Prostate cancer genomics: can we distinguish between indolent and fatal disease using genetic markers?
ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer is one of the most heritable cancers in men, and recent genome-wide association studies have revealed numerous genetic variants associated with disease. The risk variants identified using case-control designs that compared unaffected individuals with all types of patients with prostate cancer show little or no ability to discriminate between indolent and fatal forms of this disease. This suggests different genetic components are involved in the initiation as compared with the prognosis of prostate cancer. Future studies contrasting patients with more and less aggressive disease, and exploring association with disease progression and prognosis, should be more effective in detecting genetic risk factors for prostate cancer outcome.
Project description:A critical need in understanding the biology of prostate cancer is characterizing the molecular differences between indolent and aggressive cases. Because DNA methylation can capture the regulatory state of tumors, we analyzed differential methylation patterns genome-wide among benign prostatic tissue and low-grade and high-grade prostate cancer and found extensive, focal hypermethylation regions unique to high-grade disease. These hypermethylation regions occurred not only in the promoters of genes but also in gene bodies and at intergenic regions that are enriched for DNA-protein binding sites. Integration with existing RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) and survival data revealed regions where DNA methylation correlates with reduced gene expression associated with poor outcome. Regions specific to aggressive disease are proximal to genes with distinct functions from regions shared by indolent and aggressive disease. Our compendium of methylation changes reveals crucial molecular distinctions between indolent and aggressive prostate cancer.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Unnecessary intervention and overtreatment of indolent disease are common challenges in clinical management of prostate cancer. Improved tools to distinguish lethal from indolent disease are critical. METHODS:We performed a genome-wide survival analysis of cause-specific death in 24,023 prostate cancer patients (3,513 disease-specific deaths) from the PRACTICAL and BPC3 consortia. Top findings were assessed for replication in a Norwegian cohort (CONOR). RESULTS:We observed no significant association between genetic variants and prostate cancer survival. CONCLUSIONS:Common genetic variants with large impact on prostate cancer survival were not observed in this study. IMPACT:Future studies should be designed for identification of rare variants with large effect sizes or common variants with small effect sizes.
Project description:Autopsy studies suggest that most aging men will develop lesions that, if detected clinically, would be diagnosed as prostate cancer (PCa). Most of these cancers are indolent and remain localized; however, a subset of PCa is aggressive and accounts for more than 27,000 deaths in the United States annually. Identification of factors specifically associated with risk for more aggressive PCa is urgently needed to reduce overdiagnosis and overtreatment of this common disease. To search for such factors, we compared the frequencies of SNPs among PCa patients who were defined as having either more aggressive or less aggressive disease in four populations examined in the Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) study performed by the National Cancer Institute. SNPs showing possible associations with disease severity were further evaluated in an additional three independent study populations from the United States and Sweden. In total, we studied 4,829 and 12,205 patients with more and less aggressive disease, respectively. We found that the frequency of the TT genotype of SNP rs4054823 at 17p12 was consistently higher among patients with more aggressive compared with less aggressive disease in each of the seven populations studied, with an overall P value of 2.1 x 10(-8) under a recessive model, exceeding the conservative genome-wide significance level. The difference in frequency was largest between patients with high-grade, non-organ-confined disease compared with those with low-grade, organ-confined disease. This study demonstrates that inherited variants predisposing to aggressive but not indolent PCa exist in the genome, and suggests that the clinical potential of such variants as potential early markers for risk of aggressive PCa should be evaluated.
Project description:Background:A majority of prostate cancers (PCas) are indolent and cause no harm even without treatment. However, a significant proportion of patients with PCa have aggressive tumors that progress rapidly to metastatic disease and are often lethal. PCa develops through somatic mutagenesis, but emerging evidence suggests that germline genetic variation can markedly contribute to tumorigenesis. However, the causal association between genetic susceptibility and tumorigenesis has not been well characterized. The objective of this study was to map the germline and somatic mutation interaction landscape in indolent and aggressive tumors and to discover signatures of mutated genes associated with each type and distinguishing the two types of PCa. Materials and Methods:We integrated germline mutation information from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with somatic mutation information from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) using gene expression data from TCGA on indolent and aggressive PCas as the intermediate phenotypes. Germline and somatic mutated genes associated with each type of PCa were functionally characterized using network and pathway analysis. Results:We discovered gene signatures containing germline and somatic mutations associated with each type and distinguishing the two types of PCa. We discovered multiple gene regulatory networks and signaling pathways enriched with germline and somatic mutations including axon guidance, RAR, WINT, MSP-RON, STAT3, PI3K, TR/RxR, and molecular mechanisms of cancer, NF-kB, prostate cancer, GP6, androgen, and VEGF signaling pathways for indolent PCa and MSP-RON, axon guidance, RAR, adipogenesis, and molecular mechanisms of cancer and NF-kB signaling pathways for aggressive PCa. Conclusion:The investigation revealed germline and somatic mutated genes associated with indolent and aggressive PCas and distinguishing the two types of PCa. The study revealed multiple gene regulatory networks and signaling pathways dysregulated by germline and somatic alterations. Integrative analysis combining germline and somatic mutations is a powerful approach to mapping germline and somatic mutation interaction landscape.
Project description:Many newly diagnosed prostate cancers present as low Gleason score tumors that require no treatment intervention. Distinguishing the many indolent tumors from the minority of lethal ones remains a major clinical challenge. We now show that low Gleason score prostate tumors can be distinguished as indolent and aggressive subgroups on the basis of their expression of genes associated with aging and senescence. Using gene set enrichment analysis, we identified a 19-gene signature enriched in indolent prostate tumors. We then further classified this signature with a decision tree learning model to identify three genes--FGFR1, PMP22, and CDKN1A--that together accurately predicted outcome of low Gleason score tumors. Validation of this three-gene panel on independent cohorts confirmed its independent prognostic value as well as its ability to improve prognosis with currently used clinical nomograms. Furthermore, protein expression of this three-gene panel in biopsy samples distinguished Gleason 6 patients who failed surveillance over a 10-year period. We propose that this signature may be incorporated into prognostic assays for monitoring patients on active surveillance to facilitate appropriate courses of treatment.
Project description:Prostate tumours are highly variable in their response to therapies, but clinically available prognostic factors can explain only a fraction of this heterogeneity. Here we analysed 200 whole-genome sequences and 277 additional whole-exome sequences from localized, non-indolent prostate tumours with similar clinical risk profiles, and carried out RNA and methylation analyses in a subset. These tumours had a paucity of clinically actionable single nucleotide variants, unlike those seen in metastatic disease. Rather, a significant proportion of tumours harboured recurrent non-coding aberrations, large-scale genomic rearrangements, and alterations in which an inversion repressed transcription within its boundaries. Local hypermutation events were frequent, and correlated with specific genomic profiles. Numerous molecular aberrations were prognostic for disease recurrence, including several DNA methylation events, and a signature comprised of these aberrations outperformed well-described prognostic biomarkers. We suggest that intensified treatment of genomically aggressive localized prostate cancer may improve cure rates. Overall design: In total we have 73 samples across 3 different batches. Batch 1 and 3 are based on HuGene2.0 platform whereas batch 2 is based on HTA2.0 platform
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The molecular mechanisms underlying aggressive versus indolent disease are not fully understood. Recent research has implicated a class of molecules known as long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in tumorigenesis and progression of cancer. Our objective was to discover lncRNAs that differentiate aggressive and indolent prostate cancers. METHODS:We analyzed paired tumor and normal tissues from six aggressive Gleason score (GS) 8-10 and six indolent GS 6 prostate cancers. Extracted RNA was split for poly(A)+ and ribosomal RNA depletion library preparations, followed byRNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) using an Illumina HiSeq 2000. We developed an RNA-Seq data analysis pipeline to discover and quantify these molecules. Candidate lncRNAs were validated using RT-qPCR on 87 tumor tissue samples: 28 (GS 6), 28 (GS 3+4), 6 (GS 4+3), and 25 (GS 8-10). Statistical correlations between lncRNAs and clinicopathologic variables were tested using ANOVA. RESULTS:The 43 differentially expressed (DE) lncRNAs between aggressive and indolent prostate cancers included 12 annotated and 31 novel lncRNAs. The top six DE lncRNAs were selected based on large, consistent fold-changes in the RNA-Seq results. Three of these candidates passed RT-qPCR validation, including AC009014.3 (P < .001 in tumor tissue) and a newly discovered X-linked lncRNA named XPLAID (P = .049 in tumor tissue and P = .048 in normal tissue). XPLAID and AC009014.3 show promise as prognostic biomarkers. CONCLUSIONS:We discovered several dozen lncRNAs that distinguish aggressive and indolent prostate cancers, of which four were validated using RT-qPCR. The investigation into their biology is ongoing.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Germline mutations in BRCA1/2 and ATM have been associated with prostate cancer (PCa) risk. OBJECTIVE:To directly assess whether germline mutations in these three genes distinguish lethal from indolent PCa and whether they confer any effect on age at death. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:A retrospective case-case study of 313 patients who died of PCa and 486 patients with low-risk localized PCa of European, African, and Chinese descent. Germline DNA of each of the 799 patients was sequenced for these three genes. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS:Mutation carrier rates and their effect on lethal PCa were analyzed using the Fisher's exact test and Cox regression analysis, respectively. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS:The combined BRCA1/2 and ATM mutation carrier rate was significantly higher in lethal PCa patients (6.07%) than localized PCa patients (1.44%), p=0.0007. The rate also differed significantly among lethal PCa patients as a function of age at death (10.00%, 9.08%, 8.33%, 4.94%, and 2.97% in patients who died ? 60 yr, 61-65 yr, 66-70 yr, 71-75 yr, and over 75 yr, respectively, p=0.046) and time to death after diagnosis (12.26%, 4.76%, and 0.98% in patients who died ? 5 yr, 6-10 yr, and>10 yr after a PCa diagnosis, respectively, p=0.0006). Survival analysis in the entire cohort revealed mutation carriers remained an independent predictor of lethal PCa after adjusting for race and age, prostate-specific antigen, and Gleason score at the time of diagnosis (hazard ratio=2.13, 95% confidence interval: 1.24-3.66, p=0.004). A limitation of this study is that other DNA repair genes were not analyzed. CONCLUSIONS:Mutation status of BRCA1/2 and ATM distinguishes risk for lethal and indolent PCa and is associated with earlier age at death and shorter survival time. PATIENT SUMMARY:Prostate cancer patients with inherited mutations in BRCA1/2 and ATM are more likely to die of prostate cancer and do so at an earlier age.
Project description:Prostate tumours are highly variable in their response to therapies, but clinically available prognostic factors can explain only a fraction of this heterogeneity. Here we analysed 200 whole-genome sequences and 277 additional whole-exome sequences from localized, non-indolent prostate tumours with similar clinical risk profiles, and carried out RNA and methylation analyses in a subset. These tumours had a paucity of clinically actionable single nucleotide variants, unlike those seen in metastatic disease. Rather, a significant proportion of tumours harboured recurrent non-coding aberrations, large-scale genomic rearrangements, and alterations in which an inversion repressed transcription within its boundaries. Local hypermutation events were frequent, and correlated with specific genomic profiles. Numerous molecular aberrations were prognostic for disease recurrence, including several DNA methylation events, and a signature comprised of these aberrations outperformed well-described prognostic biomarkers. We suggest that intensified treatment of genomically aggressive localized prostate cancer may improve cure rates. Overall design: In total, we have methylation profiles for 160 samples (corresponding to 104 unique samples). Out of the 104 unique samples, 34 samples were repeated twice, 8 samples repeated three times, 2 samples repeated four times.
Project description:The diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer (PCa) is a major health-care concern worldwide. This cancer can manifest itself in many distinct forms and the transition from clinically indolent PCa to the more invasive aggressive form remains poorly understood. It is now universally accepted that glycan expression patterns change with the cellular modifications that accompany the onset of tumorigenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate if differential glycosylation patterns could distinguish between indolent, significant, and aggressive PCa. Whole serum <i>N</i>-glycan profiling was carried out on 117 prostate cancer patients' serum using our automated, high-throughput analysis platform for glycan-profiling which utilizes ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) to obtain high resolution separation of <i>N</i>-linked glycans released from the serum glycoproteins. We observed increases in hybrid, oligomannose, and biantennary digalactosylated monosialylated glycans (M5A1G1S1, M8, and A2G2S1), bisecting glycans (A2B, A2(6)BG1) and monoantennary glycans (A1), and decreases in triantennary trigalactosylated trisialylated glycans with and without core fucose (A3G3S3 and FA3G3S3) with PCa progression from indolent through significant and aggressive disease. These changes give us an insight into the disease pathogenesis and identify potential biomarkers for monitoring the PCa progression, however these need further confirmation studies.