UGT1A and TYMS genetic variants predict toxicity and response of colorectal cancer patients treated with first-line irinotecan and fluorouracil combination therapy.
ABSTRACT: The impact of thymidylate synthase (TYMS) and UDP-glucoronosyltransferase 1A (UGT1A) germline polymorphisms on the outcome of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients treated with irinotecan plus 5-fluorouracil (irinotecan/5FU) is still controversial. Our objective was to define a genetic-based algorithm to select patients to be treated with irinotecan/5FU.Genotyping of TYMS (5'TRP and 3'UTR), UGT1A1(*)28, UGT1A9(*)22 and UGT1A7(*)3 was performed in 149 metastatic CRC patients treated with irinotecan/5FU as first-line chemotherapy enrolled in a randomised phase 3 study. Their association with response, toxicity and survival was investigated by univariate and multivariate statistical analysis.TYMS 3TRP/3TRP genotype was the only independent predictor of tumour response (OR=5.87, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.68-20.45; P=0.005). UGT1A1(*)28/(*)28 was predictive for haematologic toxicity (OR=6.27, 95% CI=1.09-36.12; P=0.04), specifically for neutropenia alone (OR=6.40, 95% CI=1.11-37.03; P=0.038) or together with diarrhoea (OR=18.87, 95% CI=2.14-166.67; P=0.008). UGT1A9(*)1/(*)1 was associated with non-haematologic toxicity (OR=2.70, 95% CI=1.07-6.82; P=0.035). Haplotype VII (all non-favourable alleles) was associated with non-haematologic toxicity (OR=2.11, 95% CI=1.12-3.98; P=0.02).TYMS and UGT1A polymorphisms influence on tumour response and toxicities derived from irinotecan/5FU treatment in CRC patients. A genetic-based algorithm to optimise treatment individualisation is proposed.
Project description:To predict precisely severe toxicity of irinotecan, we evaluated the association of UGT1A variants, haplotypes and the combination of UGT1A genotypes to severe toxicity of irinotecan. UGT1A1*6 (211G>A), UGT1A1*28 (TA6>TA7), UGT1A1*60 (-3279T>G), UGT1A7 (387T>G), UGT1A7 (622T>C), and UGT1A9*1b (-118T9>T10, also named *22) were genotyped in 123 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who had received irinotecan-based chemotherapy. Among the 123 patients, 73 were enrolled in either of two phase II studies of the FOLFIRI (leucovorin, 5-fluorouracil and irinotecan) regimen; these patients constituted the training population, which was used to construct the predicting system. The other 50 patients constituted the validation population; these 50 patients either had participated in a phase II study of irinotecan/5'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine or were among consecutive patients who received FOLFIRI therapy. This prediction system used sequential forward floating selection based on statistical pattern recognition using UGT1A genotypes, gender and age. Several UGT1A genotypes [UGT1A1*6, UGT1A7 (387T>G), UGT1A7 (622T>C) and UGT1A9*1b] were associated with the irinotecan toxicity. Among the haplotypes, haplotype-I (UGT1A1: -3279T, TA6, 211G; UGT1A7: 387T, 622T; UGT1A9: T10) and haplotype-II (UGT1A1: -3279T, TA6, 211A; UGT1A7: 387G, 622C; UGT1A9: T9) were also associated with irinotecan toxicity. Furthermore, our new system for predicting the risk of irinotecan toxicity was 83.9% accurate with the training population and 72.1% accurate with the validation population. Our novel prediction system using statistical pattern recognition depend on genotypes in UGT1A, age and gender; moreover, it showed high predictive performance even though the treatment regimens differed among the training and validation patients.
Project description:UNLABELLED:Retrospective studies have suggested that UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)1A1, UGT1A7, and UGT1A9 predict severe toxicity and efficacy of irinotecan-containing regimens. We prospectively evaluated the impact of UGT1A genotypes and haplotypes on severe toxicity and efficacy in patients treated with fluorouracil, leucovorin, and irinotecan combination chemotherapy (FOLFIRI) for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) from the two prospective multicenter phase II studies in Japan. The FLIGHT1 study was a first-line FOLFIRI trial, and FLIGHT2 was a FOLFOX-refractory, second-line FOLFIRI trial. A total of 73 patients agreed to additional analysis, and were genotyped for UGT1A polymorphisms, UGT1A1*28 (TA6>TA7), UGT1A1*6 (211G>A), UGT1A1*27 (686C>A), UGT1A1*60 (-3279T>G), UGT1A1*93 (-3156G>A), UGT1A7 (-57T>G), UGT1A7*3 (387T>G, 622T>C), and UGT1A9*22 (T9>T10). Of 73 patients, 34 developed G3/4 severe hematological toxicities. The toxicities were significantly more frequent in patients with UGT1A1*6 (211A), UGT1A7 (387G), and UGT1A9*22 reference alleles (T9). Haplotype I, which consists of all favorable alleles, was associated with a significant reduction in hematologic toxicity (P = 0.031). In contrast, haplotype II, which contains four high-risk alleles, showed significantly higher hematologic toxicity than the other haplotypes (P = 0.010). Six out of seven patients who were homozygous for UGT1A1*28 or *6 experienced severe hematological toxicity despite the fact that their response rate was not impaired (42.9%). We concluded that UGT1A polymorphisms, especially UGT1A1*6, are important for the prediction of severe toxicity of FOLFIRI in northeast Asian populations. In this regard, haplotype analyses should substantially impact the prediction of severe hematological toxicities of FOLFIRI. ( CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:UMIN000002388 and UMIN000002476).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Our study describes the feasibility and efficacy of a first-line FOLFIRINOX (5-fluorouracil [5FU], folinic acid, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin) induction chemotherapy (CT) followed by de-escalation as a maintenance strategy for advanced pancreatic cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS:This multicenter retrospective study was conducted from January 2011 to December 2018. FOLFIRINOX de-escalation was defined as stopping oxaliplatin and/or irinotecan after at least four cycles of FOLFIRINOX, without evidence of disease progression. Maintenance schedules were fluoropyrimidine monotherapy (intravenous or oral [capecitabine]), FOLFOX (5FU, oxaliplatin), or FOLFIRI (5FU, irinotecan). Primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). Secondary endpoints were first progression-free survival (PFS1), second progression-free survival (PFS2), and toxicity. RESULTS:Among 321 patients treated with FOLFIRINOX, 147 (45.8%) were included. Median OS was 16.1 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.7-20.3) and median PFS1 was 9.4 months (95% CI, 8.5-10.4). The preferred maintenance regimen was FOLFIRI in 66 (45%) patients versus 5FU monotherapy in 52 (35%) and FOLFOX in 25 (17%) patients. Among 118 patients who received maintenance CT with FOLFIRI or 5FU, there was no difference in PFS1 (median, 9.0 vs. 10.1 months, respectively; p = .33) or OS (median, 16.6 vs. 18.7 months; p = .86) between the two maintenance regimens. Reintroduction of FOLFIRINOX was performed in 20.2% of patients, with a median PFS2 of 2.8 months (95% CI, 2.0-22.3). The rates of grade 3-4 toxicity were significantly higher with FOLFIRI maintenance CT than with 5FU (41% vs. 22%; p = .03), especially for neuropathy (73% vs. 9%). CONCLUSION:5FU monotherapy maintenance appeared to be as effective as FOLFIRI, in a FOLFIRINOX de-escalation strategy, which is largely used in France. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE:FOLFIRINOX de-escalation and maintenance is a feasible strategy in advanced pancreatic cancer that decreases chemotherapy toxicity to improve both survival and quality of life. Survivals in patients with maintenance therapy are clinically meaningful. Fluoropyrimidine monotherapy maintenance seems to be as efficient as FOLFIRI and should be a reference arm in future pancreatic cancer maintenance trials.
Project description:To investigate the impact of thymidylate synthase (TYMS), KRAS and BRAF in the survival of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients treated with chemotherapy.Clinical data were collected retrospectively from records of consecutive patients with mCRC treated with fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy from 1/2005 to 1/2007. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues were retrieved for analysis. TYMS genotypes were identified with restriction fragment analysis PCR, while KRAS and BRAF mutation status was evaluated using real-time PCR assays. TYMS gene polymorphisms of each of the 3' untranslated region (UTR) and 5'UTR were classified into three groups according to the probability they have for high, medium and low TYMS expression (and similar levels of risk) based on evidence from previous studies. Univariate and multivariate survival analyses were performed.The analysis recovered 89 patients with mCRC (46.1% de novo metastatic disease and 53.9% relapsed). Of these, 46 patients (51.7%) had colon cancer and 43 (48.3%) rectal cancer as primary. All patients were treated with fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy (5FU or capecitabine) as single-agent or in combination with irinotecan or/and oxaliplatin or/and bevacizumab. With a median follow-up time of 14.8 mo (range 0-119.8), 85 patients (95.5%) experienced disease progression, and 63 deaths (70.8%) were recorded. The 3-year and 5-year OS rate was 25.4% and 7.7% while the 3-year progression-free survival rate was 7.1%. Multivariate analysis of TYMS polymorphisms, KRAS and BRAF with clinicopathological parameters indicated that TYMS 3'UTR polymorphisms are associated with risk for disease progression and death (P < 0.05 and P < 0.03 respectively). When compared to tumors without any del allele (genotypes ins/ins and ins/loss of heterozygosity (LOH) linked with high TYMS expression) tumors with del/del genotype (low expression group) and tumors with ins/del or del/LOH (intermediate expression group) have lower risk for disease progression (HR = 0.432, 95%CI: 0.198-0.946, P < 0.04 and HR = 0.513, 95%CI: 0.287-0.919, P < 0.03 respectively) and death (HR = 0.366, 95%CI: 0.162-0.827, P < 0.02 and HR = 0.559, 95%CI: 0.309-1.113, P < 0.06 respectively). Additionally, KRAS mutation was associated independently with the risk of disease progression (HR = 1.600, 95%CI: 1.011-2.531, P < 0.05). The addition of irinotecan in 1st line chemotherapy was associated independently with lower risk for disease progression and death (HR = 0.600, 95%CI: 0.372-0.969, P < 0.04 and HR = 0.352, 95%CI: 0.164-0.757, P < 0.01 respectively).The TYMS genotypes ins/ins and ins/LOH associate with worst prognosis in mCRC patients under fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy. Large prospective studies are needed for validation of our findings.
Project description:Irinotecan and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) are used to treat metastatic colorectal cancer. Irinotecan's active metabolite is inactivated by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1), which is deficient in Gilbert's syndrome. Irinotecan and metabolites are transported by P-glycoprotein, encoded by ABCB1. 5-FU targets folate metabolism through inhibition of thymidylate synthase (TYMS). Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) generates active folate necessary for haematopoiesis. We retrospectively genotyped 140 Swedish and Norwegian irinotecan and 5-FU-treated colorectal cancer patients from the Nordic VI clinical trial for selected variants of UGT1A1, ABCB1, TYMS and MTHFR. We found an increased risk of clinically relevant early toxicity in patients carrying the ABCB1 3435 T/T genotype, Odds ratio (OR)=3.79 (95% confidence interval (CI)=1.09-13.2), and in patients carrying the UGT1A1(*)28/(*)28 genotype, OR=4.43 (95% CI=1.30-15.2). Patients with UGT1A1(*)28/(*)28 had an especially high risk of neutropenia, OR=6.87 (95% CI=1.70-27.7). Patients who had reacted with toxicity during the first two cycles were in total treated with fewer cycles (P<0.001), and less often responded to treatment (P<0.001). Genetic variation in ABCB1 was associated with both early toxicity and lower response to treatment. Carriers of the ABCB1 1236T-2677T-3435T haplotype responded to treatment less frequently (43 vs 67%, P=0.027), and survived shorter time, OR=1.56 (95% CI=1.01-2.45).
Project description:<h4>Importance</h4>The EGFR inhibitors (EGFR-I) cetuximab and panitumumab and the angiogenesis inhibitors (AIs) bevacizumab and aflibercept have demonstrated varying efficacy in mCRC.<h4>Objective</h4>To document the overall impact of specific chemotherapy regimens on the efficacy of targeted agents in treating patients with mCRC.<h4>Data sources</h4>MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases were searched to 2014, supplemented by hand-searching ASCO/ESMO conference abstracts.<h4>Study selection</h4>Published RCTs of patients with histologically confirmed mCRC were included if they investigated either 1) chemotherapy with or without a biological agent or 2) different chemotherapy regimens with the same biological agent. EGFR-I trials were restricted to KRAS exon 2 wild-type (WT) populations.<h4>Data extraction and synthesis</h4>Data were independently abstracted by two authors and trial quality assessed according to Cochrane criteria. The primary outcome was overall survival with secondary endpoints progression free survival (PFS), overall response rate (ORR) and toxicity.<h4>Results</h4>EGFR-I added to irinotecan-based chemotherapy modestly improved OS with HR 0.90 (95% CI 0.81-1.00, p = 0.04), but more so PFS with HR 0.77 (95% CI 0.69-0.86, p<0.00001). No benefit was evident for EGFR-I added to oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy (OS HR 0.97 (95% CI 0.87-1.09) and PFS HR 0.92 (95% CI 0.83-1.02)). Significant oxaliplatin-irinotecan subgroup interactions were present for PFS with I2 = 82%, p = 0.02. Further analyses of oxaliplatin+EGFR-I trials showed greater efficacy with infusional 5FU regimens (PFS HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.72-0.94) compared to capecitabine (HR 1.09; 95% CI 0.91-1.30) and bolus 5FU (HR 1.07; 95% CI 0.79-1.45); subgroup interaction was present with I2 = 72%, p = 0.03. The oxaliplatin-irinotecan interaction was not evident for infusional 5FU regimens. For AIs, OS benefit was observed with both oxaliplatin-based (HR 0.83) and irinotecan-based (HR 0.77) regimens without significant subgroup interactions. Oxaliplatin+AI trials showed no subgroup interactions by type of FP, whilst an interaction was present for irinotecan+AI trials although aflibercept was only used with infusional FP (I2 = 89.7%, p = 0.002).<h4>Conclusion and relevance</h4>The addition of EGFR-I to irinotecan-based chemotherapy has consistent efficacy, regardless of FP regimen, whereas EGFR-I and oxaliplatin-based regimens were most active with infusional 5FU. No such differential activity was observed with the varying chemotherapy schedules when combined with AIs.
Project description:Diversity in colorectal cancer biology is associated with variable responses to standard chemotherapy. We aimed to identify and validate DNA hypermethylated genes as predictive biomarkers for irinotecan treatment of metastatic CRC patients. Candidate genes were selected from 389 genes involved in DNA Damage Repair by correlation analyses between gene methylation status and drug response in 32 cell lines. A large series of samples (n=818) from two phase III clinical trials was used to evaluate these candidate genes by correlating methylation status to progression-free survival after treatment with first-line single-agent fluorouracil (Capecitabine or 5-fluorouracil) or combination chemotherapy (Capecitabine or 5-fluorouracil plus irinotecan (CAPIRI/FOLFIRI)). In the discovery (n=185) and initial validation set (n=166), patients with methylated Decoy Receptor 1 (DCR1) did not benefit from CAPIRI over Capecitabine treatment (discovery set: HR=1.2 (95%CI 0.7-1.9, p=0.6), validation set: HR=0.9 (95%CI 0.6-1.4, p=0.5)), whereas patients with unmethylated DCR1 did (discovery set: HR=0.4 (95%CI 0.3-0.6, p=0.00001), validation set: HR=0.5 (95%CI 0.3-0.7, p=0.0008)). These results could not be replicated in the external data set (n=467), where a similar effect size was found in patients with methylated and unmethylated DCR1 for FOLFIRI over 5FU treatment (methylated DCR1: HR=0.7 (95%CI 0.5-0.9, p=0.01), unmethylated DCR1: HR=0.8 (95%CI 0.6-1.2, p=0.4)). In conclusion, DCR1 promoter hypermethylation status is a potential predictive biomarker for response to treatment with irinotecan, when combined with capecitabine. This finding could not be replicated in an external validation set, in which irinotecan was combined with 5FU. These results underline the challenge and importance of extensive clinical evaluation of candidate biomarkers in multiple trials.
Project description:Irinotecan (CPT-11) is widely used for the treatment of patients with colorectal cancer. However, the adverse effects associated with the treatment have hindered the efficacies of irinotecan. We have shown that organic selenium compounds could significantly attenuate irinotecan-associated toxicity and enhance antitumor activity in xenograft tumor models. The objective of this study is to determine the role of a specific group of uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases, which is coded by UGT1A, in detoxification process of irinotecan as well as selenium-associated protective effect against irinotecan-induced toxicity.In this study, the toxicities of irinotecan, docetaxel and cisplatin in the Ugta1 mutant rats and their wild-type controls were compared. The plasma concentrations of irinotecan and SN-38 were measured. The modulatory effect of a selenium compound on irinotecan-induced toxicity was analyzed in these rats.We demonstrated that the maximum tolerated doses of irinotecan in the homozygous mutant rats were significantly lower than those in wild-type rats, 25 mg/kg × 1 versus 200 mg/kg × 1 and 3 mg/kg/day × 3 versus 100 mg/kg/day × 3, respectively. The enhanced sensitivity was specific to irinotecan and was not observed with other chemotherapeutic agents, such as docetaxel and cisplatin, where Ugt1a is not required for their metabolism. Our results also showed that selective protection against irinotecan-induced toxicity by 5-methylselenocysteine was achieved in the wild-type rats but not in the Ugt1a null rats.These data support the hypothesis that expression of UGT1A is critical for 5-methylselenocysteine to exert its protective effect against irinotecan-induced toxicity.
Project description:The present study aimed at investigating whether the simultaneous evaluation of pharmacokinetic, pharmacogenetic and demographic factors could improve prediction on toxicity and survival in colorectal cancer patients treated with adjuvant 5-fluorouracil (5FU)/leucovorin therapy. One hundred and thirty consecutive, B2 and C Duke's stage colorectal cancer patients were prospectively enrolled. 5FU pharmacokinetics was evaluated at the first cycle. Thymidylate synthase (TYMS) 5'UTR and 3'UTR polymorphisms and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C polymorphisms were assessed in peripheral leukocytes. Univariate and multivariate analyses were applied to evaluate which variables could predict chemotherapy-induced toxicity, disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Multivariate analysis showed that: (a) low 5FU clearance was an independent predictive factor for severe toxicity (OR=7.32; P<0.0001); (b) high-5FU clearance predicted poorer DFS (HR=1.96; P=0.041) and OS (HR=3.37; P=0.011); (c) advanced age was associated with shorter DFS (HR=3.34; P=0.0008) and OS (HR=2.66; P=0.024); (d) the C/C genotype of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism was protective against grade 3-4 toxicity (P=0.040); (e) none of the TYMS polymorphisms could explain 5FU toxicity or clinical outcome.
Project description:5-Fluorouracil (5FU), a widely used chemotherapeutic drug, inhibits the DNA replicative enzyme, thymidylate synthase (Tyms). Prior studies implicated a VNTR (variable numbers of tandem repeats) polymorphism in the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of the TYMS gene as a determinant of Tyms expression in tumors and normal tissues and proposed that these VNTR genotypes could help decide fluoropyrimidine dosing. Clinical associations between 5FU-related toxicity and the TYMS VNTR were reported, however, results were inconsistent, suggesting that additional genetic variation in the TYMS gene might influence Tyms expression. We thus conducted a detailed genetic analysis of this region, defining new polymorphisms in this gene including mononucleotide (poly A:T) repeats and novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) flanking the VNTR in the TYMS genetic region. Our haplotype analysis of this region used data from both established and novel genetic variants and found nine SNP haplotypes accounting for more than 90% of the studied population. We observed non-exclusive relationships between the VNTR and adjacent SNP haplotypes, such that each type of VNTR commonly occurred on several haplotype backgrounds. Our results confirmed the expectation that the VNTR alleles exhibit homoplasy and lack the common ancestry required for a reliable marker of a linked adjacent locus that might govern toxicity. We propose that it may be necessary in a clinical trial to assay multiple types of genetic polymorphisms in the TYMS region to meaningfully model linkage of genetic markers to 5FU-related toxicity. The presence of multiple long (up to 26 nt), polymorphic monothymidine repeats in the promoter region of the sole human thymidylate synthetic enzyme is intriguing.