A novel single-stranded DNA-specific 3'-5' exonuclease, Thermus thermophilus exonuclease I, is involved in several DNA repair pathways.
ABSTRACT: Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-specific exonucleases (ssExos) are expected to be involved in a variety of DNA repair pathways corresponding to their cleavage polarities; however, the relationship between the cleavage polarity and the respective DNA repair pathways is only partially understood. To understand the cellular function of ssExos in DNA repair better, genes encoding ssExos were disrupted in Thermus thermophilus HB8 that seems to have only a single set of 5'-3' and 3'-5' ssExos unlike other model organisms. Disruption of the tthb178 gene, which was expected to encode a 3'-5' ssExo, resulted in significant increase in the sensitivity to H(2)O(2) and frequency of the spontaneous mutation rate, but scarcely affected the sensitivity to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. In contrast, disruption of the recJ gene, which encodes a 5'-3' ssExo, showed little effect on the sensitivity to H(2)O(2), but caused increased sensitivity to UV irradiation. In vitro characterization revealed that TTHB178 possessed 3'-5' ssExo activity that degraded ssDNAs containing deaminated and methylated bases, but not those containing oxidized bases or abasic sites. Consequently, we concluded that TTHB178 is a novel 3'-5' ssExo that functions in various DNA repair systems in cooperation with or independently of RecJ. We named TTHB178 as T. thermophilus exonuclease I.
Project description:RecJ, a 5' to 3' exonuclease specific for single-stranded DNA, functions in DNA repair and recombination systems. We determined the crystal structure of RecJ bound to Mn(2+) ion essential for its activity. RecJ has a novel fold in which two domains are interconnected by a long helix, forming a central groove. Mn(2+) is located on the wall of the groove and is coordinated by conserved residues characteristic of a family of phosphoesterases that includes RecJ proteins. The groove is composed of residues conserved among RecJ proteins and is positively charged. These findings and the narrow width of the groove indicate that the groove binds single- instead of double-stranded DNA.
Project description:RecJ is a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-specific 5'-3' exonuclease that plays an important role in DNA repair and recombination. To elucidate how RecJ achieves its high specificity for ssDNA, we determined the entire structures of RecJ both in a ligand-free form and in a complex with Mn(2+) or Mg(2+) by x-ray crystallography. The entire RecJ consists of four domains that form a molecule with an O-like structure. One of two newly identified domains had structural similarities to an oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding (OB) fold. The OB fold domain alone could bind to DNA, indicating that this domain is a novel member of the OB fold superfamily. The truncated RecJ containing only the core domain exhibited much lower affinity for the ssDNA substrate compared with intact RecJ. These results support the hypothesis that these structural features allow specific binding of RecJ to ssDNA. In addition, the structure of the RecJ-Mn(2+) complex suggests that the hydrolysis reaction catalyzed by RecJ proceeds through a two-metal ion mechanism.
Project description:UV light induces DNA lesions, which are removed by nucleotide excision repair (NER). Exonuclease 1 (EXO1) is highly conserved from yeast to human and is implicated in numerous DNA metabolic pathways, including repair, recombination, replication, and telomere maintenance. Here we show that hEXO1 is involved in the cellular response to UV irradiation in human cells. After local UV irradiation, fluorescent-tagged hEXO1 localizes, together with NER factors, at the sites of damage in nonreplicating cells. hEXO1 accumulation requires XPF-dependent processing of UV-induced lesions and is enhanced by inhibition of DNA repair synthesis. In nonreplicating cells, depletion of hEXO1 reduces unscheduled DNA synthesis after UV irradiation, prevents ubiquitylation of histone H2A, and impairs activation of the checkpoint signal transduction cascade in response to UV damage. These findings reveal a key role for hEXO1 in the UV-induced DNA damage response linking NER to checkpoint activation in human cells.
Project description:RecJ-like proteins belonging to the DHH family have been proposed to function as oligoribonucleases and 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphate (pAp) phosphatases in bacteria and archaea, which do not have Orn (oligoribonuclease) and CysQ (pAp phosphatase) homologs. In this study, we analyzed the biochemical and physiological characterization of the RecJ-like protein TTHA0118 from Thermus thermophilus HB8. TTHA0118 had high enzymatic activity as an oligodeoxyribonucleotide- and oligoribonucleotide-specific exonuclease and as pAp phosphatase. The polarity of degradation was 5' to 3', in contrast to previous reports about Bacillus subtilis NrnA, a RecJ-like protein. TTHA0118 preferentially hydrolyzed short oligodeoxyribonucleotides and oligoribonucleotides, whereas the RecJ exonuclease from T. thermophilus HB8 showed no such length dependence on oligodeoxyribonucleotide substrates. An insertion mutation of the ttha0118 gene led to growth reduction in minimum essential medium. Added 5'-mononucleotides, nucleosides, and cysteine increased growth of the ttha0118 mutant in minimum essential medium. The RecJ-like protein Mpn140 from Mycoplasma pneumoniae M129, which cannot synthesize nucleic acid precursors de novo, showed similar biochemical features to TTHA0118. Furthermore, B. subtilis NrnA also hydrolyzed oligo(deoxy)ribonucleotides in a 5'-3' direction. These results suggested that these RecJ-like proteins act in recycling short oligonucleotides to mononucleotides and in controlling pAp concentrations in vivo.
Project description:NurA and HerA are thought to be essential proteins for DNA end resection in archaeal homologous recombination systems. Thermus thermophilus, an extremely thermophilic eubacterium, has proteins that exhibit significant sequence similarity to archaeal NurA and HerA. To unveil the cellular function of NurA and HerA in T. thermophilus, we performed phenotypic analysis of disruptant mutants of nurA and herA with or without DNA-damaging agents. The nurA and herA genes were not essential for survival, and their deletion had no effect on cell growth and genome integrity. Unexpectedly, these disruptants of T. thermophilus showed increased resistance to UV irradiation and mitomycin C treatment. Further, these disruptants and the wild type displayed no difference in sensitivity to oxidative stress and a DNA replication inhibitor. T. thermophilus NurA had nuclease activity, and HerA had ATPase. The overexpression of loss-of-function mutants of nurA and herA in the respective disruptants showed no complementation, suggesting their enzymatic activities were involved in the UV sensitivity. In addition, T. thermophilus NurA and HerA interacted with each other in vitro and in vivo, forming a complex with 2:6 stoichiometry. These results suggest that the NurA-HerA complex has an architecture similar to that of archaeal counterparts but that it impairs, rather than promotes, the repair of photoproducts and DNA cross-links in T. thermophilus cells. This cellular function is distinctly different from that of archaeal NurA and HerA.IMPORTANCE Many nucleases and helicases are engaged in homologous recombination-mediated DNA repair. Previous in vitro analyses in archaea indicated that NurA and HerA are the recombination-related nuclease and helicase. However, their cellular function had not been fully understood, especially in bacterial cells. In this study, we performed in vivo analyses to address the cellular function of nurA and herA in an extremely thermophilic bacterium, Thermus thermophilus As a result, T. thermophilus NurA and HerA exhibited an interfering effect on the repair of several instances of DNA damage in the cell, which is in contrast to the results in archaea. This finding will facilitate our understanding of the diverse cellular functions of the recombination-related nucleases and helicases.
Project description:The recJ gene, identified in Escherichia coli, encodes a Mg(+2)-dependent 5'-to-3' exonuclease with high specificity for single-strand DNA. Genetic and biochemical experiments implicate RecJ exonuclease in homologous recombination, base excision, and methyl-directed mismatch repair. Genes encoding proteins with strong similarities to RecJ have been found in every eubacterial genome sequenced to date, with the exception of Mycoplasma and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Multiple genes encoding proteins similar to RecJ are found in some eubacteria, including Bacillus and Helicobacter, and in the archaea. Among this divergent set of sequences, seven conserved motifs emerge. We demonstrate here that amino acids within six of these motifs are essential for both the biochemical and genetic functions of E. coli RecJ. These motifs may define interactions with Mg(2+) ions or substrate DNA. A large family of proteins more distantly related to RecJ is present in archaea, eubacteria, and eukaryotes, including a hypothetical protein in the MgPa adhesin operon of Mycoplasma, a domain of putative polyA polymerases in Synechocystis and Aquifex, PRUNE of Drosophila, and an exopolyphosphatase (PPX1) of Saccharomyces cereviseae. Because these six RecJ motifs are shared between exonucleases and exopolyphosphatases, they may constitute an ancient phosphoesterase domain now found in all kingdoms of life.
Project description:The RecFOR pathway has been shown to be essential for DNA repair through the process of homologous recombination in bacteria and, recently, to be important in the recovery of stalled replication forks following UV irradiation. RecO, along with RecR, RecF, RecQ and RecJ, is a principal actor in this fundamental DNA repair pathway. Here we present the three-dimensional structure of a member of the RecO family. The crystal structure of Deinococcus radiodurans RecO (drRecO) reveals possible binding sites for DNA and for the RecO-binding proteins within its three discrete structural regions: an N-terminal oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding domain, a helical bundle and a zinc-finger motif. Furthermore, drRecO was found to form a stable complex with RecR and to bind both single- and double-stranded DNA. Mutational analysis confirmed the existence of multiple DNA-binding sites within the protein.
Project description:By UV-irradiation, cells are subjected to DNA damage followed by mutation, cell death and/or carcinogenesis. DNA repair systems such as nucleotide excision repair (NER) and translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) protect cells against UV-irradiation. To understand the role of histone acetyltransferase GCN5 in regulation of DNA repair, we studied the sensitivity of GCN5-deficient DT40, GCN5(-/-), to various DNA-damaging agents including UV-irradiation, and effects of GCN5-deficiency on the expression of NER- and TLS-related genes. After UV-irradiation, cell death and DNA fragmentation of GCN5(-/-) were appreciably accelerated as compared with those of DT40. Interestingly, GCN5(-/-) showed a remarkable sensitivity to only UV-irradiation but not to other DNA-damaging agents tested. Semiquantitative RT-PCR showed that transcription of DNA polymerase ? (POLH) gene whose deficiency is responsible for a variant form of xeroderma pigmentosum was drastically down-regulated in GCN5(-/-) (to ?25%). In addition, ectopic expression of human POLH in GCN5(-/-) dramatically reversed the sensitivity to UV-irradiation of GCN5(-/-) to almost the same level of wild type DT40. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that GCN5 binds to the chicken POLH gene 5'-flanking region that contains a typical CpG island and acetylates Lys-9 of histone H3, but not Lys-14 in vivo. These data suggest that GCN5 takes part in transcription regulation of POLH gene through alterations in the chromatin structure by direct interaction with its 5'-flanking region, and protects vertebrate cells against UV-induced DNA damage via controlling POLH gene expression.
Project description:BACKGROUND:A variety of strategies for survival of UV irradiation are used by cells, ranging from repair of UV-damaged DNA, cell cycle arrest, tolerance of unrepaired UV photoproducts, and shielding from UV light. Some of these responses involve UV-inducible genes, including the SOS response in bacteria and an array of genes in eukaryotes. To address the mechanisms used in the third branch of life, we have studied the model archaeon, Halobacterium sp. strain NRC-1, which tolerates high levels of solar radiation in its natural hypersaline environment. RESULTS:Cells were irradiated with 30-70 J/m(2) UV-C and an immunoassay showed that the resulting DNA damage was largely repaired within 3 hours in the dark. Under such conditions, transcriptional profiling showed the most strongly up-regulated gene was radA1, the archaeal homolog of rad51/recA, which was induced 7-fold. Additional genes involved in homologous recombination, such as arj1 (recJ-like exonuclease), dbp (eukaryote-like DNA binding protein of the superfamily I DNA and RNA helicases), and rfa3 (replication protein A complex), as well as nrdJ, encoding for cobalamin-dependent ribonucleotide reductase involved in DNA metabolism, was also significantly induced in one or more of our experimental conditions. Neither prokaryotic nor eukaryotic excision repair gene homologs were induced and there was no evidence of an SOS-like response. CONCLUSION:These results show that homologous recombination plays an important role in the cellular response of Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 to UV damage. Homologous recombination may permit rescue of stalled replication forks, and/or facilitate recombinational repair. In either case, this provides a mechanism for the observed high-frequency recombination among natural populations of halophilic archaea.
Project description:DNA lesions that arrest replication can lead to rearrangements, mutations, or lethality when not processed accurately. After UV-induced DNA damage in Escherichia coli, RecA and several recF pathway proteins are thought to process arrested replication forks and ensure that replication resumes accurately. Here, we show that the RecJ nuclease and RecQ helicase, which partially degrade the nascent DNA at blocked replication forks, are required for the rapid recovery of DNA synthesis and prevent the potentially mutagenic bypass of UV lesions. In the absence of RecJ, or to a lesser extent RecQ, the recovery of replication is significantly delayed, and both the recovery and cell survival become dependent on translesion synthesis by polymerase V. The RecJ-mediated processing is proposed to restore the region containing the lesion to a form that allows repair enzymes to remove the blocking lesion and DNA synthesis to resume. In the absence of nascent DNA processing, polymerase V can synthesize past the lesion to prevent lethality, although this occurs with slower kinetics and a higher frequency of mutagenesis.