C-reactive protein inhibits cholesterol efflux from human macrophage-derived foam cells.
ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine the effects and potential mechanisms of C-reactive protein (CRP) on cholesterol efflux from human macrophage foam cells, which may play a critical role in atherogenesis.Human THP-1 monocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were preincubated with acetylated LDL and [3H]-cholesterol to form foam cells, which were then treated with apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) or HDL for cholesterol efflux assay. Clinically relevant concentrations of CRP significantly reduced cholesterol efflux from THP-1 and PBMCs to apoA-I or HDL. CRP significantly decreased the expression of ATP-binding membrane cassette transporter A-1 (ABCA1) and ABCG1, whereas it increased superoxide anion production. Furthermore, CRP substantially activated ERK1/2 in THP-1-derived foam-like cells. Reducing superoxide anion by antioxidant seleno-L-methionine or SOD mimetic (MnTBAP) effectively abolished the CRP-induced decrease in cholesterol efflux and the expression of ABCA1 and ABCG1. Inhibiting ERK1/2 activation by its specific inhibitor PD98059 or by a dominant negative mutant of ERK2 could also block CRPs action on THP-1 cells.CRP inhibits cholesterol efflux from human foam cells derived from THP-1 and PBMCs in vitro though oxidative stress, ERK1/2 activation, and downregulation of intracellular cholesterol transport molecules ABCA1 and ABCG1.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:This study investigated the effects of garlic on brachial endothelial function and THP-1 macrophage cholesterol efflux (CE) and examined whether garlic modulates ATP-binding cassette (ABC) A1 and ABCG1 mRNA expressions in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS:In this randomized, placebo-controlled trial, patients with CAD were randomly divided into two groups: those receiving garlic powder or placebo tablets twice daily for 3 months. Brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was assessed using ultrasound. Fasting blood samples were collected before and after period and PBMC and plasma were isolated. Human THP-1 monocytes were differentiated into macrophages, labeled with 3H-cholesterol, and incubated with plasma samples, and CE was assessed. ABCA1 and ABCG1 mRNA expressions were determined in PBMCs. RESULTS:After 3 months, brachial FMD values significantly improved (50.7%) in the garlic group compared with those in the placebo group (p=0.016). High-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels significantly decreased in the garlic group, but the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant. No significant difference was observed with regard to CE and ABCA1 and ABCG1 mRNA expressions in PBMCs. CE was negatively correlated with hs-CRP levels. CONCLUSION:Short-term treatment with garlic may improve the endothelial function and may affect hs-CRP levels; however, it could neither significantly improve THP-1 macrophage CE nor affect ABCA1 or ABCG1 expressions in PBMCs.
Project description:HDLs protect against the development of atherosclerosis, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. HDL and its apolipoproteins can promote cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells via the ATP-binding cassette transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1. Experiments addressing the individual roles of ABCA1 and ABCG1 in the development of atherosclerosis have produced mixed results, perhaps because of compensatory upregulation in the individual KO models. To clarify the role of transporter-mediated sterol efflux in this disease process, we transplanted BM from Abca1(-/-)Abcg1(-/-) mice into LDL receptor-deficient mice and administered a high-cholesterol diet. Compared with control and single-KO BM recipients, Abca1(-/-)Abcg1(-/-) BM recipients showed accelerated atherosclerosis and extensive infiltration of the myocardium and spleen with macrophage foam cells. In experiments with isolated macrophages, combined ABCA1 and ABCG1 deficiency resulted in impaired cholesterol efflux to HDL or apoA-1, profoundly decreased apoE secretion, and increased secretion of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. In addition, these cells showed increased apoptosis when challenged with free cholesterol or oxidized LDL loading. These results suggest that the combined effects of ABCA1 and ABCG1 in mediating macrophage sterol efflux are central to the antiatherogenic properties of HDL.
Project description:In advanced atherosclerotic plaques, defective efferocytosis of apoptotic foam cells and decreased cholesterol efflux contribute to lesion progression. In our previous study, we demonstrated that 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-mediated sonodynamic therapy (SDT) could induce foam cells apoptosis via the mitochondrial-caspase pathway. In the current research, we sought to explore ALA-SDT-induced apoptosis of phagocytes and the effects of cholesterol efflux and efferocytosis in advanced apoE-/- mice plaque. Methods: apoE-/- mice fed western diet were treated with ALA-SDT and sacrificed at day 1, day 3, day 7 and day 28 post treatment. THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells were treated with ALA-SDT. 5 hours later, the supernatant was collected and added to fresh foam cells (phagocytes). Then, the lipid area, efferocytosis, cholesterol efflux, anti-inflammatory reactions and PPAR?-LXR?-ABCA1/ABCG1 pathway were detected in plaque in vivo and in phagocytes in vitro. Results: We found that ALA-SDT induced foam cells apoptosis coupled with efferocytosis and upregulation of Mer tyrosine kinase (MerTK) both in vivo and in vitro. The lipid content in plaque decreased as early as 1 day after ALA-SDT and this tendency persisted until 28 days. The enhancement of phagocytes cholesterol efflux was accompanied by an approximately 40% decrease in free cholesterol and a 24% decrease in total cholesterol in vitro. More importantly, anti-inflammatory factors such as TGF? and IL-10 were upregulated by ALA-SDT treatment. Finally, we found that PPAR?-LXR?-ABCA1/ABCG1 pathway was activated both in vivo and in vitro by ALA-SDT, which could be blocked by PPAR? siRNA. Conclusions: Activation of PPAR?-LXR?-ABCA1/ABCG1 pathway induced by ALA-SDT treatment engages a virtuous cycle that enhances efferocytosis, cholesterol efflux and anti-inflammatory reactions in advanced plaque in vivo and in phagocytes in vitro.
Project description:To study the mechanisms of hepatic HDL formation, we investigated the roles of ABCA1, ABCG1, and SR-BI in nascent HDL formation in primary hepatocytes isolated from mice deficient in ABCA1, ABCG1, or SR-BI and from wild-type (WT) mice. Under basal conditions, in WT hepatocytes, cholesterol efflux to exogenous apoA-I was accompanied by conversion of apoA-I to HDL-sized particles. LXR activation by T0901317 markedly enhanced the formation of larger HDL-sized particles as well as cellular cholesterol efflux to apoA-I. Glyburide treatment completely abolished the formation of 7.4 nm diameter and greater particles but led to the formation of novel 7.2 nm-sized particles. However, cells lacking ABCA1 failed to form such particles. ABCG1-deficient cells showed similar capacity to efflux cholesterol to apoA-I and to form nascent HDL particles compared with WT cells. Cholesterol efflux to apoA-I and nascent HDL formation were slightly but significantly enhanced in SR-BI-deficient cells compared with WT cells under basal but not LXR activated conditions. As in WT but not in ABCA1-deficient hepatocytes, 7.2 nm-sized particles generated by glyburide treatment were also detected in ABCG1-deficient and SR-BI-deficient hepatocytes. Our data indicate that hepatic nascent HDL formation is highly dependent on ABCA1 but not on ABCG1 or SR-BI.
Project description:Adipose harbors a large depot of free cholesterol. However, a role for adipose in cholesterol lipidation of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in vivo is not established. We present the first evidence that adipocytes support transfer of cholesterol to HDL in vivo as well as in vitro and implicate ATP-binding cassette subfamily A member 1 (ABCA1) and scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI), but not ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 1 (ABCG1), cholesterol transporters in this process.Cholesterol efflux from wild-type, ABCA1(-/-), SR-BI(-/-), and ABCG1(-/-) adipocytes to apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and HDL3 were measured in vitro. 3T3L1 adipocytes, labeled with (3)H-cholesterol, were injected intraperitoneally into wild-type, apoA-I transgenic, and apoA-I(-/-) mice, and tracer movement onto plasma HDL was monitored. Identical studies were performed with labeled wild-type, ABCA1(-/-), or SR-BI(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblast adipocytes. The effect of tumor necrosis factor-alpha on transporter expression and cholesterol efflux was monitored during adipocyte differentiation. Cholesterol efflux to apoA-I and HDL3 was impaired in ABCA1(-/-) and SR-BI(-/-) adipocytes, respectively, with no effect observed in ABCG1(-/-) adipocytes. Intraperitoneal injection of labeled 3T3L1 adipocytes resulted in increased HDL-associated (3)H-cholesterol in apoA-I transgenic mice but reduced levels in apoA-I(-/-) animals. Intraperitoneal injection of labeled ABCA1(-/-) or SR-BI(-/-) adipocytes reduced plasma counts relative to their respective controls. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha reduced both ABCA1 and SR-BI expression and impaired cholesterol efflux from partially differentiated adipocytes.These data suggest a novel metabolic function of adipocytes in promoting cholesterol transfer to HDL in vivo and implicate adipocyte SR-BI and ABCA1, but not ABCG1, in this process. Furthermore, adipocyte modulation of HDL may be impaired in adipose inflammatory disease states such as type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Project description:Cholesterol-metabolism-associated molecules, including scavenger receptor class A (SR-A), lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1), CD36, ACAT1, ABCA1, ABCG1, and scavenger receptor class B type I, can modulate cholesterol metabolism in the transformation from macrophages to foam cells. Voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3 has increasingly been demonstrated to play an important role in the modulation of macrophage function. Here, we investigate the role of Kv1.3 in modulating cholesterol-metabolism-associated molecules in human acute monocytic leukemia cell-derived macrophages (THP-1 macrophages) and human monocyte-derived macrophages exposed to oxidized LDL (ox-LDL). Human Kv1.3 and Kv1.5 channels (hKv1.3 and hKv1.5) are expressed in macrophages and form a heteromultimeric channel. The hKv1.3-E314 antibody that we had generated as a specific hKv1.3 blocker inhibited outward delayed rectifier potassium currents, whereas the hKv1.5-E313 antibody that we had generated as a specific hKv1.5 blocker failed. Accordingly, the hKv1.3-E314 antibody reduced percentage of cholesterol ester and enhanced apoA-I-mediated cholesterol efflux in THP-1 macrophages and human monocyte-derived macrophages exposed to ox-LDL. The hKv1.3-E314 antibody downregulated SR-A, LOX-1, and ACAT1 expression and upregulated ABCA1 expression in THP-1 macrophages and human monocyte-derived macrophages. Our results reveal that specific Kv1.3 blockade represents a novel strategy modulating cholesterol metabolism in macrophages, which benefits the treatment of atherosclerotic lesions.
Project description:Mechanisms to increase plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) or to promote egress of cholesterol from cholesterol-loaded cells (e.g., foam cells from atherosclerotic lesions) remain an important target to regress heart disease. Reconstituted HDL (rHDL) serves as a valuable vehicle to promote cellular cholesterol efflux in vitro and in vivo. rHDL were prepared with wild type apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and the rare variant, apoA-I Milano (M), and each apolipoprotein was reconstituted with phosphatidylcholine (PC) or sphingomyelin (SM). The four distinct rHDL generated were incubated with CHO cells, J774 macrophages, and BHK cells in cellular cholesterol efflux assays. In each cell type, apoA-I(M) SM-rHDL promoted the greatest cholesterol efflux. In BHK cells, the cholesterol efflux capacities of all four distinct rHDL were greatly enhanced by increased expression of ABCG1. Efflux to PC-containing rHDL was stimulated by transfection of a nonfunctional ABCA1 mutant (W590S), suggesting that binding to ABCA1 represents a competing interaction. This interpretation was confirmed by binding experiments. The data show that cholesterol efflux activity is dependent upon the apoA-I protein employed, as well as the phospholipid constituent of the rHDL. Future studies designed to optimize the efflux capacity of therapeutic rHDL may improve the value of this emerging intervention strategy.
Project description:We previously reported that HIV protease inhibitor, ritonavir, could inhibit cholesterol efflux and induce endothelial dysfunction. In this study, we further determined the effects and molecular mechanisms of a clinically relevant combination of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) drugs on in vitro cholesterol efflux from human macrophage-derived foam cells. Foam cells derived from human monocyte cell line (THP-1) and periphery blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) treated with HAART drugs including stavudine, didanosine and indinavir individually or in combination of three drugs (3-plex), followed by the initiation of cholesterol efflux with apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I). Clinically relevant concentrations of HAART 3-plex significantly reduced cholesterol efflux in foam cells derived from THP-1 and PBMCs. HAART 3-plex significantly reduced the intracellular cholesterol transport molecule caveolin-1, whereas it increased superoxide anion production in THP-1 foam cells as compared with controls. Furthermore, mitochondrial membrane potential was significantly reduced, whereas the expression of NADPH oxidase subunit p67(phox) was increased in HAART 3-plex-treated macrophages. Consequently, antioxidants including ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1, S-allyl cysteine sulphoxide (SACS), simvastatin (SVT) and vitamin E significantly abolished HAART 3-plex-induced inhibition of cholesterol efflux. Therefore, HAART drugs significantly inhibit cholesterol efflux from human macrophage-derived foam cells through downregulation of caveolin-1 and increase of oxidative stress.
Project description:Betulin is a pentacyclic triterpenoid isolated from the bark of yellow and white birch trees with anti-cancer and anti-malaria activities. In this study we examined the effects of betulin on atherosclerosis in apoE-/- mice and the underlying mechanisms.Murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells and human monocyte-derived THP-1 cells were tested. Foam cell formation was detected with Oil Red O staining. Cholesterol efflux was assessed using [3H]-cholesterol efflux assay. The expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 and G1 (ABCA1 and ABCG1) was examined using RT-PCR and Western-blotting. The ABCA1 promoter activity was evaluated using luciferase activity assay. Male apoE-/- mice fed on a high-fat-diet (HFD), and received betulin (20 and 40 mg·kg-1·d-1, ig) for 12 weeks. The macrophage content and ABCA1 expression in the aortic sinuses were evaluated with immunofluorescence staining. The hepatic, intestinal and fecal cholesterol were also analyzed in the mice.In RAW264.7 cells, betulin (0.1-2.5 ?g/mL) dose-dependently ameliorated oxLDL-induced cholesterol accumulation and enhanced cholesterol efflux. In both RAW264.7 and THP-1 cells, betulin increased the expression of ABCA1 and ABCG1 via suppressing the transcriptional repressors sterol-responsive element-binding proteins (SREBPs) that bound to E-box motifs in ABCA1 promoter, whereas E-box binding site mutation markedly attenuated betulin-induced ABCA1 promoter activity. In HFD-fed apoE-/- mice, betulin administration significantly reduced lesions in en face aortas and aortic sinuses. Furthermore, betulin administration significantly increased ABCA1 expression and suppressed macrophage positive areas in the aortic sinuses. Moreover, betulin administration improved plasma lipid profiles and enhanced fecal cholesterol excretion in the mice.Betulin attenuates atherosclerosis in apoE-/- mice by promoting cholesterol efflux in macrophages.
Project description:We recently reported that lowering of macrophage free intracellular iron increases expression of cholesterol efflux transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1 by reducing generation of reactive oxygen species. In this study, we explored whether reducing macrophage intracellular iron levels via pharmacological suppression of hepcidin can increase macrophage-specific expression of cholesterol efflux transporters and reduce atherosclerosis.To suppress hepcidin, increase expression of the iron exporter ferroportin, and reduce macrophage intracellular iron, we used a small molecule inhibitor of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, LDN 193189 (LDN). LDN (10 mg/kg IP b.i.d.) was administered to mice, and its effects on atherosclerosis, intracellular iron, oxidative stress, lipid efflux, and foam cell formation were measured in plaques and peritoneal macrophages. Long-term LDN administration to apolipoprotein E-/- mice increased ABCA1 immunoreactivity within intraplaque macrophages by 3.7-fold (n=8; P=0.03), reduced Oil Red O-positive lipid area by 50% (n=8; P=0.02), and decreased total plaque area by 43% (n=8; P=0.001). LDN suppressed liver hepcidin transcription and increased macrophage ferroportin, lowering intracellular iron and hydrogen peroxide production. LDN treatment increased macrophage ABCA1 and ABCG1 expression, significantly raised cholesterol efflux to ApoA-1, and decreased foam cell formation. All preceding LDN-induced effects on cholesterol efflux were reversed by exogenous hepcidin administration, suggesting modulation of intracellular iron levels within macrophages as the mechanism by which LDN triggers these effects.These data suggest that pharmacological manipulation of iron homeostasis may be a promising target to increase macrophage reverse cholesterol transport and limit atherosclerosis.