Blood vitamin d levels in relation to genetic estimation of African ancestry.
ABSTRACT: African-Americans generally have lower circulating levels of 25 hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] than Whites, attributed to skin pigmentation and dietary habits. Little is known about the genetic determinants of 25(OH)D levels nor whether the degree of African ancestry associates with circulating 25(OH)D.With the use of a panel of 276 ancestry informative genetic markers, we estimated African and European admixture for a sample of 758 African-American and non-Hispanic White Southern Community Cohort Study participants. For African-Americans, cut points of <85%, 85% to 95%, and >or=95% defined low, medium, and high African ancestry, respectively. We estimated the association between African ancestry and 25(OH)D and also explored whether vitamin D exposure (sunlight, diet) had varying effects on 25(OH)D levels dependent on ancestry level.The mean serum 25(OH)D levels among Whites and among African-Americans of low, medium, and high African ancestry were 27.2, 19.5, 18.3, and 16.5 ng/mL, respectively. Serum 25(OH)D was estimated to decrease by 1.0 to 1.1 ng/mL per 10% increase in African ancestry. The effect of high vitamin D exposure from sunlight and diet was 46% lower among African-Americans with high African ancestry than among those with low/medium ancestry.We found novel evidence that the level of African ancestry may play a role in clinical vitamin D status.This is the first study to describe how 25(OH)D levels vary in relation to genetic estimation of African ancestry. Further study is warranted to replicate these findings and uncover the potential pathways involved.
Project description:Context:Vitamin D inadequacy is common in the adult population of the United States. Although the genetic determinants underlying vitamin D inadequacy have been studied in people of European ancestry, less is known about populations with Hispanic or African ancestry. Objective:The Trans-Ethnic Evaluation of Vitamin D (TRANSCEN-D) genomewide association study (GWAS) consortium was assembled to replicate genetic associations with 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations from the Study of Underlying Genetic Determinants of Vitamin D and Highly Related Traits (SUNLIGHT) meta-analyses of European ancestry and to identify genetic variants related to vitamin D concentrations in African and Hispanic ancestries. Design:Ancestry-specific (Hispanic and African) and transethnic (Hispanic, African, and European) meta-analyses were performed with Meta-Analysis Helper software (METAL). Patients or Other Participants:In total, 8541 African American and 3485 Hispanic American (from North America) participants from 12 cohorts and 16,124 European participants from SUNLIGHT were included in the study. Main Outcome Measures:Blood concentrations of 25(OH)D were measured for all participants. Results:Ancestry-specific analyses in African and Hispanic Americans replicated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GC (2 and 4 SNPs, respectively). An SNP (rs79666294) near the KIF4B gene was identified in the African American cohort. Transethnic evaluation replicated GC and DHCR7 region SNPs. Additionally, the transethnic analyses revealed SNPs rs719700 and rs1410656 near the ANO6/ARID2 and HTR2A genes, respectively. Conclusions:Ancestry-specific and transethnic GWASs of 25(OH)D confirmed findings in GC and DHCR7 for African and Hispanic American samples and revealed findings near KIF4B, ANO6/ARID2, and HTR2A. The biological mechanisms that link these regions with 25(OH)D metabolism warrant further investigation.
Project description:Vitamin D is implicated in a wide range of health outcomes, and although environmental predictors of vitamin D levels are known, the genetic drivers of vitamin D status remain to be clarified. African Americans are a group at particularly high risk for vitamin D insufficiency but to date have been virtually absent from studies of genetic predictors of circulating vitamin D levels. Within the Southern Community Cohort Study, we investigated the association between 94 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in five vitamin D pathway genes (GC, VDR, CYP2R1, CYP24A1, CYP27B1) and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels among 379 African American and 379 Caucasian participants. We found statistically significant associations with three SNPs (rs2298849 and rs2282679 in the GC gene, and rs10877012 in the CYP27B1 gene), although only for African Americans. A genotype score, representing the number of risk alleles across the three SNPs, alone accounted for 4.6% of the variation in serum vitamin D among African Americans. A genotype score of 5 (vs. 1) was also associated with a 7.1 ng/mL reduction in serum 25(OH)D levels and a six-fold risk of vitamin D insufficiency (<20 ng/mL) (odds ratio 6.0, p?=?0.01) among African Americans. With African ancestry determined from a panel of 276 ancestry informative SNPs, we found that high risk genotypes did not cluster among those with higher African ancestry. This study is one of the first to investigate common genetic variation in relation to vitamin D levels in African Americans, and the first to evaluate how vitamin D-associated genotypes vary in relation to African ancestry. These results suggest that further evaluation of genetic contributors to vitamin D status among African Americans may help provide insights regarding racial health disparities or enable the identification of subgroups especially in need of vitamin D-related interventions.
Project description:Lower serum vitamin D (25(OH)D) among individuals with African ancestry is attributed primarily to skin pigmentation. However, the influence of genetic polymorphisms controlling for skin melanin content has not been investigated. Therefore, we investigated differences in non-summer serum vitamin D metabolites according to self-reported race, genetic ancestry, skin reflectance and key pigmentation genes (SLC45A2 and SLC24A5).Healthy individuals reporting at least half African American or half European American heritage were frequency matched to one another on age (+/- 2 years) and sex. 176 autosomal ancestry informative markers were used to estimate genetic ancestry. Melanin index was measured by reflectance spectrometry. Serum vitamin D metabolites (25(OH)D3, 25(OH)D 2 and 24,25(OH)2D3) were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) tandem mass spectrometry. Percent 24,25(OH)2D3 was calculated as a percent of the parent metabolite (25(OH)D3). Stepwise and backward selection regression models were used to identify leading covariates.Fifty African Americans and 50 European Americans participated in the study. Compared with SLC24A5 111(Thr) homozygotes, individuals with the SLC24A5 111(Thr/Ala) and 111(Ala/Ala) genotypes had respectively lower levels of 25(OH)D3 (23.0 and 23.8 nmol/L lower, p-dominant=0.007), and percent 24,25(OH)2D3 (4.1 and 5.2 percent lower, p-dominant=0.003), controlling for tanning bed use, vitamin D/fish oil supplement intake, race/ethnicity, and genetic ancestry. Results were similar with melanin index adjustment, and were not confounded by glucocorticoid, oral contraceptive, or statin use.The SLC24A5 111(Ala) allele was associated with lower serum vitamin 25(OH)D3 and lower percent 24,25(OH)2D3, independently from melanin index and West African genetic ancestry.
Project description:Some evidence suggests that an inadequate vitamin D level may increase the risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Whether a low vitamin D level plays a role in venous thromboembolism (VTE), that is, venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, is largely unexplored.We tested prospectively, in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohort, whether the serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) is inversely associated with VTE incidence, and whether it partly explains the African American excess of VTE in the ARIC Study.We measured 25(OH)D by using mass spectroscopy in stored samples of 12 752 ARIC Study participants, and followed them over a median of 19.7 years (1990-1992 to 2011) for the incidence of VTE (n = 537).The seasonally adjusted 25(OH)D level was not associated with VTE incidence. In a model adjusted for age, race, sex, hormone replacement therapy, and body mass index, the hazard ratios of VTE across 25(OH)D quintiles 5 (high) to 1 (low) were: 1 (ref.), 0.84 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65-1.08), 0.88 (95% CI 0.68-1.13), 1.04 (95% CI 0.78-1.38), and 0.90 (95% CI 0.64-1.27). The lowest 25(OH)D quintile contained 59% African Americans, whereas the highest quintile contained 7% African Americans. However, lower 25(OH)D levels explained little of the 63% greater VTE risk of African Americans over whites in this cohort.A low 25(OH)D level was not a risk factor for VTE in this prospective study. However, the totality of the literature (three studies) suggests that a low 25(OH)D level might modestly increase VTE risk in whites, but this needs further confirmation.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Inadequate levels of vitamin D increase the risk of osteoporosis, a highly prevalent condition in patients with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). Reduced sunlight and dark skin further contribute to low vitamin D levels. OBJECTIVES: To compare serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D [vitamin D25(OH)] levels in acute and chronic SCI and to explore seasonal and ethnic differences among patients with acute and chronic SCI. PATIENTS/METHODS: Patients (N=96) aged 19 to 55 years with C3-T10 motor complete SCI participated. Acute SCI was 2 to 6 months after injury, whereas chronic SCI was at least 1 year from injury. Serum vitamin D25(OH), calcium, and parathyroid hormone were drawn dUring summer or winter months. Vitamin D deficiency (<13 ng/mL), insufficiency (<20 ng/mL), and subtherapeutic (<32 ng/mL) levels were compared for all groups. A 3-way analysis of covariance was adopted to determine significant main effects of season, chronicity, and ethnicity. Interactions between season and chronicity, season and ethnicity, and chronicity and ethnicity were evaluated. Evaluation of a 3-way interaction among season, chronicity, and ethnicity was completed. RESULTS: In summer, 65% of patients with acute SCI and 81% of patients with chronic SCI had subtherapeutic vitamin D levels, whereas in winter, 84% with acute SCI and 96% with chronic SCI had vitamin D25(OH) (<32 ng/mL). Lower vitamin D25(OH) levels were observed in African Americans relative to whites. Significant main effects were noted for season (P = 0.017), chronicity (P = 0.003), and ethnicity (P < 0.001). However, interactions between 2 or more factors were not found. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency are found in the majority of patients with chronic SCI and in many with acute SCI. Initial screening for serum vitamin D25(OH) levels should be performed early in rehabilitation. Periodic monitoring in the chronic setting is highly recommended.
Project description:African Americans with genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C attain a sustained virologic response (SVR) at only approximately one-half the rate of whites after peginterferon and ribavirin treatment. The serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] has recently been established as a predictor of treatment response. Therefore, the low serum concentrations of 25(OH)D found among African Americans may contribute to the low response rate; however, to our knowledge, none of the studies of vitamin D in chronic hepatitis C treatment have included a significant number of black patients.The objective was to compare the relation between the 25(OH)D concentration and genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C treatment response in African Americans with that in whites.This cross-sectional analysis included 106 African American and 65 white patients with genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C.Consistent with previous studies, we found that the SVR rate in the white patients increased significantly with an increasing serum concentration of 25(OH)D [SVR rates were 20%, 46%, and 70% for 25(OH)D serum concentrations <20, 20-35, and >35 ng/mL, respectively; P-trend = 0.008]; however, there was no relation between the SVR rate and 25(OH)D serum concentration in the African American patients [SVR rates were 32%, 28%, and 33% for 25(OH)D serum concentrations <20, 20-35, and >35 ng/mL, respectively; P-trend = 0.832]. We also found an analogous racial difference in the relation between the extent of liver fibrosis and the 25(OH)D concentration.Racial differences in vitamin D physiology or race-specific factors that modify the effects of vitamin D may affect the immune response to genotype 1 hepatitis C virus.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:African Americans have the greatest colorectal cancer (CRC) burden in the United States; interethnic differences in protective effects of vitamin D might contribute to disparities. 1?,25(OH)2D3 vitamin D (the active form of vitamin D) induces transcription of the uridine phosphorylase gene (UPP1) in colon tissues of European Americans but to a lesser extent in colon tissues of African Americans. UPP1-knockout mice have increased intestinal concentrations of uridine and Deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP), have increased uridine-induced DNA damage, and develop colon tumors. We studied 1?,25(OH)2D3 regulation of UPP1 and uridine-induced DNA damage in the colon and differences in these processes between African and European Americans. METHODS:We quantified expression and activity of UPP1 in response to 1?,25(OH)2D3 in young adult mouse colonic cells, human CRC cells (LS174T), and organoids (derived from rectosigmoid biopsy samples of healthy individuals undergoing colonoscopies) using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunoblot, and immunocytochemistry assays. Binding of the vitamin D receptor to UPP1 was tested by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Uridine-induced DNA damage was measured by fragment-length analysis in repair enzyme assays. Allele-specific 1?,25(OH)2D3 responses were tested using luciferase assays. RESULTS:Vitamin D increased levels of UPP1 mRNA, protein, and enzymatic activity and increased vitamin D receptor binding to the UPP1 promoter in young adult mouse colonic cells, LS174T cells, and organoids. 1?,25(OH)2D3 significantly reduced levels of uridine and uridine-induced DNA damage in these cells, which required UPP1 expression. Organoids derived from colon tissues of African Americans expressed lower levels of UPP1 after exposure to 1?,25(OH)2D3 and had increased uridine-induced DNA damage compared with organoids derived from tissues of European Americans. Luciferase assays with the T allele of single nucleotide polymorphism rs28605337 near UPP1, which is found more frequently in African Americans than European Americans, expressed lower levels of UPP1 after exposure to 1?,25(OH)2D3 than assays without this variant. CONCLUSIONS:We found vitamin D to increase expression of UPP1, leading to reduce uridine-induced DNA damage, in colon cells and organoids. A polymorphism in UPP1 found more frequently in African Americans than European Americans reduced UPP1 expression upon cell exposure to 1?,25(OH)2D3. Differences in expression of UPP1 in response to vitamin D could contribute to the increased risk of CRC in African Americans.
Project description:The active form of vitamin D (1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3)) is known to have antiproliferative effects and has been implicated in cancers of the colon, breast, and prostate. These cancers occur more frequently among African Americans than Caucasians, and individuals with African ancestry are known to have approximately twofold lower levels of serum vitamin D (25(OH)D) compared with individuals of European ancestry. However, epidemiological studies of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) have shown inconsistent associations with cancer risk, suggesting that differences in other genes in the pathway may be important. We sought to identify functionally significant polymorphic variants in CYP24A1, a gene that is highly inducible by 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) and that encodes the primary catabolic enzyme in the pathway. Here we report the identification of six novel SNPs in the human CYP24A1 promoter, including one at nucleotide -279 occurring within the distal vitamin D response element (VDRE2). Our experiments demonstrate that the VDRE2 variant results in decreased protein binding and transactivation in vitro, and reduced expression of CYP24A1 in cultured primary human lymphocytes provides evidence for an effect in vivo. This variant was only observed in our African American population, and represents a first step toward understanding differences in disease risk among racial/ethnic groups.
Project description:Gastric cancer incidence in African Americans is twice that of whites, and differing prevalence of Helicobacter pylori strain-specific isolates may help explain the disparity.Serum levels of antibodies to each of 15 H. pylori proteins were assessed using multiplex serology for a sample of 689 African American and white participants from the Southern Community Cohort Study. African and European admixture was estimated using a panel of 276 ancestry genetic markers, with "low," "medium," and "high" categories of African ancestry defined as <85%, 85% to 95%, and ?95%.The majority (79%) of our study population were sero-positive for H. pylori. African American race was associated with a two- to sixfold increased odds for sero-positivity to eight H. pylori proteins, including the cancer-associated virulence constituents CagA [odds ratio (OR), 6.4; 95% CI, 4.5-9.1], and VacA (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.5-3.5). Compared to whites, African Americans of low, medium, and high African ancestry had 1.6-, 4.1-, and 5.2-fold increased odds of sero-positivity to H. pylori, primarily related to CagA sero-positive strains, for which increasing African ancestry led to 2.5-, 9.6-, and 13.1-fold increased odds. Among African Americans alone, compared to those of low African ancestry, African Americans of medium and high African ancestry had 2.5- and 3.4-fold increased odds of sero-positivity to H. pylori, and 3.5- and 4.9-fold increased odds of CagA sero-positive H. pylori strains.Host genetic variation and/or lifestyle factors associated with African ancestry contribute to the likelihood of infection with H. pylori, particularly its virulent strains, in this low-income U.S. southern population.Our findings that low-income African Americans of high African ancestry have a particularly high prevalence of antibodies against H. pylori provides a framework for further research into better detection and prevention of gastric cancer in this population.
Project description:Total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) is a marker of vitamin D status and is lower in African Americans than in whites. Whether this difference holds for free 25OHOD (f25OHD) is unclear, considering reported genetic-racial differences in vitamin D binding protein (DBP) used to calculate f25OHD.Our objective was to assess racial-geographic differences in f25OHD and to understand inconsistencies in racial associations with DBP and calculated f25OHD.This study used a cross-sectional design.The general community in the United States, United Kingdom, and The Gambia were included in this study.Men in Osteoporotic Fractures in Men and Medical Research Council studies (N = 1057) were included.Total 25OHD concentration, race, and DBP (GC) genotype exposures were included.Directly measured f25OHD, DBP assessed by proteomics, monoclonal and polyclonal immunoassays, and calculated f25OHD were the outcome measures.Total 25OHD correlated strongly with directly measured f25OHD (Spearman r = 0.84). Measured by monoclonal assay, mean DBP in African-ancestry subjects was approximately 50% lower than in whites, whereas DBP measured by polyclonal DBP antibodies or proteomic methods was not lower in African-ancestry. Calculated f25OHD (using polyclonal DBP assays) correlated strongly with directly measured f25OHD (r = 0.80-0.83). Free 25OHD, measured or calculated from polyclonal DBP assays, reflected total 25OHD concentration irrespective of race and was lower in African Americans than in US whites.Previously reported racial differences in DBP concentration are likely from monoclonal assay bias, as there was no racial difference in DBP concentration by other methods. This confirms the poor vitamin D status of many African-Americans and the utility of total 25OHD in assessing vitamin D in the general population.