In vitro synergism of ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime against nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella enterica serotypes Paratyphi A and Paratyphi B.
ABSTRACT: Paratyphoid fever is considered an emerging systemic intracellular infection caused by Salmonella enterica serotypes Paratyphi A, B, and C. We performed in vitro time-kill studies on three clinical isolates of nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella serotype Paratyphi (NARSP) with different concentrations of ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime to identify combinations of antibiotics with synergistic activity against paratyphoid fever. Furthermore, we identify the frequency of mutations to ciprofloxacin, cefotaxime, and rifampin resistance and also sequenced the gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes to identify the cause of resistance in NARSP. When the activity of ciprofloxacin at 0.75x MIC (0.012 to 0.38 microg/ml) with cefotaxime at the MIC (0.125 to 0.25 microg/ml) against all three NARSP isolates was investigated, synergy was observed at 24 h, and the bacterial counts were reduced by >3 log(10) CFU/ml. This synergy was elongated for up to 72 h in two out of three isolates. When ciprofloxacin at 0.75x MIC (0.012 to 0.38 microg/ml) was combined with cefotaxime at 2x MIC (0.25 to 0.50 microg/ml), synergy was prolonged for up to 72 h in all three isolates. Both Salmonella serotype Paratyphi A isolates carried single mutations in codon 83 of the gyrA gene and codon 84 of the parC gene that were responsible for their reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, while no mutations were found in the gyrB or parE gene. The ciprofloxacin-plus-cefotaxime regimen was very effective in reducing the bacterial counts at 24 h for all three isolates, and this combination therapy may be helpful in reducing the chance of the emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant mutants in patients with severe paratyphoid fever.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Typhoid and paratyphoid fever are endemic in China. The objective of this investigation was to determine the molecular features of nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella enteric serovar Typhi (S. typhi) and Paratyphi (S. paratyphi) from blood isolates in Shenzhen, China. RESULTS: Twenty-five S. typhi and 66 S. paratyphi were isolated from 91 bacteremic patients between 2002 and 2007 at a hospital in Shenzhen, Southern China. Fifty-two percent (13/25) of S. typhi and 95.3% (61/64) of S. paratyphi A were resistant to nalidixic acid. Sixty-seven isolates of nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella (NARS) showed decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (MICs of 0.125-1 microg/mL). All 75 NARS isolates had a single substitution in the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of GyrA (Ser83-->Phe/Pro/Tyr, or Asp87-->Gly/Asn), and 90.7% of these isolates carried the substitution Ser83Phe in GyrA. No mutation was found in the QRDR of gyrB, parC, or parE. Plasmid mediated quinolone resistance genes including qnr and aac(6')-Ib-cr were not detected in any isolate. Twenty-two distinct pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns were observed among S. typhi. Sixty-four isolates of S. paratyphi A belonged to one clone. Eighty-seven investigated inpatients were infected in the community. Six patients infected by S. paratyphi A had a travel history before infection. CONCLUSIONS: Nalidixic acid-resistant S. typhi and S. paratyphi A blood isolates were highly prevalent in Shenzhen, China. PFGE showed the variable genetic diversity of nalidixic acid-resistant S. typhi and limited genetic diversity of nalidixic acid -resistant S. paratyphi A.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Salmonella spp. with reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones have higher than usual MICs to these agents but are still considered "susceptible" by NCCLS criteria. Delayed treatment response to fluoroquinolones has been noted, especially in cases of enteric fever due to such strains. We reviewed the ciprofloxacin susceptibility and clinical outcome of our recent enteric fever cases. METHODS: Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhi (S. Typhi) and Serotype Paratyphi (S. Paratyphi) blood culture isolates (1998-2002) were tested against nalidixic acid by disk diffusion (DD) and agar dilution (AD) and to ciprofloxacin by AD using NCCLS methods and interpretive criteria. Reduced fluoroquinolone susceptibility was defined as a ciprofloxacin MIC of 0.125-1.0 mg/L. The clinical records of patients treated with ciprofloxacin for isolates with reduced fluoroquinolone susceptibility were reviewed. RESULTS: Seven of 21 (33%) S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi isolates had reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones (MIC range 0.125-0.5 mg/L). All 7 were nalidixic acid resistant by DD (no zone) and by AD (MIC 128- >512 mg/L). The other 14 isolates were nalidixic acid susceptible and fully susceptible to ciprofloxacin (MIC range 0.015-0.03 mg/L). Five of the 7 cases were treated initially with oral ciprofloxacin. One patient remained febrile on IV ciprofloxacin until cefotaxime was added, with fever recurrence when cefotaxime was discontinued. Two continued on oral or IV ciprofloxacin alone but had prolonged fevers of 9-10 days duration, one was switched to IV beta-lactam therapy after remaining febrile for 3 days on oral/IV ciprofloxacin and one was treated successfully with oral ciprofloxacin. Four of the 5 required hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: Our cases provide further evidence that reduced fluoroquinolone susceptibility of S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi is clinically significant. Laboratories should test extra-intestinal Salmonella spp. for reduced fluoroquinolone susceptibility.
Project description:A total of 88 salmonella isolates (72 clinical isolates for which the ciprofloxacin MIC was >0.06 microg/ml, 15 isolates for which the ciprofloxacin MIC was < or =0.06 microg/ml, and Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium ATCC 13311) were studied for the presence of genetic alterations in four quinolone resistance genes, gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE, by multiplex PCR amplimer conformation analysis. The genetic alterations were confirmed by direct nucleotide sequencing. A considerable number of strains had a mutation in parC, the first to be reported in salmonellae. Seven of the isolates sensitive to 0.06 micro g of ciprofloxacin per ml had a novel mutation at codon 57 of parC (Tyr57-->Ser) which was also found in 29 isolates for which ciprofloxacin MICs were >0.06 micro g/ml. Thirty-two isolates had a single gyrA mutation (Ser83-->Phe, Ser83-->Tyr, Asp87-->Asn, Asp87-->Tyr, or Asp87-->Gly), 34 had both a gyrA mutation and a parC mutation (29 isolates with a parC mutation of Tyr57-->Ser and 5 isolates with a parC mutation of Ser80-->Arg). Six isolates which were isolated recently (from 1998 to 2001) were resistant to 4 micro g of ciprofloxacin per ml. Two of these isolates had double gyrA mutations (Ser83-->Phe and Asp87-->Asn) and a parC mutation (Ser80-->Arg) (MICs, 8 to 32 microg/ml), and four of these isolates had double gyrA mutations (Ser83-->Phe and Asp87-->Gly), one parC mutation (Ser80-->Arg), and one parE mutation (Ser458-->Pro) (MICs, 16 to 64 micro g/ml). All six of these isolates and those with a Ser80-->Arg parC mutation were S. enterica serotype Typhimurium. One S. enterica serotype Typhi isolate harbored a single gyrA mutation (Ser83-->Phe), and an S. enterica serotype Paratyphi A isolate harbored a gyrA mutation (Ser83-->Tyr) and a parC mutation (Tyr57-->Ser); both of these isolates had decreased susceptibilities to the fluoroquinolones. The MICs of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and sparfloxacin were in general the lowest of those of the six fluoroquinolones tested. Isolates with a single gyrA mutation were less resistant to fluoroquinolones than those with an additional parC mutation (Tyr57-->Ser or Ser80-->Arg), while those with double gyrA mutations were more resistant.
Project description:Time-kill synergy studies showed that at 24 h, subinhibitory meropenem and ciprofloxacin concentrations of 0.06 to 128 and 0.03 to 32 microg/ml, respectively, showed synergy against 34/51 Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains; subinhibitory concentrations of meropenem (0.06 to 8 microg/ml) and colistin (0.12 to 1 microg/ml) showed synergy against 13 isolates. Subinhibitory meropenem and ciprofloxacin concentrations of 0.25 to 2 and 0.12 to 16 microg/ml, respectively, showed synergy against 18/52 Acinetobacter baumannii strains at 24 h. Subinhibitory meropenem and colistin concentrations of 0.03 to 64 and 0.06 to 8 microg/ml, respectively, showed synergy against 49 strains at 24 h.
Project description:Four Escherichia coli isolates harboring CTX-M-14, with a single Ala231-->Val substitution compared to CTX-M-9, had three different ribotypes. Cefotaxime resistance was plasmid encoded and conjugatively transferable. Three isolates had the same plasmid restriction enzyme digestion profile, suggesting clonal spread of a resistant plasmid. A high k(cat)/K(m) value for cefotaxime (20.3 microM(-1) s(-1)) but low values for ceftazidime and aztreonam (< 0.02 microM(-1) s(-1)) were observed in hydrolysis assays, indicating resistance to cefotaxime (MIC > or = 64 microg/ml) but susceptibility to ceftazidime (MIC < or = 2 microg/ml).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Enteric fever remains an important cause of morbidity in many low-income countries and Salmonella Paratyphi A has emerged as the aetiological agent in an increasing proportion of cases. Lack of adequate diagnostics hinders early diagnosis and prompt treatment of both typhoid and paratyphoid but development of assays to identify paratyphoid has been particularly neglected. Here we describe the development of a rapid and sensitive blood culture PCR method for detection of Salmonella Paratyphi A from blood, potentially allowing for appropriate diagnosis and antimicrobial treatment to be initiated on the same day. METHODS:Venous blood samples from volunteers experimentally challenged orally with Salmonella Paratyphi A, who subsequently developed paratyphoid, were taken on the day of diagnosis; 10 ml for quantitative blood culture and automated blood culture, and 5 ml for blood culture PCR. In the latter assay, bacteria were grown in tryptone soy broth containing 2.4% ox bile and micrococcal nuclease for 5 hours (37°C) before bacterial DNA was isolated for PCR detection targeting the fliC-a gene of Salmonella Paratyphi A. RESULTS:An optimized broth containing 2.4% ox bile and micrococcal nuclease, as well as a PCR test was developed for a blood culture PCR assay of Salmonella Paratyphi A. The volunteers diagnosed with paratyphoid had a median bacterial burden of 1 (range 0.1-6.9) CFU/ml blood. All the blood culture PCR positive cases where a positive bacterial growth was shown by quantitative blood culture had a bacterial burden of ? 0.3 CFU/ ml blood. The blood culture PCR assay identified an equal number of positive cases as automated blood culture at higher bacterial loads (?0.3 CFU/ml blood), but utilized only half the volume of specimens. CONCLUSIONS:The blood culture PCR method for detection of Salmonella Paratyphi A can be completed within 9 hours and offers the potential for same-day diagnosis of enteric fever. Using 5 ml blood, it exhibited a lower limit of detection equal to 0.3 CFU/ml blood, and it performed at least as well as automated blood culture at higher bacterial loads (?0.3 CFU/ml blood) of clinical specimens despite using half the volume of blood. The findings warrant its further study in endemic populations with a potential use as a novel diagnostic which fills the present gap of paratyphoid diagnostics.
Project description:In 2013, an unusual increase in the number of Salmonella enterica serotype Paratyphi A (Salmonella Paratyphi A) infections was reported in patients in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and in European, American and Japanese travellers returning from Cambodia. Epidemiological investigations did not identify a common source of exposure. To analyse the population structure and genetic diversity of these Salmonella Paratyphi A isolates, we used whole-genome sequencing on 65 isolates collected from 1999 to 2014: 55 from infections acquired in Cambodia and 10 from infections acquired in other countries in Asia, Africa and Europe. Short-read sequences from 80 published genomes from around the world and from 13 published genomes associated with an outbreak in China were also included. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed on a subset of isolates. Genomic analyses were found to provide much more accurate information for tracking the individual strains than PFGE. All but 2 of the 36 isolates acquired in Cambodia during 2013-2014 belonged to the same clade, C5, of lineage C. This clade has been isolated in Cambodia since at least 1999. The Chinese outbreak isolates belonged to a different clade (C4) and were resistant to nalidixic acid, whereas the Cambodian outbreak isolates displayed pan-susceptibility to antibiotics. Since 2014, the total number of cases has decreased, but there has been an increase in the frequency with which nalidixic acid-resistant C5 isolates are isolated. The frequency of these isolates should be monitored over time, because they display decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, the first-choice antibiotic for treating paratyphoid fever.
Project description:Coagulase-negative staphylococcal isolates (n = 188) were screened for susceptibility to oxacillin, ciprofloxacin, and trovafloxacin, a new fluoroquinolone. At an oxacillin concentration of >/=4 microg/ml, 43% were methicillin resistant; of these, 70% were ciprofloxacin resistant (MIC, >/=4 microg/ml). Of the methicillin-resistant, ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates, 46% were susceptible to </=2 microg of trovafloxacin per ml and 32% were susceptible to </=1 microg of trovafloxacin per ml. Sixteen isolates, including twelve that expressed fluoroquinolone resistance, were chosen for detailed analysis. Identification of species by rRNA sequencing revealed a preponderance of Staphylococcus haemolyticus and S. hominis among fluoroquinolone-resistant strains. Segments of genes (gyrA and grlA) encoding DNA gyrase and DNA topoisomerase IV were sequenced. Considerable interspecies variation was noted, mainly involving noncoding nucleotide changes. Intraspecies variation consisted of coding changes associated with fluoroquinolone resistance. As for S. aureus, ciprofloxacin resistance (MIC, >/=8 microg/ml) and increased trovafloxacin MICs (0.25 to 2 microg/ml) could be conferred by the combined presence of single mutations in each gyrA and grlA gene. Trovafloxacin MICs of >/=8 microg/ml also occurred, but these required an additional mutation in grlA.
Project description:The in vitro activities of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, and moxifloxacin against a large collection of clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 4,650) obtained over a 5-year period, 1994-1995 through 1999-2000, were assessed as part of a longitudinal multicenter U.S. surveillance study of antimicrobial resistance. Three sampling periods were used during this investigation, the winter seasons of 1994-1995, 1997-1998, and 1999-2000; and 1,523, 1,596 and 1,531 isolates were collected during these three periods, respectively. The overall rank order of activity of the four fluoroquinolones examined in this study was moxifloxacin > gatifloxacin > levofloxacin = ciprofloxacin, in which moxifloxacin (MIC at which 90% of isolates are inhibited [MIC(90)], 0.25 microg/ml; modal MIC, 0.12 microg/ml) was twofold more active than gatifloxacin (MIC(90), 0.5 microg/ml; modal MIC, 0.25 microg/ml), which in turn was fourfold more active than either levofloxacin (MIC(90), 1 microg/ml; modal MIC, 1 microg/ml) or ciprofloxacin (MIC(90), 2 microg/ml; modal MIC, 1 microg/ml). Changes in the in vitro activities of fluoroquinolones against S. pneumoniae strains in the United States over the 5-year period of the survey were assessed by comparing the MIC frequency distributions of the study drugs against the isolates obtained during the three sampling periods encompassing this investigation. These comparisons revealed no evidence of changes in the in vitro activities of the fluoroquinolones. In addition, the percentages of isolates in the three sampling periods for which MICs were above the resistance breakpoints were compared. Low percentages of resistant strains were detected, and there was no evidence of resistance rate changes over time. For example, by use of a ciprofloxacin MIC of > or = 4 microg/ml to define resistance, the proportions of isolates from the three sampling periods for which MICs were at or above this breakpoint were 1.2, 1.6, and 1.4%, respectively. A total of 164 unique isolates (n = 58 from 1994-1995, 65 from 1997-1998, and 42 from 1999-2000) were examined for evidence of mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of the parC and the gyrA genes. Forty-nine isolates harbored at least one mutation in the QRDRs of one or both genes (1994-1995, n = 15; 1997-1998, n = 19; 1999-2000, n = 15). Among the 4,650 isolates of S. pneumoniae examined in the study, we estimated that 0.3% had mutations in both the parC and gyrA loci. The majority of mutations (67.3% of the mutations in 49 isolates with mutations) were amino acid substitutions in the parC locus only. Four isolates had a mutation in the gyrA locus only, and 12 isolates had mutations in both genes (8.2 and 24.5% of isolates with mutations, respectively). There was no significant difference in the number of isolates with parC and/or gyrA mutations detected during each study period. Finally, because of the magnitude of the study, we had reasonably large numbers of pneumococcal isolates with genotypically defined mechanisms of fluoroquinolone resistance and were thus able to determine the effects of specific resistance mutations on the activities of different fluoroquinolones. In general, isolates with mutations in parC only were resistant to ciprofloxacin but remained susceptible to levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, and moxifloxacin, whereas isolates with mutations in gyrA only and isolates with mutations in both parC and gyrA were resistant to all four fluoroquinolones tested.
Project description:The in vitro activity of BMS-284756 against 602 Staphylococcus aureus isolates, including 152 that were both methicillin and ciprofloxacin resistant (MIC > or = 4 microg/ml), was determined. For ciprofloxacin-susceptible and nonsusceptible isolates, the MICs at which 50% of organisms were inhibited were 0.015 and 2 microg/ml and the MICs at which 90% of organisms were inhibited were 0.03 and 4 microg/ml, respectively.