The E2 domain of OdhA of Corynebacterium glutamicum has succinyltransferase activity dependent on lipoyl residues of the acetyltransferase AceF.
ABSTRACT: Oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (ODH) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complexes catalyze key reactions in central metabolism, and in Corynebacterium glutamicum there is indication of an unusual supercomplex consisting of AceE (E1), AceF (E2), and Lpd (E3) together with OdhA. OdhA is a fusion protein of additional E1 and E2 domains, and odhA orthologs are present in all Corynebacterineae, including, for instance, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Here we show that deletion of any of the individual domains of OdhA in C. glutamicum resulted in loss of ODH activity, whereas PDH was still functional. On the other hand, deletion of AceF disabled both PDH activity and ODH activity as well, although isolated AceF protein had solely transacetylase activity and no transsuccinylase activity. Surprisingly, the isolated OdhA protein was inactive with 2-oxoglutarate as the substrate, but it gained transsuccinylase activity upon addition of dihydrolipoamide. Further enzymatic analysis of mutant proteins and mutant cells revealed that OdhA specifically catalyzes the E1 and E2 reaction to convert 2-oxoglutarate to succinyl-coenzyme A (CoA) but fully relies on the lipoyl residues provided by AceF involved in the reactions to convert pyruvate to acetyl-CoA. It therefore appears that in the putative supercomplex in C. glutamicum, in addition to dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase E3, lipoyl domains are also shared, thus confirming the unique evolutionary position of bacteria such as C. glutamicum and M. tuberculosis.
Project description:The pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex of the gram-negative bacterium Zymomonas mobilis was purified to homogeneity. From 250 g of cells, we isolated 1 mg of PDH complex with a specific activity of 12.6 U/mg of protein. Analysis of subunit composition revealed a PDH (E1) consisting of the two subunits E1alpha (38 kDa) and E1beta (56 kDa), a dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (E2) of 48 kDa, and a lipoamide dehydrogenase (E3) of 50 kDa. The E2 core of the complex is arranged to form a pentagonal dodecahedron, as shown by electron microscopic images, resembling the quaternary structures of PDH complexes from gram-positive bacteria and eukaryotes. The PDH complex-encoding genes were identified by hybridization experiments and sequence analysis in two separate gene regions in the genome of Z. mobilis. The genes pdhAalpha (1,065 bp) and pdhAbeta (1,389 bp), encoding the E1alpha and E1beta subunits of the E1 component, were located downstream of the gene encoding enolase. The pdhB (1,323 bp) and lpd (1,401 bp) genes, encoding the E2 and E3 components, were identified in an unrelated gene region together with a 450-bp open reading frame (ORF) of unknown function in the order pdhB-ORF2-lpd. Highest similarities of the gene products of the pdhAalpha, pdhAbeta, and pdhB genes were found with the corresponding enzymes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other eukaryotes. Like the dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferases of S. cerevisiae and numerous other organisms, the product of the pdhB gene contains a single lipoyl domain. The E1beta subunit PDH was found to contain an amino-terminal lipoyl domain, a property which is unique among PDHs.
Project description:Sirtuins (SIRTs) are critical enzymes that govern genome regulation, metabolism, and aging. Despite conserved deacetylase domains, mitochondrial SIRT4 and SIRT5 have little to no deacetylase activity, and a robust catalytic activity for SIRT4 has been elusive. Here, we establish SIRT4 as a cellular lipoamidase that regulates the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH). Importantly, SIRT4 catalytic efficiency for lipoyl- and biotinyl-lysine modifications is superior to its deacetylation activity. PDH, which converts pyruvate to acetyl-CoA, has been known to be primarily regulated by phosphorylation of its E1 component. We determine that SIRT4 enzymatically hydrolyzes the lipoamide cofactors from the E2 component dihydrolipoyllysine acetyltransferase (DLAT), diminishing PDH activity. We demonstrate SIRT4-mediated regulation of DLAT lipoyl levels and PDH activity in cells and in vivo, in mouse liver. Furthermore, metabolic flux switching via glutamine stimulation induces SIRT4 lipoamidase activity to inhibit PDH, highlighting SIRT4 as a guardian of cellular metabolism.
Project description:L-glutamate overproduction in Corynebacterium glutamicum, a biotin auxotroph, is induced by biotin limitation or by treatment with certain fatty acid ester surfactants or with penicillin. We have analyzed the relationship between the inductions, 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (ODHC) activity, and L-glutamate production. Here we show that a strain deleted for odhA and completely lacking ODHC activity produces L-glutamate as efficiently as the induced wild type (27.8 mmol/g [dry weight] of cells for the ohdA deletion strain compared with only 1.0 mmol/g [dry weight] of cells for the uninduced wild type). This level of production is achieved without any induction or alteration in the fatty acid composition of the cells, showing that L-glutamate overproduction can be caused by the change in metabolic flux alone. Interestingly, the L-glutamate productivity of the odhA-deleted strain is increased about 10% by each of the L-glutamate-producing inductions, showing that the change in metabolic flux resulting from the odhA deletion and the inductions have additive effects on L-glutamate overproduction. Tween 40 was indicated to induce drastic metabolic change leading to L-glutamate overproduction in the odhA-deleted strain. Furthermore, optimizing the metabolic flux from 2-oxoglutarate to L-glutamate by tuning glutamate dehydrogenase activity increased the l-glutamate production of the odhA-deleted strain.
Project description:The pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1) and acetyltransferase (E2) components of pig heart and ox kidney pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex were separated and purified. The E1 component was phosphorylated (alpha-chain) and inactivated by MgATP. Phosphorylation was mainly confined to site 1. Addition of E2 accelerated phosphorylation of all three sites in E1 alpha and inactivation of E1. On the basis of histone H1 phosphorylation, E2 is presumed to contain PDH kinase, which was removed (greater than 98%) by treatment with p-hydroxymercuriphenylsulphonate. Stimulation of ATP-dependent inactivation of E1 by E2 was independent of histone H1 kinase activity of E2. The effect of E2 is attributed to conformational change(s) induced in E1 and/or E1-associated PDH kinase. PDH kinase activity associated with E1 could not be separated from it be gel filtration or DEAE-cellulose chromatography. Subunits of PDH kinase were not detected on sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide gels of E1 or E2, presumably because of low concentration. The activity of pig heart PDH complex was increased by E2, but not by E1, indicating that E2 is rate-limiting in the holocomplex reaction. ATP-dependent inactivation of PDH complex was accelerated by E1 or by phosphorylated E1 plus associated PDH kinase, but not by E2 plus presumed PDH kinase. It is suggested that a substantial proportion of PDH kinase may accompany E1 when PDH complex is dissociated into its component enzymes. The possibility that E1 may possess intrinsic PDH kinase activity is considered unlikely, but may not have been fully excluded.
Project description:The virulence factors of pathogenic microbes often have single functions that permit immune suppression. However, a proportion possess multiple activities and are considered moonlighting proteins. By examining secreted virulence factors of Staphylococcus aureus, we determine that the bacterial lipoic acid synthetase LipA suppresses macrophage activation. LipA is known to modify the E2 subunit of the metabolic enzyme complex pyruvate dehydrogenase (E2-PDH) with a fatty acid derivative, lipoic acid, yielding the metabolic protein lipoyl-E2-PDH. We demonstrate that lipoyl-E2-PDH is also released by S. aureus and moonlights as a macrophage immunosuppressant by reducing Toll-like receptor 1/2 (TLR1/2) activation by bacterial lipopeptides. A LipA-deficient strain induces heightened pro-inflammatory cytokine production, which is diminished in the absence of TLR2. During murine systemic infection, LipA suppresses pro-inflammatory macrophage activation, rendering these cells inefficient at controlling infection. These observations suggest that bacterial metabolism and immune evasion are linked by virtue of this moonlighting protein.
Project description:Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is characterized by antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs) that react with the lipoyl-containing E2 subunits of 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase complexes such as BCOADC and PDC. The lipoyl domains of E2 contain the major epitopes essential for immunopathology. However, the non-lipoyl-containing E1 subunits are also frequently targeted. Since anti-E1 antibodies always appear in combination with anti-E2 antibodies, the mechanisms underlying the autoimmunity against E1 may be linked to, but distinct from, those against E2. Here, we demonstrate that intermolecular and intramolecular determinant spreading underlies the autoimmunity against E1. We performed characterizations and epitope mapping for anti-BCOADC-E1? antibodies from both the intermolecular and intramolecular points of view. The antibody reactivities form a cluster against the BCOADC complex that is distinct from that against the PDC complex, and the anti-BCOADC-E1? antibodies arise as part of the cluster against the BCOADC complex. Multiple epitopes are present on the surface of the BCOADC-E1? molecule, and the major epitope overlaps with the active center. Sera with anti-BCOADC-E1? antibodies strongly inhibited the enzyme activity. These findings suggest that the E1? subunit as part of the native BCOADC complex is an immunogen, and that determinant spreading is involved in the pathogenesis of AMA production.
Project description:Electron cryo-microscopy of 'single particles' is a powerful method to determine the three-dimensional (3D) architectures of complex cellular assemblies. The pyruvate dehydrogenase multi-enzyme complex couples the activity of three component enzymes (E1, E2 and E3) in the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to generate acetyl-CoA, linking glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. We report here a 3D model for an 11 MDa, icosahedral pyruvate dehydrogenase sub-complex, obtained by combining a 28 A structure derived from electron cryo-microscopy with previously determined atomic coordinates of the individual E1 and E2 components. A key feature is that the E1 molecules are located on the periphery of the assembly in an orientation that allows each of the 60 mobile lipoyl domains tethered to the inner E2 core to access multiple E1 and E2 active sites from inside the icosahedral complex. This unexpected architecture provides a highly efficient mechanism for active site coupling and catalytic rate enhancement by the motion of the lipoyl domains in the restricted annular region between the inner core and outer shell of the complex.
Project description:Optimal conditions for rapid and efficient reconstitution of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) activity are demonstrated by using an improved method for the dissociation of the multienzyme complex into its constituent E1 (substrate-specific 2-oxoacid decarboxylase) and E3 (dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase) components and isolated E2/X (where E2 is dihydrolipoamide acyltransferase) core assembly. Selective cleavage of the protein X component of the purified E2/X core with the proteinase arg C decreases the activity of the reconstituted complex to residual levels (i.e. 8-12%); however, significant recovery of reconstitution is achieved on addition of a large excess (i.e. 50-fold) of parent E3. N-terminal sequence analysis of the truncated 35,000-M(r) protein X fragment locates the site of cleavage by arg C at the extreme N-terminal boundary of a putative E3-binding domain and corresponds to the release of a 15,000-M(r) N-terminal fragment comprising both the lipoyl and linker sequences. In native PDC this region of protein X is shown to be partly protected from proteolytic attack by the presence of E3. Recovery of complex activity in the presence of excess E3 after arg C treatment is thought to result from low-affinity interactions with the partly disrupted subunit-binding domain on X and/or the intact analogous subunit binding domain on E2. Contrasting recoveries for arg C-modified E2/X/E1 core, and untreated E2/E1 core of the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex, reconstituted with excess bovine heart E3, pig heart E3 or yeast E3 point to subtle differences in subunit interactions with heterologous E3s and offer an explanation for the inability of previous investigators to achieve restoration of PDC function after selective proteolysis of the protein X component.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus competes for myriad essential nutrients during host infection. One of these nutrients is the organosulfur compound lipoic acid, a cofactor required for the activity of several metabolic enzyme complexes. In S. aureus, these include the E2 subunits of three ?-ketoacid dehydrogenases and two H proteins, GcvH of the glycine cleavage system and its paralog, GcvH-L. We previously determined that the S. aureus amidotransferase LipL is required for lipoylation of the E2 subunits of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and branched-chain 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase (BCODH) complexes. The results from this study, coupled with those from Bacillus subtilis, suggested that LipL catalyzes lipoyl transfer from H proteins to E2 subunits. However, to date, the range of LipL targets, the extent of LipL-dependent lipoic acid shuttling between lipoyl domain-containing proteins, and the importance of lipoyl relay in pathogenesis remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that LipL uses both lipoyl-H proteins as the substrates for lipoyl transfer to all E2 subunits. Moreover, LipL facilitates lipoyl relay between E2 subunits and between H proteins, a property that potentially constitutes an adaptive response to nutrient scarcity in the host, as LipL is required for virulence during infection. Together, these observations support a role for LipL in facilitating flexible lipoyl relay between proteins and highlight the complexity of protein lipoylation in S. aureus IMPORTANCE Protein lipoylation is a posttranslational modification that is evolutionarily conserved from bacteria to humans. Lipoic acid modifications are found on five proteins in S. aureus, four of which are components of major metabolic enzymes. In some bacteria, the amidotransferase LipL is critical for the attachment of lipoic acid to these proteins, and yet it is unclear to what extent LipL facilitates the transfer of this cofactor. We find that S. aureus LipL flexibly shuttles lipoic acid among metabolic enzyme subunits, alluding to a dynamic redistribution mechanism within the bacterial cell. This discovery exemplifies a potential means by which bacteria optimize the use of scarce nutrients when resources are limited.
Project description:Background:Lignocellulose biomass contains high amount of biotin and resulted in an excessive biotin condition for cellulosic glutamic acid accumulation by Corynebacterium glutamicum. Penicillin or ethambutol triggers cellulosic glutamic acid accumulation, but they are not suitable for practical use due to the fermentation instability and environmental concerns. Efficient glutamic acid production from lignocellulose feedstocks should be achieved without any chemical inductions. Results:An industrial strain C. glutamicum S9114 was metabolically engineered to achieve efficient glutamic acid accumulation in biotin-excessive corn stover hydrolysate. Among the multiple metabolic engineering efforts, two pathway regulations effectively triggered the glutamic acid accumulation in lignocellulose hydrolysate. The C-terminal truncation of glutamate secretion channel MscCG (ΔC110) led to the successful glutamic acid secretion in corn stover hydrolysate without inductions. Then the α-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (ODHC) activity was attenuated by regulating odhA RBS sequence, and glutamic acid accumulation was further elevated for more than fivefolds. The obtained C. glutamicum XW6 strain reached a record-high titer of 65.2 g/L with the overall yield of 0.63 g/g glucose using corn stover as the starting feedstock without any chemical induction. Conclusions:Metabolic engineering method was successfully applied to achieve efficient glutamic acid in biotin-rich lignocellulose hydrolysate for the first time. This study demonstrated the high potential of glutamic acid production from lignocellulose feedstock.