"Click" reaction in conjunction with diazeniumdiolate chemistry: developing high-load nitric oxide donors.
ABSTRACT: The use of Cu(I)-catalyzed "click" reactions of alkyne-substituted diazeniumdiolate prodrugs with bis- and tetrakis-azido compounds is described. The "click" reaction for the bis-azide using CuSO(4)/Na-ascorbate predominantly gave the expected bis-triazole. However, CuI/diisopropylethylamine predominantly gave uncommon triazolo-triazole products as a result of oxidative coupling. Neither set of "click" conditions showed evidence of compromising the integrity of the diazeniumdiolate groups. The chemistry developed has applications in the synthesis of polyvalent and dendritic nitric oxide donors.
Project description:This study examined whether commercially available diazonium salts could be used as efficient aromatic azide precursors in one-pot multi-step click transformations. Seven different diazonium salts, including Fast Red RC, Fast Blue B, Fast Corinth V and Variamine Blue B were surveyed under aqueous click reaction conditions of CuSO(4)/Na ascorbate catalyst with 1:1 t-BuOH:H(2)O solvent. Two-step tandem reactions with terminal alkyne and diyne co-reactants led to 1,2,3-triazole products in 66%-88% yields, while three-step tandem reactions with trimethylsilyl-protected alkyne and diyne co-reactants led to 1,2,3-triazole products in 61%-78% yields.
Project description:N-Nitroso-containing natural products are bioactive metabolites with antibacterial and anticancer properties. In particular, compounds containing the diazeniumdiolate (N-nitrosohydroxylamine) group display a wide range of bioactivities ranging from cytotoxicity to metal chelation. Despite the importance of this structural motif, knowledge of its biosynthesis is limited. Herein we describe the discovery of a biosynthetic gene cluster in Streptomyces alanosinicus ATCC 15710 responsible for producing the diazeniumdiolate natural product l-alanosine. Gene disruption and stable isotope feeding experiments identified essential biosynthetic genes and revealed the source of the N-nitroso group. Additional biochemical characterization of the biosynthetic enzymes revealed that the non-proteinogenic amino acid l-2,3-diaminopropionic acid (l-Dap) is synthesized and loaded onto a free-standing peptidyl carrier protein (PCP) domain in l-alanosine biosynthesis, which we propose may be a mechanism of handling unstable intermediates generated en route to the diazeniumdiolate. These discoveries will facilitate efforts to determine the biochemistry of diazeniumdiolate formation.
Project description:Siderophores are key players in bacteria-host interactions, with the main function to provide soluble iron for their producers. Gramibactin from rhizosphere bacteria expands siderophore function and diversity as it delivers iron to the host plant and features an unusual diazeniumdiolate moiety for iron chelation. By mutational analysis of the grb gene cluster, we identified genes (grbD and grbE) necessary for diazeniumdiolate formation. Genome mining using a GrbD-based network revealed a broad range of orthologous gene clusters in mainly plant-associated Burkholderia/Paraburkholderia species. Two new types of diazeniumdiolate siderophores, megapolibactins and plantaribactin were fully characterized. In?vitro assays and in?vivo monitoring experiments revealed that the iron chelators also liberate nitric oxide (NO) in plant roots. This finding is important since NO donors are considered as biofertilizers that maintain iron homeostasis and increase overall plant fitness.
Project description:Attachment of glutathione (GSH) to cysteine residues in proteins (S-glutathionylation) is a reversible post-translational modification that can profoundly alter protein structure and function. Often serving in a protective role, for example, by temporarily saving protein thiols from irreversible oxidation and inactivation, glutathionylation can be identified and semiquantitatively assessed using anti-GSH antibodies, thought to be specific for recognition of the S-glutathionylation modification. Here, we describe an alternate mechanism of protein glutathionylation in which the sulfur atoms of the GSH and the protein's thiol group are covalently bound via a cross-linking agent, rather than through a disulfide bond. This form of thiol cross-linking has been shown to occur and has been confirmed by mass spectrometry at the solution chemistry level, as well as in experiments documenting the potent antiproliferative activity of the bis-diazeniumdiolate Double JS-K in H1703 cells in vitro and in vivo. The modification is recognized by the anti-GSH antibody as if it were authentic S-glutathionylation, requiring mass spectrometry to distinguish between them.
Project description:Nitric oxide (NO)-releasing xerogel materials were synthesized using N-diazeniumdiolate-modified silane monomers that were subsequently co-condensed with an alkoxysilane. The NO-release characteristics were tuned by varying the aminosilane structure and concentration. The resulting materials exhibited maximum NO release totals and durations ranging from 0.45-3.2 ?mol cm(-2) and 20-90 h, respectively. The stability of the xerogel networks was optimized by varying the alkoxysilane backbone identity, water to silane ratio, base catalyst concentration, reaction time, and drying conditions. The response of glucose biosensors prepared using the NO-releasing xerogel (15 mol % N-diazeniumdiolate-modified N-2-(aminoethyl)-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane) as an outer sensor membrane was linear (R(2) = 0.979) up to 24 mM glucose. The sensitivity (3.4 nA mM(-1)) of the device to glucose was maintained for 7 days in phosphate buffered saline. The facile sol-gel synthetic route, along with the NO release and glucose biosensor characteristics, demonstrates the versatility of this method for biosensor membrane applications.
Project description:Although O(2)-(2,4-dinitrophenyl) derivatives of diazeniumdiolate-based nitric oxide (NO) prodrugs bearing a free carboxylic acid group were activated by glutathione to release NO, these compounds were poor sources of intracellular NO and showed diminished antiproliferative activity against human leukemia HL-60 cells. The carboxylic acid esters of these prodrugs, however, were found to be superior sources of intracellular NO and potent inhibitors of HL-60 cell proliferation.
Project description:The CuSO4/ascorbate-mediated 'click' reaction of 2-(2-azidophenyl)-4,5-diaryloxazoles and arylacetylenes proceeded through an alternate pathway whereby reduction of the azide predominated over formation of the 1,2,3-triazole-forming cycloaddition. The unimolecular product, 2-(2-aminophenyl)-4,5-diphenyloxazole, was isolated which appears to be a formal reduction of the arylazide to the corresponding arylamine. A series of oxazoles which possessed various substituents (F, Cl, Br, OCH3) on the 4,5-diaryl rings and having the 2-azido group on the 2-oxazolylphenyl position were submitted to the same 'click' conditions and gave the corresponding arylamine products (73-99%). The reaction appears to be specific toward the ortho-azido substitution of the polycyclic system, as the corresponding azidomethyl-substituted phenyl oxazoles do not give the 'reduction' products but gave the expected click products with the acetylenic co-reactants.
Project description:Aminoalkyl and alkyne-tagged PNA HyBeacons have been synthesized, labeled with fluorescein via conventional amide bond or triazole formation (click chemistry) and used to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) implicated in statin-induced myopathy. The PNA HyBeacons gave much better mismatch/mutant discrimination than conventional DNA HyBeacons but smaller fluorescence changes on melting.
Project description:A series of metallosupramolecular [Fe?L?](BF?)? "click" cylinders have been synthesized in excellent yields (90%-95%) from [Fe(H?O)?](BF?)? and bis(bidentate) pyridyl-1,2,3-triazole ligands. All complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-vis, ¹H-, ¹³C- and DOSY-NMR spectroscopies and, in four cases, the structures confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Molecular modeling indicated that some of these "click" complexes were of similar size and shape to related biologically active pyridylimine-based iron(II) helicates and suggested that the "click" complexes may bind both duplex and triplex DNA. Cell-based agarose diffusion assays showed that the metallosupramolecular [Fe?L?](BF?)? "click" cylinders display no antifungal activity against S. cerevisiae. This observed lack of antifungal activity appears to be due to the poor stability of the "click" complexes in DMSO and biological media.
Project description:We report stable and heterogeneous graphene oxide (GO)-intercalated copper as an efficient catalyst for the organic transformations in green solvents. The GO-intercalated copper(II) complex of bis(1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane) [Cu(II)-bis-cyclen] was prepared by a facile synthetic approach with a high dilution technique. The as-prepared GO-Cu(II)-bis-cyclen nanocomposite was used as a click catalyst for the 1,3 dipolar Huisgen cycloaddition reaction of terminal alkyne and azide substrates. On directing a great deal of attention toward the feasibility of the rapid electron transfer rate of the catalyst in proliferating the yield of 1,2,3-triazole products, the click catalyst GO-Cu(II)-bis-cyclen nanocomposite was designed and synthesized <i>via</i> non-covalent functionalization. The presence of a higher coordination site in an efficient 2D nanocomposite promotes the stabilization of Cu(I) L-acetylide intermediate during the catalytic cycle initiated by the addition of reductants. From the XRD analysis, the enhancement in the <i>d</i>-interlayer spacing of 1.04 nm was observed due to the intercalation of the Cu(II)-bis-cyclen complex in between the GO basal planes. It was also characterized by XPS, FT-IR, RAMAN, UV, SEM, AFM, and TGA techniques. The recyclability of the heterogeneous catalyst [GO-Cu(II)-cyclen] with the solvent effect has also been studied. This class of GO-Cu(II)-bis-cyclen nanocomposite paves the way for bioconjugation of macromolecules through the click chemistry approach.