Cross talk between insulin and bone morphogenetic protein signaling systems in brown adipogenesis.
ABSTRACT: Both insulin and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling systems are important for adipocyte differentiation. Analysis of gene expression in BMP7-treated fibroblasts revealed a coordinated change in insulin signaling components by BMP7. To further investigate the cross talk between insulin and BMP signaling systems in brown adipogenesis, we examined the effect of BMP7 in insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1)-deficient brown preadipocytes, which exhibit a severe defect in differentiation. Treatment of these cells with BMP7 for 3 days prior to adipogenic induction restored differentiation and expression of brown adipogenic markers. The high level of adipogenic inhibitor preadipocyte factor 1 (Pref-1) in IRS-1-null cells was markedly reduced by 3 days of BMP7 treatment, and analysis of the 1.3-kb pref-1 promoter revealed 9 putative Smad binding elements (SBEs), suggesting that BMP7 could directly suppress Pref-1 expression, thereby allowing the initiation of the adipogenic program. Using a series of sequential deletion mutants of the pref-1 promoter linked to the luciferase gene and chromatin immunoprecipitation, we demonstrate that the promoter-proximal SBE (-192/-184) was critical in mediating BMP7's suppressive effect on pref-1 transcription. Together, these data suggest cross talk between the insulin and BMP signaling systems by which BMP7 can rescue brown adipogenesis in cells with insulin resistance.
Project description:Insulin and IGF-1 promote adipocyte differentiation via complex and overlapping signalling networks. Here we used microarray analysis of brown preadipocytes derived from wild-type and insulin receptor substrate (IRS) knockout (KO) animals, which exhibited progressively impaired differentiation, to define the set of genes that predict adipogenic potential in these cells. 374 genes/ESTs were identified whose expression in preadipocytes correlated with their ultimate ability to differentiate. Many of these genes were related to early adipogenic events, including genes involved in extracellular matrix, cytoskeletal organization, growth arrest, post-mitotic clonal expansion, and inhibitors of adipogenesis, including preadipocyte factor-1 and multiple members of the Wnt-signalling pathway. Reconstitution of IRS-1 KO cells with IRS-1 reversed these changes and restored the ability to differentiate. Several of these genes showed concordant changes in brown adipose tissue in vivo. Necdin was markedly increased in IRS-1 KO cells that could not differentiate, and knockdown of necdin restored brown adipogenesis with down-regulation of Pref-1 and Wnt10a expression. We demonstrated a necdin-E2F4 interaction repressing PPARg transcription. IRS proteins regulated necdin via a CREB dependent pathway, defining a signalling network involved in brown preadipocyte determination.
Project description:Brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates chemical energy as heat and can counteract obesity. MicroRNAs are emerging as key regulators in development and disease. Combining microRNA and mRNA microarray profiling followed by bioinformatic analyses, we identified miR-455 as a new regulator of brown adipogenesis. miR-455 exhibits a BAT-specific expression pattern and is induced by cold and the browning inducer BMP7. In vitro gain- and loss-of-function studies show that miR-455 regulates brown adipocyte differentiation and thermogenesis. Adipose-specific miR-455 transgenic mice display marked browning of subcutaneous white fat upon cold exposure. miR-455 activates AMPK?1 by targeting HIF1an, and AMPK promotes the brown adipogenic program and mitochondrial biogenesis. Concomitantly, miR-455 also targets the adipogenic suppressors Runx1t1 and Necdin, initiating adipogenic differentiation. Taken together, the data reveal a novel microRNA-regulated signaling network that controls brown adipogenesis and may be a potential therapeutic target for human metabolic disorders.
Project description:The recent surge in obesity has provided an impetus to better understand the mechanisms of adipogenesis, particularly in brown adipose tissue (BAT) because of its potential utilization for antiobesity therapy. Postnatal brown adipocytes arise from early muscle progenitors, but how brown fat lineage is determined is not completely understood. Here, we show that a multifunctional protein, Ewing Sarcoma (EWS), is essential for determining brown fat lineage during development. BATs from Ews null embryos and newborns are developmentally arrested. Ews mutant brown preadipocytes fail to differentiate due to loss of Bmp7 expression, a critical early brown adipogenic factor. We demonstrate that EWS, along with its binding partner Y-box binding protein 1 (YBX1), activates Bmp7 transcription. Depletion of either Ews or Ybx1 leads to loss of Bmp7 expression and brown adipogenesis. Remarkably, Ews null BATs and brown preadipocytes ectopically express myogenic genes. These results demonstrate that EWS is essential for early brown fat lineage determination.
Project description:Adult humans have a substantial amount of inducible-brown (or beige) fat, which is associated with increased energy expenditure and reduced weight gain via thermogenesis. Despite the identification of key regulators of beige adipogenesis, impacts of dietary factors on adaptive thermogenesis are largely unknown, partly due to a lack of validated human cell models. Bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) is known to promote brown adipogenesis in rodent and human progenitor cells. However, controversy still surrounds the cellular identity in BMP7-mediated transition of white to brown adipocytes. The aim of this study was to confirm BMP7-derived human adipocytes as a relevant in vitro model of human beige adipocyte by verifying the cellular lineage and metabolic activity. In this study, we hypothesized that pre-exposure of the stromal vascular (SV) fraction of primary human adipogenic precursor cells (hASC) to BMP7 would convert metabolically active brown adipocytes. Our results showed that exposure of hASC to human BMP7 was associated with significant escalation of (1) UCP1 gene expression, a signature gene of brown adipocytes, (2) beige specific marker gene expression (i.e., CD137 and TMEM26), (3) glucose and fatty acid uptake, and (4) basal and cAMP-stimulated oxygen consumption rate compared to white adipocyte control. Taken together, we demonstrated that BMP7 mediates conversion of hASC into metabolically active beige adipocytes. By confirming the cellular identity and metabolic activity, this BMP7-induced human beige adipocytes from hASC should aid in the discovery and assessment of bioactive molecules to promote adaptive thermogenesis.
Project description:Body weight is regulated by coordinating energy intake and energy expenditure. Transforming growth factor ? (TGF?)/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling has been shown to regulate energy balance in lower organisms, but whether a similar pathway exists in mammals is unknown. We have previously demonstrated that BMP7 can regulate brown adipogenesis and energy expenditure. In the current study, we have uncovered a novel role for BMP7 in appetite regulation. Systemic treatment of diet-induced obese mice with BMP7 resulted in increased energy expenditure and decreased food intake, leading to a significant reduction in body weight and improvement of metabolic syndrome. Similar degrees of weight loss with reduced appetite were also observed in BMP7-treated ob/ob mice, suggesting a leptin-independent mechanism utilized by BMP7. Intracerebroventricular administration of BMP7 to mice led to an acute decrease in food intake, which was mediated, at least in part, by a central rapamycin-sensitive mTOR-p70S6 kinase pathway. Together, these results underscore the importance of BMP7 in regulating both food intake and energy expenditure, and suggest new therapeutic approaches for obesity and its comorbidities.
Project description:Obesity contributes significantly to the global health burden. A better understanding of adipogenesis, the process of fat formation, may lead to the discovery of novel treatment strategies. However, it is of concern that the regulation of adipocyte differentiation has predominantly been studied using the murine 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell line and murine experimental animal models. Translation of these findings to the human setting requires confirmation using experimental models of human origin. The ability of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) to differentiate into adipocytes is an attractive model to study adipogenesis in vitro. Differences in the ability of MSCs isolated from different sources to undergo adipogenic differentiation, may be useful in investigating elements responsible for regulating adipogenic differentiation potential. Genes involved may be divided into three broad categories: early, intermediate and late-stage regulators. Preadipocyte factor-1 (Pref-1) is an early negative regulator of adipogenic differentiation. In this review, we briefly discuss the adipogenic differentiation potential of MSCs derived from two different sources, namely adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs) and Wharton's Jelly derived stromal/stem cells (WJSCs). We then discuss the function and suggested mechanisms of action of Pref-1 in regulating adipogenesis, as well as current findings regarding Pref-1's role in human adipogenesis.
Project description:Adipocytes arise from the commitment and differentiation of adipose precursors in white adipose tissue (WAT). In studying adipogenesis, precursor markers, including Pref-1 and PDGFR?, are used to isolate precursors from stromal vascular fractions of WAT, but the relation among the markers is not known. Here, we used the Pref-1 promoter-rtTA system in mice for labeling Pref-1+ cells and for inducible inactivation of the Pref-1 target Sox9. We show the requirement of Sox9 for the maintenance of Pref-1+ proliferative, early precursors. Upon Sox9 inactivation, these Pref-1+ cells become PDGFR?+ cells that express early adipogenic markers. Thus, we show that Pref-1+ cells precede PDGFR?+ cells in the adipogenic pathway and that Sox9 inactivation is required for WAT growth and expansion. Furthermore, we show that in maintaining early adipose precursors, Sox9 activates Meis1, which prevents adipogenic differentiation. Our study also demonstrates the Pref-1 promoter-rtTA system for inducible gene inactivation in early adipose precursor populations.
Project description:Differentiation of preadipocytes to lipid storing adipocytes involves extracellular signaling pathways, matrix remodeling and cytoskeletal changes. A number of factors have been implicated in maintaining the preadipocyte state and preventing their differentiation to adipocytes. We have previously reported that a multifunctional and protein crosslinking enzyme, transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is present in white adipose tissue. In this study, we have investigated TG2 function during adipocyte differentiation. We show that TG2 deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (Tgm2-/- MEFs) display increased and accelerated lipid accumulation due to increased expression of major adipogenic transcription factors, PPAR? and C/EBP?. Examination of Pref-1/Dlk1, an early negative regulator of adipogenesis, showed that the Pref-1/Dlk1 protein was completely absent in Tgm2-/- MEFs during early differentiation. Similarly, Tgm2-/- MEFs displayed defective canonical Wnt/?-catenin signaling with reduced ?-catenin nuclear translocation. TG2 deficiency also resulted in reduced ROCK kinase activity, actin stress fiber formation and increased Akt phosphorylation in MEFs, but did not alter fibronectin matrix levels or solubility. TG2 protein levels were unaltered during adipogenic differentiation, and was found predominantly in the extracellular compartment of MEFs and mouse WAT. Addition of exogenous TG2 to Tgm2+/+ and Tgm2-/- MEFs significantly inhibited lipid accumulation, reduced expression of PPAR? and C/EBP?, promoted the nuclear accumulation of ?-catenin, and recovered Pref-1/Dlk1 protein levels. Our study identifies TG2 as a novel negative regulator of adipogenesis.
Project description:Adipose tissue is central to the regulation of energy balance. Two functionally different types of fat are present in mammals: white adipose tissue, the primary site of triglyceride storage, and brown adipose tissue, which is specialized in energy expenditure and can counteract obesity. Factors that specify the developmental fate and function of white and brown adipose tissue remain poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that whereas some members of the family of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) support white adipocyte differentiation, BMP7 singularly promotes differentiation of brown preadipocytes even in the absence of the normally required hormonal induction cocktail. BMP7 activates a full program of brown adipogenesis including induction of early regulators of brown fat fate PRDM16 (PR-domain-containing 16; ref. 4) and PGC-1alpha (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) coactivator-1alpha; ref. 5), increased expression of the brown-fat-defining marker uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and adipogenic transcription factors PPARgamma and CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPs), and induction of mitochondrial biogenesis via p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase-(also known as Mapk14) and PGC-1-dependent pathways. Moreover, BMP7 triggers commitment of mesenchymal progenitor cells to a brown adipocyte lineage, and implantation of these cells into nude mice results in development of adipose tissue containing mostly brown adipocytes. Bmp7 knockout embryos show a marked paucity of brown fat and an almost complete absence of UCP1. Adenoviral-mediated expression of BMP7 in mice results in a significant increase in brown, but not white, fat mass and leads to an increase in energy expenditure and a reduction in weight gain. These data reveal an important role of BMP7 in promoting brown adipocyte differentiation and thermogenesis in vivo and in vitro, and provide a potential new therapeutic approach for the treatment of obesity.
Project description:Piceatannol, a natural stilbene, is an analog and a metabolite of resveratrol. Despite a well documented health benefit of resveratrol in intervention of the development of obesity, the role of piceatannol in the development of adipose tissue and related diseases is unknown. Here, we sought to determine the function of piceatannol in adipogenesis and elucidate the underlying mechanism. We show that piceatannol inhibits adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in a dose-dependent manner at noncytotoxic concentrations. This anti-adipogenic property of piceatannol was largely limited to the early event of adipogenesis. In the early phase of adipogenesis, piceatannol-treated preadipocytes displayed a delayed cell cycle entry into G(2)/M phase at 24 h after initiation of adipogenesis. Furthermore, the piceatannol-suppressed mitotic clonal expansion was accompanied by reduced activation of the insulin-signaling pathway. Piceatannol dose-dependently inhibited differentiation mixture-induced phosphorylation of insulin receptor (IR)/insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1)/Akt pathway in the early phase of adipogenesis. Moreover, we showed that piceatannol is an inhibitor of IR kinase activity and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). Our kinetics study of IR further identified a K(m) value for ATP of 57.8 ?m and a K(i) value for piceatannol of 28.9 ?m. We also showed that piceatannol directly binds to IR and inhibits IR kinase activity in a mixed noncompetitive manner to ATP, through which piceatannol appears to inhibit adipogenesis. Taken together, our study reveals an anti-adipogenic function of piceatannol and highlights IR and its downstream insulin signaling as novel targets for piceatannol in the early phase of adipogenesis.