MicroRNA-21 is a key determinant in IL-11/Stat3 anti-apoptotic signalling pathway in preconditioning of skeletal myoblasts.
ABSTRACT: We have previously shown that preconditioning of stem and progenitor cells promotes their survival post-engraftment in the infarcted heart. The present study was designed to (i) delineate the role of microRNA-21 (miR-21) in interleukin-11 (IL-11) signalling during preconditioning of skeletal myoblasts (MY) and (ii) study the long-term fate of preconditioned MY ((PC)MY) post-transplantation in the infarcted heart.We report that pharmacological preconditioning of MY with diazoxide showed robust expression of IL-11 and activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2) and signal transducers and activators of transcription-3 (Stat3) with concomitantly increased miR-21. These molecular events improved cytoprotection of (PC)MY under oxidant stress in vitro which was compromised by pre-treatment of (PC)MY with IL-11-specific siRNA, Erk1/2 blocker, or anti-miR-21. In vivo studies for sry-gene detection in a female rat heart model of acute myocardial infarction showed two-fold higher survival of male donor (PC)MY 4 and 7 days post-engraftment. Long-term fate of the engrafted cells was determined at 4 months after transplantation. Immunohistological studies revealed that in comparison with (non-PC)MY, (PC)MY improved angiogenic response in the heart which was evident from a higher number of blood vessels per surface area (0.155 mm(2)) and myogenic differentiation of (PC)MY in the heart. Indices of myocardial contractility including ejection fraction and fractional shortening showed significant improvement in (PC)MY-treated animals.miR-21 is a key regulator of Erk1/2-Stat3 signalling downstream of IL-11 during preconditioning of MY. The therapeutic benefits of (PC)MY were stable and persisted until 4 months of observation.
Project description:This study seeks to test our hypothesis that transgenic induction of miR-210 in mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) simulates the pro-survival effects of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) and that engraftment of (PC)MSC helps in the functional recovery of ischemic heart by miR-210 transfer to host cardiomyocytes through gap junctions. miR-210 expression in MSC was achieved by IPC or nanoparticle-based transfection of miR-210 plasmid ((miR)MSC) and functional recovery of the infarcted heart of rat transplanted with (PC)MSC or (miR)MSC was evaluated. Both (PC)MSC and (miR)MSC showed higher survival under lethal anoxia as compared to (non-PC)MSC and scramble-transfected MSC ((Sc)MSC) controls with concomitantly lower CASP8AP2 expression. Similarly, both (PC)MSC and (miR)MSC survived better and accelerated functional recovery of ischemic heart post-transplantation. To validate our hypothesis that MSC deliver miR-210 to host cardiomyocytes, in vitro co-culture between cardiomyocytes and (PC)MSC or (miR)MSC (using (non-PC)MSC or (Sc)MSC as controls) showed co-localization of miR-210 with gap-junctional connexin-43. miR-210 transfer to cardiomyocytes was blocked by heptanol pretreatment. Moreover, higher survival of cardiomyocytes co-cultured with (PC)MSC was observed with concomitant expression of CASP8AP2 as compared to cardiomyocytes co-cultured with (non-PC)MSC thus suggesting that miR-210 was translocated from MSC to protect host cardiomyocytes. Induction of miR-210 in MSC promoted their survival post-engraftment in the infarcted heart. Moreover, direct transfer of pro-survival miR-210 from (miR)MSC to host cardiomyocytes led to functional recovery of the ischemic heart.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRs) participate in most cellular functions by posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression albeit with little information regarding their role in ischemic preconditioning (IP) of stem cells. We report that IP of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with two cycles of 30-min ischemia/reoxygenation (I/R) supported their survival under subsequent longer exposure to anoxia and following engraftment in the infarcted heart. IP significantly reduced apoptosis in MSCs through activation of Akt (Ser(473)) and ERK1/2 (Thr(202)/Tyr(204)) and nuclear translocation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha). We observed concomitant induction of miR-210 in the preconditioned MSCs ((PC)MSCs). Inhibition of HIF-1alpha or of miR-210 abrogated the cytoprotective effects of preconditioning. Extrapolation of these data to in vivo studies in a rat model of acute myocardial infarction predominantly improved stem cell survival after engraftment with a role for miR-210. Notably, multiple I/R cycles more effectively regulated the miR-210 and hence promoted MSC survival compared with single-cycle hypoxia of an equal duration. Real time PCR array for rat apoptotic genes, computational target gene analyses, and luciferase reporter assay identified FLICE-associated huge protein (FLASH)/caspase-8-associated protein-2 (Casp8ap2) in (PC)MSCs as the target gene of miR-210. Induction of FLASH/CASP8AP2 in miR-210 knocked-down (PC)MSCs resulted in increased cell apoptosis. Taken together, these data demonstrated that cytoprotection afforded by IP was regulated by miR-210 induction via FLASH/Casp8ap2 suppression. These results highlighted that IP by multiple short episodes of I/R is a novel strategy to promote stem cell survival.
Project description:The aim was to evaluate the tadalafil-mediated effects at molecular level on bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) survival and their homing into the infarcted hearts to promote cardiac repair and improve function. MSCs were pretreated in vitro with inhibitors of PKG, MAPK, FasL, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) (L-NAME), CXCR4 (AMD3100), or miR-21 inhibitors (+/-luciferase construction +/-Fas) prior to tadalafil treatment for 2 h. These MSCs were then subjected to H2O2 stress to assess their injury. Rats were subjected to acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and then followed by injection of saline or 1.5 x 106 MSCs-treated ± tadalafil into infarcted and peri-infarcted area. In another group, AMI was performed in 1-month post-myelo-ablated rats and were injected intraperitoneally (IP) with tadalafil ± AMD3100 or L-NAME for 5 days. Also, in another group, AMI mice were treated with IP ± tadalafil before intravenous injection with 111In-oxine-MSCs followed by CT/SPECT imaging to locate mobilized MSCs. Cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography. MSCs and heart extracts were analyzed by molecular bioassays. Tadalafil-treated MSCs had higher expression of cGMP, NOS, SDF-1?, p-VASP, p-Erk1/2, p-STAT3, p-Akt, PKG1 and Bcl-xl; expression of these molecules was reduced with PKG1, MAPK, NOS or FasL inhibitors. Tadalafil inhibited apoptosis through increased miR-21 expression and improved cell survival by inhibiting Fas (restored by PKG1, MAPK or miR-21 inhibitors). In vivo, heart function, grafted cell survival, MSCs mobilization and homing were improved in tadalafil-treated AMI animals versus controls.Tadalafil prolonged MSCs survival via up-regulation of miR-21 dependent suppression of Fas, and increased MSCs mobilization and their homing into infarcted myocardium resulting in improved cardiac repair and function.
Project description:Intracoronary delivery of c-kit-positive human cardiac stem cells (hCSCs) is a promising approach to repair the infarcted heart, but it is severely limited by the poor survival of donor cells. Cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP), a well known heme oxygenase 1 inducer, has been used to promote endogenous CO generation and protect against ischemia/reperfusion injury. Therefore, we determined whether preconditioning hCSCs with CoPP promotes CSC survival. c-kit-positive, lineage-negative hCSCs were isolated from human heart biopsies. Lactate dehydrogenase release assays demonstrated that preconditioning CSCs with CoPP markedly enhanced cell survival after oxidative stress induced by H(2)O(2), concomitant with up-regulation of heme oxygenase 1, COX-2, and anti-apoptotic proteins (BCL2, BCL2-A1, and MCL-1) and increased phosphorylation of NRF2. Apoptotic cytometric assays showed that pretreatment of CSCs with CoPP enhanced the cells' resistance to apoptosis induced by oxidative stress. Conversely, knocking down HO-1, COX-2, or NRF2 by shRNA gene silencing abrogated the cytoprotective effects of CoPP. Further, preconditioning CSCs with CoPP led to a global increase in release of cytokines, such as EGF, FGFs, colony-stimulating factors, and chemokine ligand. Conditioned medium from cells pretreated with CoPP conferred naive CSCs remarkable resistance to apoptosis, demonstrating that cytokines released by preconditioned cells play a key role in the anti-apoptotic effects of CoPP. Preconditioning CSCs with CoPP also induced an increase in the phosphorylation of Erk1/2, which are known to modulate multiple pro-survival genes. These results potentially provide a simple and effective strategy to enhance survival of CSCs after transplantation and, therefore, their efficacy in repairing infarcted myocardium.
Project description:We proposed that pharmacological manipulation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with diazoxide enhanced their survival and regenerative potential via NFkappaB regulation. MSCs preconditioned ((PC)MSCs) with diazoxide and later subjected to oxidant stress with 100 micromol/L H(2)O(2) either immediately or after 24 h exhibited higher survival (p < 0.01 vs nonpreconditioned MSCs; (Non-PC)MSCs) with concomitantly increased phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, GSK3beta (cytoplasmic), and NF-kappaB (p65) (nuclear). Akt kinase activity was determined as a function of GSK3beta activity. Pretreatment of (PC)MSCs with Wortmannin (Wt), NEMO-binding domain (NBD), or NF-kappaB (p50) siRNA abolished NF-kappaB (p65) activity. Preconditioning increased NF-kappaB-dependent elevation of secretable growth factors associated with their paracrine effects. Inhibition of PI3K activity with Wt reduced (PC)MSCs viability at both early and 24 h time-points. However, inhibition of NF-kappaB reduced viability of (PC)MSCs only at 24 h time-point. For in vivo studies, DMEM without cells (group-1) or containing 1 x 10(6) male (Non-PC)MSCs (group-2), (PC)MSCs (group-3), (PC)MSCs pretreated with Wortmannin (group-4) or NF-kappaB decoy (group-5) were transplanted in a female rat model of acute myocardial infarction. Group-3 showed highest cell survival and growth factor expression, increased angiomyogenesis, and functional improvement. We conclude that activation of NF-kappaB by preconditioning promoted (PC)MSCs survival and angiomyogenic potential in the infarcted heart.
Project description:Ly6Clow macrophages promote scar formation and prevent early infarct expansion after myocardial infarction (MI). Although CD4+ T cells influence the regulation of Ly6Clow macrophages after MI, the mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we focused on IL-21 and uncovered its physiological relevance in post-MI hearts. CD4+ T cells harvested from the infarcted heart produce IL-21 upon stimulation, and IL-21 receptor was expressed on Ly6Clo macrophages in the infarcted heart. The survival rate after MI was significantly improved in IL-21-deficient mice compared with WT mice. Moreover, transcriptome analysis of infarcted heart tissue demonstrated that inflammation was persistent in WT mice compared with IL-21-deficient mice. The number of neutrophils was significantly decreased, whereas the number of Ly6Clow macrophages was significantly increased in IL-21-deficient mice. Consistently, IL-21 enhanced the apoptosis of Ly6Clow macrophages. Furthermore, RNA-seq analysis of Ly6Chi and Ly6Clo macrophages stimulated with or without IL-21 for 24 hours revealed that IL-21 induces inflammatory responses in both Ly6Chi and Ly6Clo macrophages. Finally, the treatment with IL-21 receptor Fc protein significantly increased the survival after MI. Thus, the deletion of IL-21 improves survival after MI by preventing Ly6Clo macrophage apoptosis. Overall design: We collected Ly6Chi macrophages and Ly6Clo macrophages from the infarcted hearts of WT mice and il21 receptor deficient mice (il21r-/-) at 3 days after MI. mRNA profiles from cultured macrophages stimulated with or without IL-21 for 24 hours.
Project description:Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) isolated from postnatal heart tissue are a convenient and efficientresource for the treatment of myocardial infarction. However, poor retention of CDCs in infarcted hearts often causes less than ideal therapeutic outcomes. Cell sheet technology has been developed as a means of permitting longer retention of graft cells, and this therapeutic strategy has opened new avenues of cell-based therapy for severe ischemic diseases. However, there is still scope for improvement before this treatment can be routinely applied in clinical settings. In this study, we investigated whether hypoxic preconditioning enhances the therapeutic efficacy of CDC monolayer sheets. To induce hypoxia priming, CDC monolayer sheets were placed in an incubator adjusted to 2% oxygen for 24 hours, and then preconditioned mouse CDC sheets were implanted into the infarcted heart of old myocardial infarction mouse models. Hypoxic preconditioning of CDC sheets remarkably increased the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor through the PI3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway. Implantation of preconditioned CDC sheets improved left ventricular function inchronically infarcted hearts and reduced fibrosis. The therapeutic efficacy of preconditioned CDC sheets was higher than the CDC sheets that were cultured under normaxia condition. These results suggest that hypoxic preconditioning augments the therapeutic angiogenic and anti-fibrotic activity of CDC sheets. A combination of cell sheets and hypoxic preconditioning offers an attractive therapeutic protocol for CDC transplantation into chronically infarcted hearts.
Project description:The success of cell therapy for the treatment of myocardial infarction depends on finding novel approaches that can substantially implement the engraftment of the transplanted cells. In order to enhance cell engraftment, most studies have focused on the pretreatment of transplantable cells. Here we have considered an alternative approach that involves the preconditioning of infarcted heart tissue to reduce endogenous cell activity and thus provide an advantage to our exogenous cells. This treatment is routinely used in other tissues such as bone marrow and skeletal muscle to improve cell engraftment, but it has never been taken in cardiac tissue. To avoid long-term cardiotoxicity induced by full heart irradiation we developed a rat model of a catheter-based heart irradiation system to locally impact a delimited region of the infarcted cardiac tissue. As proof of concept, we transferred ZsGreen<sup>+</sup> iPSCs in the infarcted heart, due to their ease of use and detection. We found a very significant increase in cell engraftment in preirradiated rats. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that preconditioning the infarcted cardiac tissue with local irradiation can substantially enhance cell engraftment.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To understand the molecular pathways underlying the cardiac preconditioning effect of short-term caloric restriction (CR).<h4>Background</h4>Lifelong CR has been suggested to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease through a variety of mechanisms. However, prolonged adherence to a CR life-style is difficult. Here we reveal the pathways that are modulated by short-term CR, which are associated with protection of the mouse heart from ischemia.<h4>Methods</h4>Male 10-12 wk old C57bl/6 mice were randomly assigned to an ad libitum (AL) diet with free access to regular chow, or CR, receiving 30% less food for 7 days (d), prior to myocardial infarction (MI) via permanent coronary ligation. At d8, the left ventricles (LV) of AL and CR mice were collected for Western blot, mRNA and microRNA (miR) analyses to identify cardioprotective gene expression signatures. In separate groups, infarct size, cardiac hemodynamics and protein abundance of caspase 3 was measured at d2 post-MI.<h4>Results</h4>This short-term model of CR was associated with cardio-protection, as evidenced by decreased infarct size (18.5±2.4% vs. 26.6±1.7%, N=10/group; P=0.01). mRNA and miR profiles pre-MI (N=5/group) identified genes modulated by short-term CR to be associated with circadian clock, oxidative stress, immune function, apoptosis, metabolism, angiogenesis, cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix (ECM). Western blots pre-MI revealed CR-associated increases in phosphorylated Akt and GSK3ß, reduced levels of phosphorylated AMPK and mitochondrial related proteins PGC-1?, cytochrome C and cyclooxygenase (COX) IV, with no differences in the levels of phosphorylated eNOS or MAPK (ERK1/2; p38). CR regimen was also associated with reduced protein abundance of cleaved caspase 3 in the infarcted heart and improved cardiac function.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Due to the lack of research on the pathological mechanism of temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJOA), there are few effective treatment measures in the clinic. In recent years, microRNAs (miRs) have been demonstrated to play an important role in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA) by regulating a variety of target genes, and the latest evidence shows that miR-21-5p is specifically overexpressed in OA. The purpose of this project was to clarify whether miR-21-5p can regulate the TMJOA process by targeting Spry1. METHODS:TMJOA was induced by a unilateral anterior crossbite (UAC) model, and the effect of miR-21-5p knockout on TMJOA was evaluated by toluidine blue (TB), immunohistochemical (IHC) staining, Western blotting (WB) and RT-qPCR. Primary mouse condylar chondrocytes (MCCs) were isolated, cultured and transfected with a series of mimics, inhibitors, siRNA-Spry1 or cDNA Spry1. WB, RT-qPCR, IHC and TB were used to detect the effect of miR-21-5p and its target gene Spry1 on the expression of MMP-13, VEGF and p-ERK1/2 in TMJOA. The effect of miR-21-5p on angiogenesis was evaluated by chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay and WB. RESULTS:In the UAC model, the cartilage thickness and extracellular matrix of miR-21-5p knockout mice were less damaged, and miR-21-5p and UAC model were shown to affect the expression of Spry1, IL-1?, MMP-13, and VEGF. Luciferase experiments confirmed that Spry1 was the direct target of miR-21-5p. The expression levels of Spry1, MMP-13, VEGF and p-ERK1/2 in MCCs transfected with miR-21-5p mimic were higher than those in the inhibitor group. Under the simulated inflammatory environment of IL-1?, the expression levels of MMP-13, VEGF and p-ERK1/2 were positively correlated with miR-21-5p, while Spry1 was negatively correlated with miR-21-5p. Inhibition of miR-21-5p expression and overexpression of Spry1 enhanced the inhibition of MMP-13, VEGF and p-ERK1/2 expression. MiR-21-5p had a significant role in promoting angiogenesis in the chick embryo CAM assay, and this role was clearly mediated by the ERK-MAPK signalling pathway. CONCLUSION:This study verified that miR-21-5p can promote the process of TMJOA by targeting Spry1, which provides a new direction for future research on the treatment of this disease.