Matrix metalloproteinase-8 inactivates macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha to reduce acute lung inflammation and injury in mice.
ABSTRACT: To determine the role of matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) in acute lung injury (ALI), we delivered LPS or bleomycin by the intratracheal route to MMP-8(-/-) mice versus wild-type (WT) mice or subjected the mice to hyperoxia (95% O(2)) and measured lung inflammation and injury at intervals. MMP-8(-/-) mice with ALI had greater increases in lung polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and macrophage counts, measures of alveolar capillary barrier injury, lung elastance, and mortality than WT mice with ALI. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from LPS-treated MMP-8(-/-) mice had more MIP-1alpha than BALF from LPS-treated WT mice, but similar levels of other pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators. MIP-1alpha(-/-) mice with ALI had less acute lung inflammation and injury than WT mice with ALI, confirming that MIP-1alpha promotes acute lung inflammation and injury in mice. Genetically deleting MIP-1alpha in MMP-8(-/-) mice reduced the increased lung inflammation and injury and mortality in MMP-8(-/-) mice with ALI. Soluble MMP-8 cleaved and inactivated MIP-1alpha in vitro, but membrane-bound MMP-8 on activated PMNs had greater MIP-1alpha-degrading activity than soluble MMP-8. High levels of membrane-bound MMP-8 were detected on lung PMNs from LPS-treated WT mice, but soluble, active MMP-8 was not detected in BALF samples. Thus, MMP-8 has novel roles in restraining lung inflammation and in limiting alveolar capillary barrier injury during ALI in mice by inactivating MIP-1alpha. In addition, membrane-bound MMP-8 on activated lung PMNs is likely to be the key bioactive form of the enzyme that limits lung inflammation and alveolar capillary barrier injury during ALI.
Project description:Matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) is a potent interstitial collagenase thought to be expressed mainly by polymorphonuclear neutrophils. To determine whether MMP-8 regulates lung inflammatory or fibrotic responses to bleomycin, we delivered bleomycin by the intratracheal route to wild-type (WT) versus Mmp-8(-/-) mice and quantified MMP-8 expression, and inflammation and fibrosis in the lung samples. Mmp-8 steady state mRNA and protein levels increase in whole lung and bronchoalveolar lavage samples when WT mice are treated with bleomycin. Activated murine lung fibroblasts express Mmp-8 in vitro. MMP-8 expression is increased in leukocytes in the lungs of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis compared with control lung samples. Compared with bleomycin-treated WT mice, bleomycin-treated Mmp-8(-/-) mice have greater lung inflammation, but reduced lung fibrosis. Whereas bleomycin-treated Mmp-8(-/-) and WT mice have similar lung levels of several pro- and antifibrotic mediators (TGF-?, IL-13, JE, and IFN-?), Mmp-8(-/-) mice have higher lung levels of IFN-?-inducible protein-10 (IP-10) and MIP-1?. Genetically deleting either Ip-10 or Mip-1? in Mmp-8(-/-) mice abrogates their lung inflammatory response to bleomycin, but reconstitutes their lung fibrotic response to bleomycin. Studies of bleomycin-treated Mmp-8 bone marrow chimeric mice show that both leukocytes and lung parenchymal cells are sources of profibrotic MMP-8 during bleomycin-mediated lung fibrosis. Thus, during bleomycin-mediated lung injury, MMP-8 dampens the lung acute inflammatory response, but promotes lung fibrosis by reducing lung levels of IP-10 and MIP-1?. These data indicate therapeutic strategies to reduce lung levels of MMP-8 may limit fibroproliferative responses to injury in the human lung.
Project description:Excessive neutrophil infiltration to the lungs is a hallmark of acute lung injury (ALI). Milk fat globule epidermal growth factor-factor 8 (MFG-E8) was originally identified for phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. Subsequent studies revealed its diverse cellular functions. However, whether MFG-E8 can regulate neutrophil function to alleviate inflammation is unknown. We therefore aimed to reveal MFG-E8 roles in regulating lung neutrophil infiltration during ALI. To induce ALI, C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) and Mfge8(-/-) mice were intratracheally injected with LPS (5 mg/kg). Lung tissue damage was assessed by histology, and the neutrophils were counted by a hemacytometer. Apoptotic cells in lungs were determined by TUNEL, whereas caspase-3 and myeloperoxidase activities were assessed spectrophotometrically. CXCR2 and G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 expressions in neutrophils were measured by flow cytometry. Following LPS challenge, Mfge8(-/-) mice exhibited extensive lung damage due to exaggerated infiltration of neutrophils and production of TNF-?, MIP-2, and myeloperoxidase. An increased number of apoptotic cells was trapped into the lungs of Mfge8(-/-) mice compared with WT mice, which may be due to insufficient phagocytosis of apoptotic cells or increased occurrence of apoptosis through the activation of caspase-3. In vitro studies using MIP-2-mediated chemotaxis revealed higher migration of neutrophils of Mfge8(-/-) mice than those of WT mice via increased surface exposures to CXCR2. Administration of recombinant murine MFG-E8 reduces neutrophil migration through upregulation of GRK2 and downregulation of surface CXCR2 expression. Conversely, these effects could be blocked by anti-?(v) integrin Abs. These studies clearly indicate the importance of MFG-E8 in ameliorating neutrophil infiltration and suggest MFG-E8 as a novel therapeutic potential for ALI.
Project description:We previously demonstrated pre-B-cell colony enhancing factor (PBEF) as a biomarker in sepsis and sepsis-induced acute lung injury (ALI) with genetic variants conferring ALI susceptibility.To explore mechanistic participation of PBEF in ALI and ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI).Two models of VILI were utilized to explore the role of PBEF using either recombinant PBEF or PBEF(+/-) mice.Initial in vitro studies demonstrated recombinant human PBEF (rhPBEF) as a direct rat neutrophil chemotactic factor with in vivo studies demonstrating marked increases in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) leukocytes (PMNs) after intratracheal injection in C57BL/6J mice. These changes were accompanied by increased BAL levels of PMN chemoattractants (KC and MIP-2) and modest increases in lung vascular and alveolar permeability. We next explored the potential synergism between rhPBEF challenge (intratracheal) and a model of limited VILI (4 h, 30 ml/kg tidal volume) and observed dramatic increases in BAL PMNs, BAL protein, and cytokine levels (IL-6, TNF-alpha, KC) compared with either challenge alone. Gene expression profiling identified induction of ALI- and VILI-associated gene modules (nuclear factor-kappaB, leukocyte extravasation, apoptosis, Toll receptor pathways). Heterozygous PBEF(+/-) mice were significantly protected (reduced BAL protein, BAL IL-6 levels, peak inspiratory pressures) when exposed to a model of severe VILI (4 h, 40 ml/kg tidal volume) and exhibited significantly reduced expression of VILI-associated gene expression modules. Finally, strategies to reduce PBEF availability (neutralizing antibody) resulted in significant protection from VILI.These studies implicate PBEF as a key inflammatory mediator intimately involved in both the development and severity of ventilator-induced ALI.
Project description:Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP), released into the circulation during sepsis, causes lung injury via an as yet unknown mechanism. Since endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is associated with acute lung injury (ALI), we hypothesized that CIRP causes ALI via induction of ER stress. To test this hypothesis, we studied the lungs of wild-type (WT) and CIRP knockout (KO) mice at 20?h after induction of sepsis by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). WT mice had significantly more severe ALI than CIRP KO mice. Lung ER stress markers (BiP, pIRE1?, sXBP1, CHOP, cleaved caspase-12) were increased in septic WT mice, but not in septic CIRP KO mice. Effector pathways downstream from ER stress - apoptosis, NF-?B (p65), proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1?), neutrophil chemoattractants (MIP-2, KC), neutrophil infiltration (MPO activity), lipid peroxidation (4-HNE), and nitric oxide (iNOS) - were significantly increased in WT mice, but only mildly elevated in CIRP KO mice. ER stress markers were increased in the lungs of healthy WT mice treated with recombinant murine CIRP, but not in the lungs of TLR4 KO mice. This suggests CIRP directly induces ER stress via TLR4 activation. In summary, CIRP induces lung ER stress and downstream responses to cause sepsis-associated ALI.
Project description:A disintegrin and a metalloproteinase domain (ADAM) 9 is known to be expressed by monocytes and macrophages. In this study, we report that ADAM9 is also a product of human and murine polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). ADAM9 is not synthesized de novo by circulating PMNs. Rather, ADAM9 protein is stored in the gelatinase and specific granules and the secretory vesicles of human PMNs. Unstimulated PMNs express minimal quantities of surface ADAM9, but activation of PMNs with degranulating agonists rapidly (within 15 min) increases PMN surface ADAM9 levels. Human PMNs produce small quantities of soluble forms of ADAM9. Surprisingly, ADAM9 degrades several extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, including fibronectin, entactin, laminin, and insoluble elastin, as potently as matrix metalloproteinase-9. However, ADAM9 does not degrade types I, III, or IV collagen or denatured collagens in vitro. To determine whether Adam9 regulates PMN recruitment or ECM protein turnover during inflammatory responses, we compared wild-type and Adam9(-/-) mice in bacterial LPS- and bleomycin-mediated acute lung injury (ALI). Adam9 lung levels increase 10-fold during LPS-mediated ALI in wild-type mice (due to increases in leukocyte-derived Adam9), but Adam9 does not regulate lung PMN (or macrophage) counts during ALI. Adam9 increases mortality, promotes lung injury, reduces lung compliance, and increases degradation of lung elastin during LPS- and/or bleomycin-mediated ALI. Adam9 does not regulate collagen accumulation in the bleomycin-treated lung. Thus, ADAM9 is expressed in an inducible fashion on PMN surfaces where it degrades some ECM proteins, and it promotes alveolar-capillary barrier injury during ALI in mice.
Project description:Severe infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in children can progress to respiratory distress and acute lung injury (ALI). Accumulating evidence suggests that mechanical ventilation (MV) is an important cofactor in the development of ALI by modulating the host immune responses to bacteria. This study investigates whether MV enhances the host response to pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), a mouse pneumovirus that has been used as a model for RSV infection in humans. BALB/c mice were inoculated intranasally with diluted clarified lung homogenates from mice infected with PVM strain J3666 or uninfected controls. Four days after inoculation, the mice were subjected to 4 h of MV (tidal volume, 10 ml/kg) or allowed to breathe spontaneously. When compared with that of mice inoculated with PVM only, the administration of MV to PVM-infected mice resulted in increased bronchoalveolar lavage fluid concentrations of the cytokines macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2, MIP-1alpha (CCL3), and IL-6; increased alveolar-capillary permeability to high molecular weight proteins; and increased caspase-3 activity in lung homogenates. We conclude that MV enhances the activation of inflammatory and caspase cell death pathways in response to pneumovirus infection. We speculate that MV potentially contributes to the development of lung injury in patients with RSV infection.
Project description:When the fungus Stachybotrys chartarum is inhaled, its mycotoxins may cause lung injury and inflammation. The severity of human responses to S. chartarum in both occupational and home settings varies widely. To explore these differences, we intratracheally instilled C3H/HeJ, BALB/c, and C57BL/6J mice with S. chartarum spores suspended in saline. One day later, the mice were humanely killed, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed, and biochemical and cellular indicators of lung injury and inflammation were measured. BALB/c mice showed the highest myeloperoxidase activity, albumin and hemoglobin levels, and neutrophil numbers in their BAL among the three strains. BALB/c was the only strain to show significant increases in keratinocyte-derived cytokine (KC), monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, MCP-3, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha, MIP-1beta, MIP-1gamma, MIP-2, RANTES, IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-3, IL-6, IL-18, leukemia inhibitory factor, macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and TNF-alpha. A model of allergen-induced airway inflammation was examined to assess whether underlying allergic inflammation might contribute to increased susceptibility to S. chartarum-induced pulmonary inflammation and injury. Surprisingly, in BALB/c mice, ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation produced a protective effect against some S. chartarum-induced pulmonary responses. This is the first report of mammalian strain differences affecting responses to S. chartarum. These responses differ from those reported for LPS and other fungi. Analogous underlying genetic differences may contribute to the wide range of sensitivity to Stachybotrys among humans.
Project description:Although early events in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI) have been defined, little is known about the mechanisms mediating resolution. To search for determinants of resolution, we exposed wild type (WT) mice to intratracheal LPS and assessed the response at intervals to day 10, when injury had resolved. Inducible NO synthase (iNOS) was significantly upregulated in the lung at day 4 after LPS. When iNOS-/- mice were exposed to intratracheal LPS, early lung injury was attenuated; however, recovery was markedly impaired compared with WT mice. iNOS-/- mice had increased mortality and sustained increases in markers of lung injury. Adoptive transfer of WT (iNOS+/+) bone marrow-derived monocytes or direct adenoviral gene delivery of iNOS into injured iNOS-/- mice restored resolution of ALI. Irradiated bone marrow chimeras confirmed the protective effects of myeloid-derived iNOS but not of epithelial iNOS. Alveolar macrophages exhibited sustained expression of cosignaling molecule CD86 in iNOS-/- mice compared with WT mice. Ab-mediated blockade of CD86 in iNOS-/- mice improved survival and enhanced resolution of lung inflammation. Our findings show that monocyte-derived iNOS plays a pivotal role in mediating resolution of ALI by modulating lung immune responses, thus facilitating clearance of alveolar inflammation and promoting lung repair.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Sepsis morbidity and mortality are aggravated by acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Mouse B-1a cells are a phenotypically and functionally unique sub-population of B cells, providing immediate protection against infection by releasing natural antibodies and immunomodulatory molecules. We hypothesize that B-1a cells ameliorate sepsis-induced ALI. METHODS:Sepsis was induced in C57BL/6 mice by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). PBS or B-1a cells were adoptively transferred into the septic mice intraperitoneally. After 20 h of CLP, lungs were harvested and assessed by PCR and ELISA for pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1?) and chemokine (MIP-2) expression, by histology for injury, by TUNEL and cleaved caspase-3 for apoptosis, and by myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay for neutrophil infiltration. RESULTS:We found that septic mice adoptively transferred with B-1a cells significantly decreased the mRNA and protein levels of IL-6, IL-1? and MIP-2 in the lungs compared to PBS-treated mice. Mice treated with B-1a cells showed dramatic improvement in lung injury compared to PBS-treated mice after sepsis. We found apoptosis in the lungs was significantly inhibited in B-1a cell injected mice compared to PBS-treated mice after sepsis. B-1a cell treatment significantly down-regulated MPO levels in the lungs compared to PBS-treated mice in sepsis. The protective outcomes of B-1a cells in ALI was further confirmed by using B-1a cell deficient CD19-/- mice, which showed significant increase in the lung injury scores following sepsis as compared to WT mice. CONCLUSIONS:Our results demonstrate a novel therapeutic potential of B-1a cells to treat sepsis-induced ALI.
Project description:Transmigration and activation of neutrophils in the lung reflect key steps in the progression of acute lung injury (ALI). It is known that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) can limit neutrophil activation, but the respective mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we aimed to examine the underlying pathways in pulmonary inflammation. In vivo, C57BL/6N mice received the H2S slow releasing compound GYY4137 prior to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhalation. LPS challenge led to pulmonary injury, inflammation, and neutrophil transmigration that were inhibited in response to H2S pretreatment. Moreover, H2S reduced mRNA expression of macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and its receptor in lung tissue, as well as the accumulation of MIP-2 and interleukin-1? in the alveolar space. In vitro, GYY4137 did not exert toxic effects on Hoxb8 neutrophils, but prevented their transmigration through an endothelial barrier in the presence and absence of MIP-2. In addition, the release of MIP-2 and reactive oxygen species from LPS-stimulated Hoxb8 neutrophils were directly inhibited by H2S. Taken together, we provide first evidence that H2S limits lung neutrophil sequestration upon LPS challenge. As proposed underlying mechanisms, H2S prevents neutrophil transmigration through the inflamed endothelium and directly inhibits pro-inflammatory as well as oxidative signalling in neutrophils. Subsequently, H2S pretreatment ameliorates LPS-induced ALI.