Regulation of the Marinomonas mediterranea antimicrobial protein lysine oxidase by L-lysine and the sensor histidine kinase PpoS.
ABSTRACT: Some Gram-negative bacteria express a novel enzyme with lysine-epsilon-oxidase (LOD) activity (EC 18.104.22.168). The oxidation of l-Lys generates, among other products, hydrogen peroxide, which confers antimicrobial properties to this kind of enzyme and has been shown to be involved in cell death during biofilm development and differentiation. In addition to LOD, the melanogenic marine bacterium Marinomonas mediterranea, which forms part of the microbiota of the marine plant Posidonia oceanica, expresses two other oxidases of biotechnological interest, a multicopper oxidase, PpoA, with laccase activity and a tyrosinase named PpoB, which is responsible for melanin synthesis. By using both lacZ fusions with the lodAB promoter and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR), this study shows that the hybrid sensor histidine kinase PpoS regulates LOD activity at the transcriptional level. Although PpoS also regulates PpoA and PpoB, in this case, the regulatory effect cannot be attributed only to a transcriptional regulation. Further studies indicate that LOD activity is induced at the posttranscriptional level by l-Lys as well as by two structurally similar compounds, l-Arg and meso-2,6-diaminopimelic acid (DAP), neither of which is a substrate of the enzyme. The inducing effect of these compounds is specific for LOD activity since PpoA and PpoB are not affected by them. This study offers, for the first time, insights into the mechanisms regulating the synthesis of the antimicrobial protein lysine-epsilon-oxidase in M. mediterranea, which could be important in the microbial colonization of the seagrass P. oceanica.
Project description:Highlights • Avicennia marina plants tolerate exposure to mild oil contamination in soil and they can survive at higher concentrations.• Oil contaminated soil induced stronger transcriptional responses in leaves than in roots of A. marina.• Our suggested biomarker PPOA showed a significant up-regulation in leaves under all tested oil concentrations Mangrove plants, which inhabit and form sensitive ecosystems in the intertidal zones of tropical and subtropical coastlines, though vulnerable to petroleum pollution, still maintain their growth under oil contamination. To elucidate the molecular response of mangrove plants to crude oil–sediment mixture, seeds of Avicennia marina were planted and grown on 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and10 % (w/w) oil-contaminated soil. Plant biomass was highly affected from 3.05 ± 0.28 (Control) to 0.50 ± .07 (10 %) and from 3.47 ± 0.12 to 1.88 ± 0.08 in 2 and 4 months old plants respectively. The expression analysis of 11genes belonging to detoxification pathways in the roots and leaves of 2 and 4 month-old plants was evaluated by qRT-PCR. Our results showed changes in expression levels of Fe-SOD, Mn-SOD, CAT, PRX, PPOs, GSTs, and NAP2 whose products are involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and xenobiotic detoxification. PPOA showed the highest expression induction of 43 ± 1.15, followed by CAT (12.61 ± 3.25) and PPOB (6.38 ± 1.34) in leaves of 2 months old seedlings grown on 7.5, 10 and 7.5 % oil contaminated soil respectively. PPOA (39.23 ± 2.1), PRX (32.13 ± 1.2) as well as PPOB (26.11 ± 1.3) showed the highest expression induction in leaves of 4 months old plants grown in 2.5 % oil contaminated soil. Our data indicated that PPOA can be a good biomarker candidate gene for long term exposure to oil contamination in A. marina.
Project description:Marinomonas mediterranea MMB-1(T) Solano & Sanchez-Amat 1999 belongs to the family Oceanospirillaceae within the phylum Proteobacteria. This species is of interest because it is the only species described in the genus Marinomonas to date that can synthesize melanin pigments, which is mediated by the activity of a tyrosinase. M. mediterranea expresses other oxidases of biotechnological interest, such as a multicopper oxidase with laccase activity and a novel L-lysine-epsilon-oxidase. The 4,684,316 bp long genome harbors 4,228 protein-coding genes and 98 RNA genes and is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
Project description:A novel enzyme with lysine-epsilon oxidase activity was previously described in the marine bacterium Marinomonas mediterranea. This enzyme differs from other l-amino acid oxidases in not being a flavoprotein but containing a quinone cofactor. It is encoded by an operon with two genes lodA and lodB. The first one codes for the oxidase, while the second one encodes a protein required for the expression of the former. Genome sequencing of M. mediterranea has revealed that it contains two additional operons encoding proteins with sequence similarity to LodA. In this study, it is shown that the product of one of such genes, Marme_1655, encodes a protein with glycine oxidase activity. This activity shows important differences in terms of substrate range and sensitivity to inhibitors to other glycine oxidases previously described which are flavoproteins synthesized by Bacillus. The results presented in this study indicate that the products of the genes with different degrees of similarity to lodA detected in bacterial genomes could constitute a reservoir of different oxidases.
Project description:Oxygenated fatty acids, or oxylipins, play an essential role in physiological signaling and developmental processes in animals, plants, and fungi. Previous characterization of three Aspergillus fumigatus dioxygenases (PpoA, PpoB, and PpoC), similar in sequence to mammalian cyclooxygenases, showed that PpoA is responsible for the production of the oxylipins 8R-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid and 5S,8R-dihydroxy-9Z,12Z-octadecadienoic acid and that PpoC is responsible for 10R-hydroxy-8E,12Z-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid. Here, Delta ppo mutants were characterized to elucidate the role of fungal dioxygenases in A. fumigatus development and host interactions. The Delta ppoC strain displayed distinct phenotypes compared to those of other Delta ppo mutants and the wild type, including altered conidium size, germination, and tolerance to oxidative stress as well as increased uptake and killing by primary alveolar macrophages. These experiments implicate oxylipins in pathogen development and suggest that Delta ppoC represents a useful model for studying the A. fumigatus-host interaction.
Project description:Oxylipins comprise a family of oxygenated fatty acid-derived signaling molecules that initiate critical biological activities in animals, plants, and fungi. Mammalian oxylipins, including the prostaglandins (PGs), mediate many immune and inflammation responses in animals. PG production by pathogenic microbes is theorized to play a role in pathogenesis. We have genetically characterized three Aspergillus genes, ppoA, ppoB, and ppoC, encoding fatty acid oxygenases similar in sequence to specific mammalian prostaglandin synthases, the cyclooxygenases. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis showed that production of PG species is decreased in both Aspergillus nidulans and A. fumigatus ppo mutants, implicating Ppo activity in generating PGs. The A. fumigatus triple-ppo-silenced mutant was hypervirulent in the invasive pulmonary aspergillosis murine model system and showed increased tolerance to H(2)O(2) stress relative to that of the wild type. We propose that Ppo products, PG, and/or other oxylipins may serve as activators of mammalian immune responses contributing to enhanced resistance to opportunistic fungi and as factors that modulate fungal development contributing to resistance to host defenses.
Project description:Marinocine is a broad-spectrum antibacterial protein synthesized by the melanogenic marine bacterium Marinomonas mediterranea. This work describes the basis for the antibacterial activity of marinocine and the identification of the gene coding for this protein. The antibacterial activity is inhibited under anaerobic conditions and by the presence of catalase under aerobic conditions. Marinocine is active only in culture media containing l-lysine. In the presence of this amino acid, marinocine generates hydrogen peroxide, which causes cell death as confirmed by the increased sensitivity to marinocine of Escherichia coli strains mutated in catalase activity. The gene coding for this novel enzyme was cloned using degenerate PCR with primers designed based on conserved regions in the antimicrobial protein AlpP, synthesized by Pseudoalteromonas tunicata, and some hypothetical proteins. The gene coding for marinocine has been named lodA, standing for lysine oxidase, and it seems to form part of an operon with a second gene, lodB, that codes for a putative dehydrogenase flavoprotein. The identity of marinocine as LodA has been demonstrated by N-terminal sequencing of purified marinocine and generation of lodA mutants that lose their antimicrobial activity. This is the first report on a bacterial lysine oxidase activity and the first time that a gene encoding this activity has been cloned.
Project description:Amino acid oxidases (AAOs) catalyze the oxidative deamination of amino acids releasing ammonium and hydrogen peroxide. Several kinds of these enzymes have been reported. Depending on the amino acid isomer used as a substrate, it is possible to differentiate between l-amino acid oxidases and d-amino acid oxidases. Both use FAD as cofactor and oxidize the amino acid in the alpha position releasing the corresponding keto acid. Recently, a novel class of AAOs has been described that does not contain FAD as cofactor, but a quinone generated by post-translational modification of residues in the same protein. These proteins are named as LodA-like proteins, after the first member of this group described, LodA, a lysine epsilon oxidase synthesized by the marine bacterium Marinomonas mediterranea. In this review, a phylogenetic analysis of all the enzymes described with AAO activity has been performed. It is shown that it is possible to recognize different groups of these enzymes and those containing the quinone cofactor are clearly differentiated. In marine bacteria, particularly in the genus Pseudoalteromonas, most of the proteins described as antimicrobial because of their capacity to generate hydrogen peroxide belong to the group of LodA-like proteins.
Project description:Epsilon-poly-L-lysine (epsilon-PL) is produced by Streptomyces albulus NBRC14147 as a secondary metabolite and can be detected only when the fermentation broth has an acidic pH during the stationary growth phase. Since strain NBRC14147 produces epsilon-PL-degrading enzymes, the original chain length of the epsilon-PL polymer product synthesized by epsilon-PL synthetase (Pls) is unclear. Here, we report on the identification of the gene encoding the epsilon-PL-degrading enzyme (PldII), which plays a central role in epsilon-PL degradation in this strain. A knockout mutant of the pldII gene was found to produce an epsilon-PL of unchanged polymer chain length, demonstrating that the length is not determined by epsilon-PL-degrading enzymes but rather by Pls itself and that the 25 to 35 L-lysine residues of epsilon-PL represent the original chain length of the polymer product synthesized by Pls in vivo. Transcriptional analysis of pls and a kinetic study of Pls further suggested that the Pls catalytic function is regulated by intracellular ATP, high levels of which are required for full enzymatic activity. Furthermore, it was found that acidic pH conditions during epsilon-PL fermentation, rather than the inhibition of the epsilon-PL-degrading enzyme, are necessary for the accumulation of intracellular ATP.
Project description:Eight-carbon (C8) volatiles, such as 1-octen-3-ol, are ubiquitous among fungi. They are the volatiles critical for aroma and flavor of fungi, and assumed to be signals controlling germination of several fungi. In this study, we found that intact Aspergillus flavus conidia scarcely synthesized C8 volatiles but repeated freeze-thaw treatment that made the cell membrane permeable promoted (R)-1-octen-3-ol formation. Loss or down regulation of any one of five fatty acid oxygenases (PpoA, PpoB, PpoC, PpoD or lipoxygenase) hypothesized contribute to 1-octen-3-ol formation had little impact on production of this volatile. This suggested that none of the oxygenases were directly involved in the formation of 1-octen-3-ol or that compensatory pathways exist in the fungus. Germination of the conidia was markedly inhibited at high density (1.0 × 10(9)spores mL(-1)). It has been postulated that 1-octen-3-ol is an autoinhibitor suppressing conidia germination at high density. 1-Octen-3-ol at concentration of no less than 10 mM was needed to suppress the germination while the concentration of 1-octen-3-ol in the suspension at 1.0 × 10(9) mL(-1) was under the detection limit (<1 µM). Thus, 1-octen-3-ol was not the principal component responsible for inhibition of germination. Instead, it was evident that the other heat-labile factor(s) suppressed conidial germination.
Project description:[8-Lysine]oxytocin was synthesized on a solid support and possessed an oxytocic activity of 100 +/- 6 units mumol on the isolated rat uterus. The epsilon-carbamoyl, epsilon-3-carboxypropionyl and epsilon-3-carboxybutryl derivatives were prepared and had uterotonic activities of 400, 55 and 50 units/mumol respectively. [8-Lysine]oxytocin was coupled unambiguously through the epsilon-amino group to the carboxyl groups of carboxymethylated dextrans or epsilon-3-carboxypropionly-gelatin. The macromolecular oxytocins were water-soluble and retained signigicant oxytocic activity. [8-Lysine]oxytocin should prove a useful ligand for affinity chromatography of oxytocin-binding proteins.