Root secretion of defense-related proteins is development-dependent and correlated with flowering time.
ABSTRACT: Proteins found in the root exudates are thought to play a role in the interactions between plants and soil organisms. To gain a better understanding of protein secretion by roots, we conducted a systematic proteomic analysis of the root exudates of Arabidopsis thaliana at different plant developmental stages. In total, we identified 111 proteins secreted by roots, the majority of which were exuded constitutively during all stages of development. However, defense-related proteins such as chitinases, glucanases, myrosinases, and others showed enhanced secretion during flowering. Defense-impaired mutants npr1-1 and NahG showed lower levels of secretion of defense proteins at flowering compared with the wild type. The flowering-defective mutants fca-1, stm-4, and co-1 showed almost undetectable levels of defense proteins in their root exudates at similar time points. In contrast, root secretions of defense-enhanced cpr5-2 mutants showed higher levels of defense proteins. The proteomics data were positively correlated with enzymatic activity assays for defense proteins and with in silico gene expression analysis of genes specifically expressed in roots of Arabidopsis. In conclusion, our results show a clear correlation between defense-related proteins secreted by roots and flowering time.
Project description:Here, we demonstrate that the reduction in leaf K(+) observed in a mutant previously identified in an ionomic screen of fast neutron mutagenized Arabidopsis thaliana is caused by a loss-of-function allele of CPR5, which we name cpr5-3. This observation establishes low leaf K(+) as a new phenotype for loss-of-function alleles of CPR5. We investigate the factors affecting this low leaf K(+) in cpr5 using double mutants defective in salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signalling, and by gene expression analysis of various channels and transporters. Reciprocal grafting between cpr5 and Col-0 was used to determine the relative importance of the shoot and root in causing the low leaf K(+) phenotype of cpr5. Our data show that loss-of-function of CPR5 in shoots primarily determines the low leaf K(+) phenotype of cpr5, though the roots also contribute to a lesser degree. The low leaf K(+) phenotype of cpr5 is independent of the elevated SA and JA known to occur in cpr5. In cpr5 expression of genes encoding various Cyclic Nucleotide Gated Channels (CNGCs) are uniquely elevated in leaves. Further, expression of HAK5, encoding the high affinity K(+) uptake transporter, is reduced in roots of cpr5 grown with high or low K(+) supply. We suggest a model in which low leaf K(+) in cpr5 is driven primarily by enhanced shoot-to-root K(+) export caused by a constitutive activation of the expression of various CNGCs. This activation may enhance K(+) efflux, either indirectly via enhanced cytosolic Ca(2+) and/or directly by increased K(+) transport activity. Enhanced shoot-to-root K(+) export may also cause the reduced expression of HAK5 observed in roots of cpr5, leading to a reduction in uptake of K(+). All ionomic data presented is publically available at www.ionomicshub.org.
Project description:There is increasing evidence that root exudates play important roles in plant disease resistance. Black shank, caused by Phytophthora nicotianae, is a destructive soil-borne disease in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.). The aim of the present study was to investigate the activity and composition of the root exudates from resistant and susceptible tobacco cultivars. The root exudates of the resistant cultivar Gexin 3 showed inhibitory activity against P. nicotianae, while the exudates of susceptible cultivar Xiaohuangjin 1025 stimulated the colony growth but had no effect on spore germination. Metabolic profiling using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry depicted differing metabolic patterns of root exudates between Gexin 3 and Xiaohuangjin 1025. The activity and composition of root exudates was altered by P. nicotianae inoculation. Multivariate analysis showed that root exudates (including organic acids, alkaloids, fatty acids, and esters) were different between the two varieties. The defense substances in root exudates, such as tartaric acid, ferulic acid, and lauric acid, may represent a pre-infection prevention strategy for tobacco. Phenylpropanoids as well as inducers of salicylic acid, fatty acids, 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid, and hydrojasmonate may be involved in tobacco defense responses. Compared to the susceptible cultivar, the roots of the resistant cultivar exhibited high enzyme activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, cinnamate-4-hydroxylase and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase, which may prompt the synthesis and secretion of phenylpropanoids. Our results indicated that the root exudates not only provide a pre-infection prevention strategy by exuding antimicrobial substances, but also increase tobacco disease resistance by eliciting plant defense responses. In addition, some defense compounds as well as compounds that play a role in inducing plant defense responses, showed potential for disease control application. This study provides an insight into possible disease resistance mechanisms of root exudates, and attempts the beneficial utilization of these secondary metabolites of plants.
Project description:Though recent work has demonstrated that plants can recognize species, kin versus strangers, and self/non-self roots, no mechanism for identity recognition in plants has yet been found. Here we examined the role of soluble chemicals in signaling among roots. Utilizing Arabidopsis thaliana, we exposed young seedlings to liquid media containing exudates from siblings, strangers (non-siblings), or only their own exudates. In one experiment, root secretions were inhibited by sodium orthovanadate and root length and number of lateral roots were measured. In a second experiment, responses to siblings, strangers, and their own exudates were measured for several accessions (genotypes), and the traits of length of the longest lateral root and hypocotyl length were also measured. The exposure of plants to the root exudates of strangers induced greater lateral root formation than exposure of plants to sibling exudates. Stranger recognition was abolished upon treatment with the secretion inhibitor. In one experiment, plants exposed to sibling or stranger exudates have shorter roots than plants only exposed to their own exudates. This self/non-self recognition response was not affected by the secretion inhibitor. The results demonstrate that that kin recognition and self/non-self are two separate identity recognition systems involving soluble chemicals. Kin recognition requires active secretion by roots.
Project description:Plant disease can be effectively suppressed in intercropping systems. Our previous study demonstrated that neighboring maize plants can restrict the spread of soil-borne pathogens of pepper plants by secreting defense compounds into the soil. However, whether maize plant can receive benefits from its neighboring pepper plants in an intercropping system is little attention. We examined the effects of maize roots treated with elicitors from the pepper pathogen Phytophthora capsici and pepper root exudates on the synthesis of 1,4-benzoxazine-3-ones (BXs), the expression of defense-related genes in maize, and their ability to alleviate the severity of southern corn leaf blight (SCLB) caused by Bipolaris maydis. We found that SCLB was significantly reduced after the above treatments. The contents of 1,4-benzoxazine-3-ones (BXs: DIBOA, DIMBOA, and MBOA) and the expression levels of BX synthesis and defense genes in maize roots and shoots were up-regulated. DIMBOA and MBOA effectively inhibited the mycelium growth of Bipolaris maydis at physiological concentrations in maize shoots. Further studies suggested that the defense related pathways or genes in maize roots and shoots were activated by elicitors from the P. capsici or pepper root exudates. In conclusion, maize increased the levels of BXs and defense gene expression both in roots and shoots after being triggered by root exudates and pathogen from neighboring pepper plants, eventually enhancing its resistance.
Project description:Plant roots constantly secrete compounds into the soil to interact with neighboring organisms presumably to gain certain functional advantages at different stages of development. Accordingly, it has been hypothesized that the phytochemical composition present in the root exudates changes over the course of the lifespan of a plant. Here, root exudates of in vitro grown Arabidopsis plants were collected at different developmental stages and analyzed using GC-MS. Principle component analysis revealed that the composition of root exudates varied at each developmental stage. Cumulative secretion levels of sugars and sugar alcohols were higher in early time points and decreased through development. In contrast, the cumulative secretion levels of amino acids and phenolics increased over time. The expression in roots of genes involved in biosynthesis and transportation of compounds represented in the root exudates were consistent with patterns of root exudation. Correlation analyses were performed of the in vitro root exudation patterns with the functional capacity of the rhizosphere microbiome to metabolize these compounds at different developmental stages of Arabidopsis grown in natural soils. Pyrosequencing of rhizosphere mRNA revealed strong correlations (p<0.05) between microbial functional genes involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, amino acids and secondary metabolites with the corresponding compounds released by the roots at particular stages of plant development. In summary, our results suggest that the root exudation process of phytochemicals follows a developmental pattern that is genetically programmed.
Project description:Salt stress predisposes plants to Phytophthora root and crown rot in an abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent manner. We used the tomato-Phytophthora capsici interaction to examine zoospore chemoattraction and assessed expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes regulated by salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) following a salt-stress episode. Although salt treatment enhances chemoattraction of tomato roots to zoospores, exudates from salt-stressed roots of ABA-deficient mutants, which do not display the predisposition phenotype, have a similar chemoattraction as exudates from salt-stressed, wild-type roots. This suggests that ABA action during predisposing stress enhances disease through effects on plant responses occurring after initial contact and during ingress by the pathogen. The expression of NCED1 (ABA synthesis) and TAS14 (ABA response) in roots generally corresponded to previously reported changes in root ABA levels during salt stress onset and recovery in a pattern that was not altered by infection by P. capsici. The PR genes, P4 and PI-2, hallmarks in tomato for SA and JA action, respectively, were induced in non-stressed roots during infection and strongly suppressed in infected roots exposed to salt-stress prior to inoculation. However, there was a similar proportional increase in pathogen colonization observed in salt-stressed plants relative to non-stressed plants in both wild-type and a SA-deficient nahG line. Unlike the other tomato cultivars used in this study that showed a strong predisposition phenotype, the processing tomato cv. 'Castlemart' and its JA mutants were not predisposed by salt. Salt stress predisposition to crown and root rot caused by P. capsici appears to be strongly conditioned by ABA-driven mechanisms in tomato, with the stress compromising SA-and JA-mediated defense-related gene expression during P. capsici infection.
Project description:Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is susceptible to wilt disease caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp niveum (FON). Intercropping management of watermelon/aerobic rice (Oryza sativa) alleviates watermelon wilt disease, because some unidentified component(s) in rice root exudates suppress FON sporulation and spore germination. Here, we show that the phenolic acid p-coumaric acid is present in rice root exudates only, and it inhibits FON spore germination and sporulation. We found that exogenously applied p-coumaric acid up-regulated the expression of ClPR3 in roots, as well as increased chitinase activity in leaves. Furthermore, exogenously applied p-coumaric acid increased ?-1,3-glucanase activity in watermelon roots. By contrast, we found that ferulic acid was secreted by watermelon roots, but not by rice roots, and that it stimulated spore germination and sporulation of FON. Exogenous application of ferulic acid down-regulated ClPR3 expression and inhibited chitinase activity in watermelon leaves. Salicylic acid was detected in both watermelon and rice root exudates, which stimulated FON spore germination at low concentrations and suppressed spore germination at high concentrations. Exogenously applied salicylic acid did not alter ClPR3 expression, but did increase chitinase and ?-1,3-glucanase activities in watermelon leaves. Together, our results show that the root exudates of phenolic acids were different between rice and watermelon, which lead to their special ecological roles on pathogenic fungus and watermelon defense.
Project description:One of the best-studied plant defense systems, the glucosinolate-myrosinase system of the Brassicales, is composed of thioglucosides known as glucosinolates and their hydrolytic enzymes, the myrosinases. Tissue disruption brings these components together, and bioactive products are formed as a consequence of myrosinase-catalyzed glucosinolate hydrolysis. Among these products, isothiocyanates have attracted most interest as chemical plant defenses against herbivores and pathogens and health-promoting compounds in the human diet. Previous research has identified specifier proteins whose presence results in the formation of alternative product types, e.g., nitriles, at the expense of isothiocyanates. The biological roles of specifier proteins and alternative breakdown products are poorly understood. Here, we assessed glucosinolate breakdown product profiles obtained upon maceration of roots, seedlings and seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana Columbia-0. We identified simple nitriles as the predominant breakdown products of the major endogenous aliphatic glucosinolates in root, seed, and seedling homogenates. In agreement with this finding, genes encoding nitrile-specifier proteins (NSPs) are expressed in roots, seeds, and seedlings. Analysis of glucosinolate breakdown in mutants with T-DNA insertions in any of the five NSP genes demonstrated, that simple nitrile formation upon tissue disruption depended almost entirely on NSP2 in seeds and mainly on NSP1 in seedlings. In roots, about 70-80% of the nitrile-forming activity was due to NSP1 and NSP3. Thus, glucosinolate breakdown product profiles are organ-specifically regulated in A. thaliana Col-0, and high proportions of simple nitriles are formed in some parts of the plant. This should be considered in future studies on biological roles of the glucosinolate-myrosinase system.
Project description:Molecules exuded by plant roots are thought to act as signals to influence the ability of microbial strains to colonize the roots and to survive in the rhizosphere. Differential bacterial responses to signals from different plant species may mediate the selection of specific rhizosphere populations. Very little, however, is known about the effects of plant exudates on patterns of bacterial gene expression. Here, we have tested the concept that plant root exudates modulate expression of bacterial genes involved in establishing microbe-plant interactions. We have examined the influence on the Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01 transcriptome of exudates from two varieties of sugarbeet that select for genetically distinct pseudomonad populations in the rhizosphere. The response to the two exudates showed only a partial overlap; the majority of those genes with altered expression was regulated in response to only one of the two exudates. Genes with altered expression included those with functions previously implicated in microbe-plant interactions, such as aspects of metabolism, chemotaxis and type III secretion, and a subset with putative or unknown function. Use of a panel of mutants with targeted disruptions allowed us to identify previously uncharacterized genes with roles in the competitive ability of P. aeruginosa in the rhizosphere within this subset. No genes with host-specific effects were identified. Homologues of the genes identified occur in the genomes of both beneficial and pathogenic root-associated bacteria, suggesting that this strategy may help to elucidate molecular interactions that are important for biocontrol, plant growth promotion, and plant pathogenesis.
Project description:Background and aims Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is an important food crop and is grown worldwide. It is, however, significantly sensitive to a number of soil-borne pathogens that affect roots and tubers, causing considerable economic losses. So far, most research on potato has been dedicated to tubers and hence little attention has been paid to root structure and function. Methods In the present study we characterized root border cells using histochemical staining, immunofluorescence labelling of cell wall polysaccharides epitopes and observation using laser confocal microscopy. The monosaccharide composition of the secreted exudates was determined by gas chromatography of trimethylsilyl methylglycoside derivatives. The effects of root exudates and secreted arabinogalactan proteins on bacterial growth were investigated using in vitro bioassays. Key Results Root exudate from S. tuberosum was highly enriched in galactose-containing molecules including arabinogalactan proteins as major components. Treatment of the root with an elicitor derived from Pectobacterium atrosepticum, a soil-borne pathogen of potato, altered the composition of the exudates and arabinogalactan proteins. We found that the growth of the bacterium in vitro was differentially affected by exudates from elicited and non-elicited roots (i.e. inhibition versus stimulation). Conclusions Taken together, these findings indicate that galactose-containing polymers of potato root exudates play a central role in root-microbe interactions.