A conserved arginine near the filter of Kir1.1 controls Rb/K selectivity.
ABSTRACT: ROMK (Kir1.1) channels are important for K secretion and recycling in the collecting duct, connecting tubule and thick ascending limb of the mammalian nephron. We have identified a highly conserved Arg in the P loop of the channel near the selectivity filter that controls Rb/K selectivity. Mutation of this Arg to a Tyr (R128Y-Kir1.1b, R147Y-Kir1.1a) increased the macroscopic conductance ratio, G(Rb)/G(K) by 17 ± 3 fold and altered the selectivity sequence from NH(4) > K > Tl > Rb >> Cs in wt-Kir1.1 to: Rb > Cs > Tl > NH(4) >> K in R128Y, without significant change in the high K/Na permeability ratio of Kir1.1. R128M produced similar, but smaller, increases in Rb, Tl, NH(4) and Cs conductance relative to K. R128Y remained susceptible to block by both external Ba and the honeybee toxin, TPNQ, although R128Y had a reduced affinity for TPNQ, relative to wild-type. The effect of R128Y-Kir1.1b on the G(Rb)/G(K) ratio can be partly explained by a larger single-channel Rb conductance (12.4 ± 0.5 pS) than K conductance (<1.5 pS) in this mutant. The kinetics of R128Y gating at -120 mV with Rb as the permeant ion were similar to those of wt-Kir1.1 conducting Rb, but with a longer open time (129 ms vs. 6 ms for wt) and two closed states (13 ms, 905 ms), resulting in an open probability (Po) of 0.5, compared to a Po of 0.9 for wt-Kir1.1, which had a single closed state of 1 ms at -120 mV. Single-channel R128Y rectification was eliminated in excised, insideout patches with symmetrical Rb solutions. The large increase in the Rb/K conductance ratio, with no change in K/Na permeability or rectification, is consistent with R128Y-Kir1.1b causing a subtle change in the selectivity filter, perhaps by disruption of an intra-subunit salt bridge (R128-E118) near the filter.
Project description:The structural domains contributing to ion permeation and selectivity in K channels were examined in inward-rectifier K(+) channels ROMK2 (Kir1.1b), IRK1 (Kir2.1), and their chimeras using heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes. Patch-clamp recordings of single channels were obtained in the cell-attached mode with different permeant cations in the pipette. For inward K(+) conduction, replacing the extracellular loop of ROMK2 with that of IRK1 increased single-channel conductance by 25 pS (from 39 to 63 pS), whereas replacing the COOH terminus of ROMK2 with that of IRK1 decreased conductance by 16 pS (from 39 to 22 pS). These effects were additive and independent of the origin of the NH(2) terminus or transmembrane domains, suggesting that the two domains form two resistors in series. The larger conductance of the extracellular loop of IRK1 was attributable to a single amino acid difference (Thr versus Val) at the 3P position, three residues in front of the GYG motif. Permeability sequences for the conducted ions were similar for the two channels: Tl(+) > K(+) > Rb(+) > NH(4)(+). The ion selectivity sequence for ROMK2 based on conductance ratios was NH(4)(+) (1.6) > K(+) (1) > Tl(+) (0.5) > Rb(+) (0.4). For IRK1, the sequence was K(+) (1) > Tl(+) (0.8) > NH(4)(+) (0.6) >> Rb(+) (0.1). The difference in the NH(4)(+)/ K(+) conductance (1.6) and permeability (0.09) ratios can be explained if NH(4)(+) binds with lower affinity than K(+) to sites within the pore. The relatively low conductances of NH(4)(+) and Rb(+) through IRK1 were again attributable to the 3P position within the P region. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that the IRK1 selectivity pattern required either Thr or Ser at this position. In contrast, the COOH-terminal domain conferred the relatively high Tl(+) conductance in IRK1. We propose that the P-region and the COOH terminus contribute independently to the conductance and selectivity properties of the pore.
Project description:Ion conduction and selectivity properties of KcsA, a bacterial ion channel of known structure, were studied in a planar lipid bilayer system at the single-channel level. Selectivity sequences for permeant ions were determined by symmetrical solution conductance (K(+) > Rb(+), NH(4)(+), Tl(+) >> Cs(+), Na(+), Li(+)) and by reversal potentials under bi-ionic or mixed-ion conditions (Tl(+) > K(+) > Rb(+) > NH(4)(+) >> Na(+), Li(+)). Determination of reversal potentials with submillivolt accuracy shows that K(+) is over 150-fold more permeant than Na(+). Variation of conductance with concentration under symmetrical salt conditions is complex, with at least two ion-binding processes revealing themselves: a high affinity process below 20 mM and a low affinity process over the range 100-1,000 mM. These properties are analogous to those seen in many eukaryotic K(+) channels, and they establish KcsA as a faithful structural model for ion permeation in eukaryotic K(+) channels.
Project description:ROMK (Kir1.1) potassium channels are closed by internal acidification with a pKa of 6.7 +/- 0.01 in 100 mM external K and a pKa of 7.0 +/- 0.01 in 1 mM external K. Internal acidification in 1 mM K (but not 100 mM K) not only closed the pH gate but also inactivated Kir1.1, such that realkalization did not restore channel activity until high K was returned to the bath. We identified a new putative intersubunit salt bridge (R128-E132-Kir1.1b) in the P-loop of the channel near the selectivity filter that affected the K sensitivity of the inactivation process. Mutation of either R128-Kir1.1b or E132-Kir1.1b caused inactivation in both 1 mM and 100 mM external K during oocyte acidification. However, 300 mM external K (but not 200 mM Na + 100 mM K) protected both E132Q and R128Y from inactivation. External application of a modified honey-bee toxin, tertiapin Q (TPNQ), also protected Kir1.1 from inactivation in 1 mM K and protected E132Q and R128Y from inactivation in 100 mM K, which suggests that TPNQ binding to the outer mouth of the channel stabilizes the active state. Pretreatment of Kir1.1 with external Ba prevented Kir1.1 inactivation, similar to pretreatment with TPNQ. In addition, mutations that disrupted transmembrane helix H-bonding (K61M-Kir1.1b) or stabilized a selectivity filter to helix-pore linkage (V121T-Kir1.1b) also protected both E132Q and R128Y from inactivation in 1 mM K and 100 mM K. Our results are consistent with Kir inactivation arising from conformational changes near the selectivity filter, analogous to C-type inactivation.
Project description:Kir1.1 inactivation, associated with transient internal acidification, is strongly dependent on external K, Ca, and Mg. Here, we show that in 1 mM K, a 15 min internal acidification (pH 6.3) followed by a 30 min recovery (pH 8.0) produced 84 ± 3% inactivation in 2 mM Ca but only 18 ± 4% inactivation in the absence of external Ca and Mg. In 100 mM external K, the same acidification protocol produced 29 ± 4% inactivation in 10 mM external Ca but no inactivation when extracellular Ca was reduced below 2 mM (with 0 Mg). However, chelation of external K with 15 mM of 18-Crown-6 (a crown ether) restored inactivation even in the absence of external divalents. External Ca was more effective than external Mg at producing inactivation, but Mg caused a greater degree of open channel block than Ca, making it unlikely that Kir1.1 inactivation arises from divalent block per se. Because the Ca sensitivity of inactivation persisted in 100 mM external K, it is also unlikely that Ca enhanced Kir1.1 inactivation by reducing the local K concentration at the outer mouth of the channel. The removal of four surface, negative side chains at E92, D97, E104, and E132 (Kir1.1b) increased the sensitivity of inactivation to external Ca (and Mg), whereas addition of a negative surface charge (N105E-Kir1.1b) decreased the sensitivity of inactivation to Ca and Mg. This result is consistent with the notion that negative surface charges stabilize external K in the selectivity filter or at the S(0)-K binding site just outside the filter. Extracellular Ca and Mg probably potentiate the slow, K-dependent inactivation of Kir1.1 by decreasing the affinity of the channel for external K independently of divalent block. The removal of external Ca and Mg largely eliminated both Kir1.1 inactivation and the K-dependence of pH gating, thereby uncoupling the selectivity filter gate from the cytoplasmic-side bundle-crossing gate.
Project description:The closed-state crystal structure of prokaryotic inward rectifier, KirBac1.1, has implicated four inner helical phenylalanines near the cytoplasmic side as a possible locus of the channel gate. In the present study, we investigate whether this structural feature corresponds to the physiological pH gate of the renal inward rectifier, Kir1.1 (ROMK, KCNJ1). Kir1.1 is endogenous to the mammalian renal collecting duct and the thick ascending limb of Henle and is strongly gated by internal pH in the physiological range. It has four leucines (L160-Kir1.1b), homologous to the phenylalanines of KirBac1.1, which could function as steric gates near the convergence of the inner (M2) helices. Replacing these Leu-160 residues of Kir1.1b by smaller glycines abolished pH gating; however, replacement with alanines, whose side chains are intermediate in size between leucine and glycine, did not eliminate normal pH gating. Furthermore, a double mutant, constructed by adding the I163M-Kir1.1b mutation to the L160G mutation, also lacked normal pH gating, although the I163M mutation by itself enhanced the pH sensitivity of the channel. In addition to size, side-chain hydrophobicity at 160-Kir1.1b was also important for normal pH gating. Mutants with polar side chains (L160S, L160T) did not gate normally and were as insensitive to internal pH as the L160G mutant. Hence, either small or highly polar side chains at 160-Kir1.1b stabilize the open state of the channel. A homology model of the Kir1.1 closed state, based on the crystal structure of KirBac1.1, was consistent with our electrophysiological data and implies that closure of the Kir1.1 pH gate results from steric occlusion of the permeation path by the convergence of four leucines at the cytoplasmic apex of the inner transmembrane helices. In the open state, K crosses the pH gate together with its hydration shell.
Project description:Gating of inward rectifier Kir1.1 potassium channels by internal pH is believed to occur when large hydrophobic leucines, on each of the four subunits, obstruct the permeation path at the cytoplasmic end of the inner transmembrane helices (TM2). In this study, we examined whether closure of the channel at this point involves bending of the inner helix at one or both of two highly conserved glycine residues (corresponding to G134 and G143 in KirBac1.1) that have been proposed as putative "gating hinges" for potassium channels. Replacement of these conserved inner helical glycines by less flexible alanines did not abolish gating but shifted the apparent pKa from 6.6 +/- 0.01 (wild-type) to 7.1 +/- 0.01 for G157A-Kir1.1b, and to 7.3 +/- 0.01 for G148A-Kir1.1b. When both glycines were mutated the effect was additive, shifting the pKa by 1.2 pH units to 7.8 +/- 0.04 for the double mutant: G157A+G148A. At this pKa, the double mutant would remain completely closed under physiological conditions. In contrast, when the glycine at G148 was replaced by a proline, the pKa was shifted in the opposite direction from 6.6 +/- 0.01 (wild-type) to 5.7 +/- 0.01 for G148P. Although conserved glycines at G148 and G157 made it significantly easier to open the channel, they were not an absolute requirement for pH gating in Kir1.1. In addition, none of the glycine mutants produced more than small changes in either the cell-attached or excised single-channel kinetics which, in this channel, argues against changes in the selectivity filter. The putative pH sensor at K61-Kir1.1b, (equivalent to K80-Kir1.1a) was also examined. Mutation of this lysine to an untitratable methionine did not abolish pH gating, but shifted the pKa into an acid range from 6.6 +/- 0.01 to 5.4 +/- 0.04, similar to pH gating in Kir2.1. Hence K61-Kir1.1b cannot function as the exclusive pH sensor for the channel, although it may act as one of multiple pH sensors, or as a link between a cytoplasmic sensor and the channel gate. K61-Kir1.1b also interacted differently with the two glycine mutations. Gating of the double mutant: K61M+G148A was indistinguishable from K61M alone, whereas gating of K61M+G157A was midway between the alkaline pKa of G157A and the acid pKa of K61M. Finally, closure of ROMK, G148A, G157A, and K61M all required the same L160-Kir1.1b residue at the cytoplasmic end of the inner transmembrane helix. Hence in wild-type and mutant channels, closure occurs by steric occlusion of the permeation path by four leucine side chains (L160-Kir1.1b) at the helix bundle crossing. This is facilitated by the conserved glycines on TM2, but pH gating in Kir1.1 does not absolutely require glycine hinges in this region.
Project description:The quaternary <i>A</i> <sub>2</sub>W<sub>3</sub>SeO<sub>12</sub> (<i>A</i> = NH<sub>4</sub>, Cs, Rb, K or Tl) selenites have been prepared in the form of single crystals by hydro-thermal and novel solid-state reactions. They were characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermal and spectroscopic studies. All of them have a hexa-gonal tungsten oxide (HTO) related [W<sub>3</sub>SeO<sub>12</sub>]<sup>2-</sup> anionic framework with pyramidally coordinated Se<sup>4+</sup> ions. The known <i>A</i> <sub>2</sub>W<sub>3</sub>SeO<sub>12</sub> (<i>A</i> = NH<sub>4</sub>, Cs or Rb) compounds are isostructural with the Cs<sub>2</sub>W<sub>3</sub>TeO<sub>12</sub> compound and have a non-centrosymmetric layered structure containing intra-layer Se-O bonds. The new compound K<sub>2</sub>W<sub>3</sub>SeO<sub>12</sub>(α) is isostructural with the K<sub>2</sub>W<sub>3</sub>TeO<sub>12</sub> compound and has a centrosymmetric three-dimensional structure containing inter-layer Se-O bonds. It is inferred that the new Tl<sub>2</sub>W<sub>3</sub>SeO<sub>12</sub> compound has the same three-dimensional structure as K<sub>2</sub>W<sub>3</sub>SeO<sub>12</sub>(α).
Project description:The inwardly rectifying potassium channel (Kir), Kir4.1 mediates spatial K(+)-buffering in the CNS. In this process the channel is potentially exposed to a large range of extracellular K(+) concentrations ([K(+)]o). We found that Kir4.1 is regulated by K(+)o. Increased [K(+)]o leads to a slow (mins) increase in the whole-cell currents of Xenopus oocytes expressing Kir4.1. Conversely, removing K(+) from the bath solution results in a slow decrease of the currents. This regulation is not coupled to the pHi-sensitive gate of the channel, nor does it require the presence of K67, a residue necessary for K(+)o-dependent regulation of Kir1.1. The voltage-dependent blockers Cs(+) and Ba(2+) substitute for K(+) and prevent deactivation of the channel in the absence of K(+)o. Cs(+) blocks and regulates the channel with similar affinity, consistent with the regulatory sites being in the selectivity-filter of the channel. Although both Rb(+) and NH4(+) permeate Kir4.1, only Rb(+) is able to regulate the channel. We conclude that Kir4.1 is regulated by ions interacting with specific sites in the selectivity filter. Using a kinetic model of the permeation process we show the plausibility of the channel's sensing the extracellular ionic environment through changes in the selectivity occupancy pattern, and that it is feasible for an ion with the selectivity properties of NH4(+) to permeate the channel without inducing these changes.
Project description:Three residues (E132, F127, and R128) at the outer mouth of Kir1.1b directly affected inward rectifier gating by external K, independent of pH gating. Each of the individual mutations E132Q, F127V, F127D, and R128Y changed the normal K dependence of macroscopic conductance from hyperbolic (Km = 6 ± 2 mM) to linear, up to 500 mM, without changing the hyperbolic K dependence of single-channel conductance. This suggests that E132, F127, and R128 are responsible for maximal Kir1.1b activation by external K. In addition, these same residues were also essential for recovery of Kir1.1b activity after complete removal of external K by 18-Crown-6 polyether. In contrast, charge-altering mutations at neighboring residues (E92A, E104A, D97V, or Q133E) near the outer mouth of the channel did not affect Kir1.1b recovery after chelation of external K. The collective role of E132, R128, and F127 in preventing Kir1.1b inactivation by either cytoplasmic acidification or external K removal implies that pH inactivation and the external K sensor share a common mechanism, whereby E132, R128, and F127 stabilize the Kir1.1b selectivity filter gate in an open conformation, allowing rapid recovery of channel activity after a period of external K depletion.
Project description:The ability of acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) to discriminate among cations was assessed based on changes in conductance and reversal potential with ion substitution. Human ASIC1a was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, and acid-induced currents were measured using two-electrode voltage clamp. Replacement of extracellular Na(+) with Li(+), K(+), Rb(+), or Cs(+) altered inward conductance and shifted the reversal potentials consistent with a selectivity sequence of Li ? Na > K > Rb > Cs. Permeability decreased more rapidly than conductance as a function of atomic size, with P(K)/P(Na) = 0.1 and G(K)/G(Na) = 0.7 and P(Rb)/P(Na) = 0.03 and G(Rb)/G(Na) = 0.3. Stimulation of Cl(-) currents when Na(+) was replaced with Ca(2+), Sr(2+), or Ba(2+) indicated a finite permeability to divalent cations. Inward conductance increased with extracellular Na(+) in a hyperbolic manner, consistent with an apparent affinity (K(m)) for Na(+) conduction of 25 mM. Nitrogen-containing cations, including NH4(+), NH3OH(+), and guanidinium, were also permeant. In addition to passing through the channels, guanidinium blocked Na(+) currents, implying competition for a site within the pore. The role of negative charges in an external vestibule of the pore was evaluated using the point mutation D434N. The mutant channel had a decreased single-channel conductance, measured in excised outside-out patches, and a macroscopic slope conductance that increased with hyperpolarization. It had a weakened interaction with Na(+) (K(m) = 72 mM) and a selectivity that was shifted toward larger atomic sizes. We conclude that the selectivity of ASIC1 is based at least in part on interactions with binding sites both within and internal to the outer vestibule.