confer functional specialization to Tregs. Notably, however, the phenotypes of the T-bet(+) Tregs obtained from these sites were distinct, because Tregs isolated from the lungs expressed significantly higher levels of T-bet, Blimp-1, and IL-10 than did Tregs from the medLNs. Adoptive transfer of Ag-reactive Tregs led to decreased proliferation of antiviral CD4(+) and CD8(+) effector T cells in the lungs of infected hosts, whereas depletion of Tregs had a reciprocal effect. These studies demonstrate that thymically generated Tregs can become activated by a pathogen-derived peptide and acquire discrete T-bet(+) Treg phenotypes while participating in and modulating an antiviral immune response.
Project description:Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infection in children worldwide. The understanding of neonatal RSV pathogenesis depends on using an animal model that reproduces neonatal RSV disease. Previous studies from us and others demonstrated that the neonatal lamb model resembles human neonatal RSV infection. Here, we provide an extensive and detailed characterization of the histopathology, viral load, cellular infiltration, and cytokine production in lungs and tracheobronchial lymph nodes of lambs inoculated with human RSV strain A2 over the course of infection. In the lung, RSV titers were low at day 3 postinfection, increased significantly by day 6, and decreased to baseline levels at day 14. Infection in the lung was associated with an accumulation of macrophages, CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, and a transcriptional response of genes involved in inflammation, chemotaxis, and interferon response, characterized by increased IFN?, IL-8, MCP-1, and PD-L1, and decreased IFN?, IL-10, and TGF-?. Laser capture microdissection studies determined that lung macrophage-enriched populations were the source of MCP-1 but not IL-8. Immunoreactivity to caspase 3 occurred within bronchioles and alveoli of day 6-infected lambs. In lung-draining lymph nodes, RSV induced lymphoid hyperplasia, suggesting an ability of RSV to enhance lymphocytic proliferation and differentiation pathways. This study suggests that, in lambs with moderate clinical disease, RSV enhances the activation of caspase cell death and Th1-skewed inflammatory pathways, and complements previous observations that emphasize the role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of RSV disease.
Project description:Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) causes a systemic infection in mice with virus replication occurring in both peripheral tissues and secondary lymphoid organs. Because of the rapid systemic dissemination of the virus, the secondary lymphoid organs responsible for the induction of the LCMV-specific CD8 T cell response are poorly defined. We show that the mediastinal lymph node (MedLN) serves as the primary draining lymph node following LCMV infection. In addition, we demonstrate that the MedLN is responsible for priming the majority of the virus-specific CD8 T cell response. Following resolution of the acute infection, the draining MedLN exhibits characteristics of a reactive lymph node including an increased presence of germinal center B cells and increased cellularity for up to 60 days post-infection. Furthermore, the reactive MedLN harbors an increased frequency of CD62L(-) effector memory CD8 T cells as compared to the non-draining lymph nodes. The accumulation of LCMV-specific CD62L(-) memory CD8 T cells in the MedLN is independent of residual antigen and is not a unique feature of the MedLN as footpad infection with LCMV leads to a similar increase of virus-specific CD62L(-) effector memory CD8 T cells in the draining popliteal lymph node. Our results indicate that CD62L(-) effector memory CD8 T cells are granted preferential access into the draining lymph nodes for an extended time following resolution of an infection.
Project description:Following influenza virus infection, CD8 T cells encounter mature, Ag-bearing dendritic cells within the draining lymph nodes and undergo activation, programmed proliferation, and differentiation to effector cells before migrating to the lungs to mediate viral clearance. However, it remains unclear whether CD8 T cells continue their proliferation after arriving in the lungs. To address this question, we developed a novel, in vivo, dual-label system using intranasal CFSE and BrdU administration to identify virus-specific CD8 T cells that are actively undergoing cell division while in the lungs. With this technique we demonstrate that a high frequency of virus-specific CD8 T cells incorporate BrdU while in the lungs and that this lung-resident proliferation contributes significantly to the magnitude of the Ag-specific CD8 T cell response following influenza virus infection.
Project description:Regulatory T (Treg) cells establish tolerance, prevent inflammation at mucosal surfaces, and regulate immunopathology during infectious responses. Recent studies have shown that Delta-like ligand 4 (Dll4) was upregulated on APC after respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, and its inhibition leads to exaggerated immunopathology. In the present study, we outline the role of Dll4 in Treg cell differentiation, stability, and function in RSV infection. We found that Dll4 was expressed on CD11b+ pulmonary dendritic cells in the lung and draining lymph nodes in wild-type BALB/c mice after RSV infection. Dll4 neutralization exacerbated RSV-induced disease pathology, mucus production, group 2 innate lymphoid cell infiltration, IL-5 and IL-13 production, as well as IL-17A+ CD4 T cells. Dll4 inhibition decreased the abundance of CD62LhiCD44loFoxp3+ central Treg cells in draining lymph nodes. The RSV-induced disease was accompanied by an increase in Th17-like effector phenotype in Foxp3+ Treg cells and a decrease in granzyme B expression after Dll4 blockade. Finally, Dll4-exposed induced Treg cells maintained the CD62LhiCD44lo central Treg cell phenotype, had increased Foxp3 expression, became more suppressive, and were resistant to Th17 skewing in vitro. These results suggest that Dll4 activation during differentiation sustained Treg cell phenotype and function to control RSV infection.
Project description:The role of the reactive oxygen species-producing NADPH oxidase family of enzymes in the pathology of influenza A virus infection remains enigmatic. Previous reports implicated NADPH oxidase 2 in influenza A virus-induced inflammation. In contrast, NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1) was reported to decrease inflammation in mice within 7 days post-influenza A virus infection. However, the effect of NADPH oxidase 1 on lethality and adaptive immunity after influenza A virus challenge has not been explored. Here we report improved survival and decreased morbidity in mice with catalytically inactive NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1*/Y) compared with controls after challenge with A/PR/8/34 influenza A virus. While changes in lung inflammation were not obvious between Nox1*/Y and control mice, we observed alterations in the T cell response to influenza A virus by day 15 post-infection, including increased interleukin-7 receptor-expressing virus-specific CD8+ T cells in lungs and draining lymph nodes of Nox1*/Y, and increased cytokine-producing T cells in lungs and spleen. Furthermore, a greater percentage of conventional and interstitial dendritic cells from Nox1*/Y draining lymph nodes expressed the co-stimulatory ligand CD40 within 6 days post-infection. Results indicate that NADPH oxidase 1 modulates the innate and adaptive cellular immune response to influenza virus infection, while also playing a role in host survival. Results suggest that NADPH oxidase 1 inhibitors may be beneficial as adjunct therapeutics during acute influenza infection.
Project description:The contribution of different DC subsets to effector and memory CD8(+) T cell generation during infection and the mechanism by which DCs controls these fate decisions is unclear. Here we demonstrated that the CD103(+) and CD11b(hi) migratory respiratory DC (RDC) subsets after influenza virus infection activated naive virus-specific CD8(+) T cells differentially. CD103(+) RDCs supported the generation of CD8(+) T effector (Teff) cells, which migrate from lymph nodes to the infected lungs. In contrast, migrant CD11b(hi) RDCs activated CD8(+) T cells characteristic of central memory CD8(+) T (CD8(+) Tcm) cells including retention within the draining lymph nodes. CD103(+) RDCs expressed CD24 at an elevated level, contributing to the propensity of this DC subpopulation to support CD8(+) Teff cell differentiation. Mechanistically, CD24 was shown to regulate CD8(+) T cell activation through HMGB1-mediated engagement of T cell RAGE. Thus, there is distribution of labor among DC subsets in regulating CD8(+) T cell differentiation.
Project description:Asthma is the consequence of allergic inflammation in the lung compartments and lung-draining lymph nodes. Dendritic cells initiate and promote T cell response and drive it to immunity or allergy. However, their modes of action during asthma are poorly understood. In this study, an allergic inflammation with ovalbumin was induced in 38 mice versus 42 control animals. After ovalbumin aerosol challenge, conventional dendritic cells (CD11c/MHCII/CD8) were isolated from the lungs and the draining lymph nodes by means of magnetic cell sorting followed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. A comparative transcriptional analysis was performed using gene arrays. In general, many transcripts are up- and downregulated in the CD8(-) dendritic cells of the allergic inflamed lung tissue, whereas few genes are regulated in CD8(+) dendritic cells. The dendritic cells of the lymph nodes also showed minor transcriptional changes. The data support the relevance of the CD8(-) conventional dendritic cells but do not exclude distinct functions of the small population of CD8(+) dendritic cells, such as cross presentation of external antigen. So far, this is the first approach performing gene arrays in dendritic cells obtained from lung tissue and lung-draining lymph nodes of asthmatic-like mice.
Project description:Influenza infection stimulates protective host immune responses but paradoxically enhances lung indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) activity, an enzyme that suppresses helper/effector T cells and activates Foxp3-lineage regulatory CD4 T cells (Tregs). Influenza A/PR/8/34 (PR8) infection stimulated rapid elevation of IDO activity in lungs and lung-draining mediastinal lymph nodes (msLNs). Mice lacking intact IDO1 genes (IDO1-KO mice) exhibited significantly lower morbidity after sub-lethal PR8 infection, and genetic or pharmacologic IDO ablation led to much faster recovery after virus clearance. More robust influenza-specific effector CD8 T cell responses manifested in lungs of PR8-infected IDO1-KO mice, though virus clearance rates were unaffected by IDO ablation. Similar outcomes manifested in mice infected with a less virulent influenza A strain (X31). IDO induction in X31-infected lungs was dependent on IFN type II (IFN?) signaling and was restricted to non-hematopoietic cells, while redundant IFN type 1 or type II signaling induced IDO exclusively in hematopoietic cells from msLNs. Memory T cells generated in X31-primed IDO1-KO mice protected mice from subsequent challenge with lethal doses of PR8 (100×LD50). However recall T cell responses were less robust in lung interstitial tissues, and classic dominance of TCR V?8.3 chain usage amongst memory CD8(+) T cells specific for influenza nucleoprotein (NP366) did not manifest in IDO1-KO mice. Thus, influenza induced IDO activity in lungs enhanced morbidity, slowed recovery, restrained effector T cell responses in lungs and shaped memory T cell repertoire generation, but did not attenuate virus clearance during primary influenza A infection.