Na+-stimulated ATPase of alkaliphilic halotolerant cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica translocates Na+ into proteoliposomes via Na+ uniport mechanism.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: When cells are exposed to high salinity conditions, they develop a mechanism to extrude excess Na+ from cells to maintain the cytoplasmic Na+ concentration. Until now, the ATPase involved in Na+ transport in cyanobacteria has not been characterized. Here, the characterization of ATPase and its role in Na+ transport of alkaliphilic halotolerant Aphanothece halophytica were investigated to understand the survival mechanism of A. halophytica under high salinity conditions. RESULTS: The purified enzyme catalyzed the hydrolysis of ATP in the presence of Na+ but not K+, Li+ and Ca2+. The apparent Km values for Na+ and ATP were 2.0 and 1.2 mM, respectively. The enzyme is likely the F1F0-ATPase based on the usual subunit pattern and the protection against N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide inhibition of ATPase activity by Na+ in a pH-dependent manner. Proteoliposomes reconstituted with the purified enzyme could take up Na+ upon the addition of ATP. The apparent Km values for this uptake were 3.3 and 0.5 mM for Na+ and ATP, respectively. The mechanism of Na+ transport mediated by Na+-stimulated ATPase in A. halophytica was revealed. Using acridine orange as a probe, alkalization of the lumen of proteoliposomes reconstituted with Na+-stimulated ATPase was observed upon the addition of ATP with Na+ but not with K+, Li+ and Ca2+. The Na+- and ATP-dependent alkalization of the proteoliposome lumen was stimulated by carbonyl cyanide m - chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) but was inhibited by a permeant anion nitrate. The proteoliposomes showed both ATPase activity and ATP-dependent Na+ uptake activity. The uptake of Na+ was enhanced by CCCP and nitrate. On the other hand, both CCCP and nitrate were shown to dissipate the preformed electric potential generated by Na+-stimulated ATPase of the proteoliposomes. CONCLUSION: The data demonstrate that Na+-stimulated ATPase from A. halophytica, a likely member of F-type ATPase, functions as an electrogenic Na+ pump which transports only Na+ upon hydrolysis of ATP. A secondary event, Na+- and ATP-dependent H+ efflux from proteoliposomes, is driven by the electric potential generated by Na+-stimulated ATPase.
Project description:Aphanothece halophytica is a halotolerant alkaliphilic cyanobacterium that can grow in media of up to 3.0 m NaCl and pH 11. Here, we show that in addition to a typical H(+)-ATP synthase, Aphanothece halophytica contains a putative F(1)F(0)-type Na(+)-ATP synthase (ApNa(+)-ATPase) operon (ApNa(+)-atp). The operon consists of nine genes organized in the order of putative subunits β, ε, I, hypothetical protein, a, c, b, α, and γ. Homologous operons could also be found in some cyanobacteria such as Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 and Acaryochloris marina MBIC11017. The ApNa(+)-atp operon was isolated from the A. halophytica genome and transferred into an Escherichia coli mutant DK8 (Δatp) deficient in ATP synthase. The inverted membrane vesicles of E. coli DK8 expressing ApNa(+)-ATPase exhibited Na(+)-dependent ATP hydrolysis activity, which was inhibited by monensin and tributyltin chloride, but not by the protonophore, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP). The Na(+) ion protected the inhibition of ApNa(+)-ATPase by N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. The ATP synthesis activity was also observed using the Na(+)-loaded inverted membrane vesicles. Expression of the ApNa(+)-atp operon in the heterologous cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942 showed its localization in the cytoplasmic membrane fractions and increased tolerance to salt stress. These results indicate that A. halophytica has additional Na(+)-dependent F(1)F(0)-ATPase in the cytoplasmic membrane playing a potential role in salt-stress tolerance.
Project description:Phospholemman (FXYD1) is a single-transmembrane protein regulator of Na,K-ATPase, expressed strongly in heart, skeletal muscle, and brain and phosphorylated by protein kinases A and C at Ser-68 and Ser-63, respectively. Binding of FXYD1 reduces Na,K-ATPase activity, and phosphorylation at Ser-68 or Ser-63 relieves the inhibition. Despite the accumulated information on physiological effects, whole cell studies provide only limited information on molecular mechanisms. As a complementary approach, we utilized purified human Na,K-ATPase (?1?1 and ?2?1) reconstituted with FXYD1 or mutants S63E, S68E, and S63E,S68E that mimic phosphorylation at Ser-63 and Ser-68. Compared with control ?1?1, FXYD1 reduces Vmax and turnover rate and raises K0.5Na. The phosphomimetic mutants reverse these effects and reduce K0.5Na below control K0.5Na. Effects on ?2?1 are similar but smaller. Experiments in proteoliposomes reconstituted with ?1?1 show analogous effects of FXYD1 on K0.5Na, which are abolished by phosphomimetic mutants and also by increasing mole fractions of DOPS in the proteoliposomes. Stopped-flow experiments using the dye RH421 show that FXYD1 slows the conformational transition E2(2K)ATP ? E1(3Na)ATP but does not affect 3NaE1P ? E2P3Na. This regulatory effect is explained simply by molecular modeling, which indicates that a cytoplasmic helix (residues 60-70) docks between the ?N and ?P domains in the E2 conformation, but docking is weaker in E1 (also for phosphomimetic mutants). Taken together with previous work showing that FXYD1 also raises binding affinity for the Na(+)-selective site III, these results provide a rather comprehensive picture of the regulatory mechanism of FXYD1 that complements the physiological studies.
Project description:Capsazepine (CPZ), a synthetic capsaicin analogue, inhibits ATP hydrolysis by Na,K-ATPase in the presence but not in the absence of K(+). Studies with purified membranes revealed that CPZ reduced Na(+)-dependent phosphorylation by interference with Na(+) binding from the intracellular side of the membrane. Kinetic analyses showed that CPZ stabilized an enzyme species that constitutively occluded K(+). Low-affinity ATP interaction with the enzyme was strongly reduced after CPZ treatment; in contrast, indirectly measured interaction with ADP was much increased, which suggests that composite regulatory communication with nucleotides takes place during turnover. Studies with lipid vesicles revealed that CPZ reduced ATP-dependent digitoxigenin-sensitive (22)Na(+) influx into K(+)-loaded vesicles only at saturating ATP concentrations. The drug apparently abolishes the regulatory effect of ATP on the pump. Drawing on previous homology modeling studies of Na,K-ATPase to atomic models of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase and on kinetic data, we propose that CPZ uncouples an Na(+) cycle from an Na(+)/K(+) cycle in the pump. The Na(+) cycle possibly involves transport through the recently characterized Na(+)-specific site. A shift to such an uncoupled mode is believed to produce pumps mediating uncoupled Na(+) efflux by modifying the transport stoichiometry of single pump units.
Project description:Ouabain inhibited 86RbCl uptake by 80% in rabbit gastric superficial epithelial cells (SEC), revealing the presence of a functional Na+,K+-ATPase [(Na+ + K+)-transporting ATPase] pump. Intact SEC were used to study the ouabain-sensitive Na+,K+-ATPase and K+-pNPPase (K+-stimulated p-nitrophenyl phosphatase) activities before and after lysis. Intact SEC showed no Na+,K+-ATPase and insignificant Mg2+-ATPase activity. However, appreciable K+-pNPPase activity sensitive to ouabain inhibition was demonstrated by localizing its activity to the cell-surface exterior. The lysed SEC, on the other hand, demonstrated both ouabain-sensitive Na+,K+-ATPase and K+-pNPPase activities. Thus the ATP-hydrolytic site of Na+,K+-ATPase faces exclusively the cytosol, whereas the associated K+-pNPPase is distributed equally across the plasma membrane. The study suggests that the cell-exterior-located K+-pNPPase can be used as a convenient and reliable 'in situ' marker for the functional Na+,K+-ATPase system of various isolated cells under noninvasive conditions.
Project description:Ca2+ transport across mammary-gland Golgi membranes was measured after centrifugation of the membrane vesicles through silicone oil. In the presence of 2.3 microM free Ca2+ the vesicles accumulated 5.8 nmol of Ca2+/mg of protein without added ATP, and this uptake was complete within 0.5 min. In the presence of 1 mM-ATP, Ca2+ was accumulated at a linear rate for 10 min after the precipitation of intravesicular Ca2+ with 10 mM-potassium oxalate. ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake exhibited a Km of 0.14 microM for Ca2+ and a Vmax. of 3.1 nmol of Ca2+/min per mg of protein. Ca2+-dependent ATP hydrolysis exhibited a Km of 0.16 microM for Ca2+ and a Vmax. of 10.1 nmol of Pi/min per mg of protein. The stoichiometry between ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake and Ca2+-stimulated ATPase varied between 0.3 and 0.7 over the range 0.03-8.6 microM-Ca2+. Both Ca2+ uptake and Ca2+-stimulated ATPase were strongly inhibited by orthovanadate, which suggests that the major mechanism by which Golgi vesicles accumulate Ca2+ is through the action of the Ca2+-stimulated ATPase. However, Ca2+ uptake was also decreased by the protonophore CCCP (carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone), indicating that it may occur by other mechanisms too. The effect of CCCP may be related to the existence of transmembrane pH gradients (delta pH) in these vesicles: the addition of 30 microM-CCCP reduced delta pH from a control value of 1.06 to 0.73 pH unit. Golgi vesicles also possess a Ca2+-efflux pathway which operated at an initial rate of 0.5-0.57 nmol/min per mg of protein.
Project description:Mrp antiporters and their homologues in the cation/proton antiporter 3 family of the Membrane Transporter Database are widely distributed in bacteria. They have major roles in supporting cation and cytoplasmic pH homeostasis in many environmental, extremophilic, and pathogenic bacteria. These antiporters require six or seven hydrophobic proteins that form hetero-oligomeric complexes, while most other cation/proton antiporters require only one membrane protein for their activity. The resemblance of three Mrp subunits to membrane-embedded subunits of the NADH:quinone oxidoreductase of respiratory chains and to subunits of several hydrogenases has raised interest in the evolutionary path and commonalities of their proton-translocating domains. In order to move toward a greater mechanistic understanding of these unusual antiporters and to rigorously demonstrate that they function as secondary antiporters, powered by an imposed proton motive force, we established a method for purification and functional reconstitution of the seven-subunit Mrp antiporter from alkaliphilic Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4. Na(+)/H(+) antiporter activity was demonstrated by a fluorescence-based assay with proteoliposomes in which the Mrp complex was coreconstituted with a bacterial FoF1-ATPase. Proton pumping by the ATPase upon addition of ATP generated a proton motive force across the membranes that powered antiporter activity upon subsequent addition of Na(+).
Project description:A Mg(2+)+Na(+)+K(+)-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) preparation was isolated from rat ventral prostate by flotation of microsomal membranes in high-density sucrose solutions. The reaction medium for optimum Na(+)+K(+)-stimulated ATPase activity was found to be: Na(+), 115mm; K(+), 7-10mm; Mg(2+), 3mm; ATP, 3mm; tris buffer, pH7.4 at 38 degrees , 20mm. The average DeltaP(i) (Mg(2+)+Na(+)+K(+) minus Mg(2+)+Na(+)) was 9mumoles/mg. of protein/hr., representing a 30% increase over the Mg(2+)+Na(+)-stimulated ATPase activity. At high concentrations, K(+) was inhibitory to the enzyme activity. Half-maximal inhibition of Na(+)+K(+)-stimulated ATPase activity was elicited by ouabain at 0.1mm. The preparation exhibited phosphatase activity towards ribonucleoside triphosphates other than ATP. However, stimulation of P(i) release by Na(+)+K(+) was observed only with ATP as substrate. The apparent K(m) for ATP for Na(+)+K(+)-stimulated activity was about 0.3x10(-3)m. Ca(2+) inhibited only the Na(+)+K(+)-stimulated ATPase activity. Mg(2+) could be replaced by Ca(2+) but then no Na(+)+K(+) stimulation of ATPase activity was noticed. The addition of testosterone or dihydrotestosterone (17beta-hydroxy-5alpha-androstan-3-one) in vitro at 0.1-10mum under a variety of experimental conditions did not significantly increase the Na(+)+K(+)-stimulated ATPase activity. The enzyme preparations from prostates of orchidectomized rats, however, exhibited a drastic decrease in the specific activity of Na(+)+K(+)-stimulated ATPase; these changes were prevented in the orchidectomized rats by injection of testosterone propionate.
Project description:Capsazepine (CPZ) inhibits Na+,K+-ATPase-mediated K+-dependent ATP hydrolysis with no effect on Na+-ATPase activity. In this study we have investigated the functional effects of CPZ on Na+,K+-ATPase in intact cells. We have also used well established biochemical and biophysical techniques to understand how CPZ modifies the catalytic subunit of Na+,K+-ATPase. In isolated rat cardiomyocytes, CPZ abolished Na+,K+-ATPase current in the presence of extracellular K+. In contrast, CPZ stimulated pump current in the absence of extracellular K+. Similar conclusions were attained using HEK293 cells loaded with the Na+ sensitive dye Asante NaTRIUM green. Proteolytic cleavage of pig kidney Na+,K+-ATPase indicated that CPZ stabilizes ion interaction with the K+ sites. The distal part of membrane span 10 (M10) of the ?-subunit was exposed to trypsin cleavage in the presence of guanidinum ions, which function as Na+ congener at the Na+ specific site. This effect of guanidinium was amplified by treatment with CPZ. Fluorescence of the membrane potential sensitive dye, oxonol VI, was measured following addition of substrates to reconstituted inside-out Na+,K+-ATPase. CPZ increased oxonol VI fluorescence in the absence of K+, reflecting increased Na+ efflux through the pump. Surprisingly, CPZ induced an ATP-independent increase in fluorescence in the presence of high extravesicular K+, likely indicating opening of an intracellular pathway selective for K+. As revealed by the recent crystal structure of the E1.AlF4-.ADP.3Na+ form of the pig kidney Na+,K+-ATPase, movements of M5 of the ?-subunit, which regulate ion selectivity, are controlled by the C-terminal tail that extends from M10. We propose that movements of M10 and its cytoplasmic extension is affected by CPZ, thereby regulating ion selectivity and transport through the K+ sites in Na+,K+-ATPase.
Project description:The activity of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase establishes transmembrane ion gradients and is essential to cell function and survival. Either dysregulation or deficiency of neuronal Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and rapid-onset dystonia Parkinsonism. However, genetic evidence that directly links neuronal Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase deficiency to in vivo neurodegeneration has been lacking. In this study, we use Drosophila photoreceptors to investigate the cell-autonomous effects of neuronal Na(+)/K(+) ATPase. Loss of ATP?, an ? subunit of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, in photoreceptors through UAS/Gal4-mediated RNAi eliminated the light-triggered depolarization of the photoreceptors, rendering the fly virtually blind in behavioral assays. Intracellular recordings indicated that ATP? knockdown photoreceptors were already depolarized in the dark, which was due to a loss of intracellular K(+). Importantly, ATP? knockdown resulted in the degeneration of photoreceptors in older flies. This degeneration was independent of light and showed characteristics of apoptotic/hybrid cell death as observed via electron microscopy analysis. Loss of Nrv3, a Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase ? subunit, partially reproduced the signaling and degenerative defects observed in ATP? knockdown flies. Thus, the loss of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase not only eradicates visual function but also causes age-dependent degeneration in photoreceptors, confirming the link between neuronal Na(+)/K(+) ATPase deficiency and in vivo neurodegeneration. This work also establishes Drosophila photoreceptors as a genetic model for studying the cell-autonomous mechanisms underlying neuronal Na(+)/K(+) ATPase deficiency-mediated neurodegeneration.
Project description:Cardiotonic steroids (such as ouabain) signaling through Na/K-ATPase regulate sodium reabsorption in the renal proximal tubule. We report here that reactive oxygen species are required to initiate ouabain-stimulated Na/K-ATPase·c-Src signaling. Pretreatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine prevented ouabain-stimulated Na/K-ATPase·c-Src signaling, protein carbonylation, redistribution of Na/K-ATPase and sodium/proton exchanger isoform 3, and inhibition of active transepithelial (22)Na(+) transport. Disruption of the Na/K-ATPase·c-Src signaling complex attenuated ouabain-stimulated protein carbonylation. Ouabain-stimulated protein carbonylation is reversed after removal of ouabain, and this reversibility is largely independent of de novo protein synthesis and degradation by either the lysosome or the proteasome pathways. Furthermore, ouabain stimulated direct carbonylation of two amino acid residues in the actuator domain of the Na/K-ATPase α1 subunit. Taken together, the data indicate that carbonylation modification of the Na/K-ATPase α1 subunit is involved in a feed-forward mechanism of regulation of ouabain-mediated renal proximal tubule Na/K-ATPase signal transduction and subsequent sodium transport.