Protein and small molecule recognition properties of deep cavitands in a supported lipid membrane determined by calcination-enhanced SPR spectroscopy.
ABSTRACT: This paper details the incorporation of a water-soluble deep cavitand into a membrane bilayer assembled onto a nanoglassified surface for study of molecular recognition in a membrane-mimicking setting. The cavitand retains its host properties, and real-time analysis of the host:guest properties of the membrane:cavitand complex via surface plasmon resonance and fluorescence microscopy is described. The host shows selectivity for choline-derived substrates, and no competitive incorporation of substrate is observed in the membrane bilayer. A variety of trimethylammonium-derived substrates are suitable guests, displaying varied binding affinities in a millimolar range. The membrane:cavitand:guest complexes can be subsequently used to capture NeutrAvidin protein at the membrane surface if a biotin-derived guest molecule is used. The surface coverage of NeutrAvidin is affected by the spacer used to derivatize the biotin. Increased distance from the bilayer allows a higher concentration of protein to be immobilized, suggesting a diminishing detrimental steric effect when the binding event is shifted away from the surface.
Project description:Two synthetic protocols for the introduction of fluorine atoms into resorcinarene-based cavitands, at the lower and upper rim, respectively, are reported. Cavitand 1, bearing four fluorocarbon tails, and cavitand 2, which presents a fluorine atom on the para position of a diester phosphonate phenyl substituent, were synthesized and their complexation abilities toward the model guest sarcosine methyl ester hydrochloride were evaluated via NMR titration experiments. The effect of complexation on the 19F NMR resonance of the probe is evident only in the case of cavitand 2, where the inset of the cation-dipole and H-bonding interactions between the P=O bridges and the guest is reflected in a sizable downfield shift of the fluorine probe.
Project description:Biomimetic deep-cavity cavitand hosts possess unique recognition and encapsulation properties that make them capable of selectively binding a range of non-polar guests within their hydrophobic pocket. Adamantane based derivatives which snuggly fit within the pocket of octa-acid deep cavity cavitands exhibit some of the strongest host binding. Here we explore the roles of guest size and attractiveness on optimizing guest binding to form 1:1 complexes with octa-acid cavitands in water. Specifically we simulate the water-mediated interactions of the cavitand with adamantane and a range of simple Lennard-Jones guests of varying diameter and attractive well-depth. Initial simulations performed with methane indicate hydrated methanes preferentially reside within the host pocket, although these guests frequently trade places with water and other methanes in bulk solution. The interaction strength of hydrophobic guests increases with increasing size from sizes slightly smaller than methane to Lennard-Jones guests comparable in size to adamantane. Over this guest size range the preferential guest binding location migrates from the bottom of the host pocket upwards. For guests larger than adamantane, however, binding becomes less favorable as the minimum in the potential-of-mean force shifts to the cavitand face around the portal. For a fixed guest diameter, the Lennard-Jones well-depth is found to systematically shift the guest-host potential-of-mean force to lower free energies, however, the optimal guest size is found to be insensitive to increasing well-depth. Ultimately our simulations show that adamantane lies within the optimal range of guest sizes with significant attractive interactions to match the most tightly bound Lennard-Jones guests studied.
Project description:A fluorescently labeled resorcinarene cavitand has been successfully embedded in DLPC lipid vesicles and imaged using confocal microscopy. The cavitand resides exclusively in the bilayer.
Project description:A deep, self-folding cavitand responds to minor electronic differences between suitably sized adamantane guests. Binding constants range from <0.5 to 4000 M(-1) for guests as similar as 1-bromoadamantane and 1-cyanoadamantane. The barriers to guest exchange also vary up to 3 kcal mol(-1).
Project description:The effects on the molecular recognition properties of water-soluble deep cavitand hosts upon embedding them in phosphocholine lipid bilayer environments have been studied by 2D NMR experiments. By employing suitable guests containing 19F or 13C nuclei that can be encapsulated inside the host, 2D EXSY NMR experiments can be used to analyze and compare the in/out guest exchange rates in aqueous solution, isotropically tumbling micelles, or magnetically ordered bicelles. These analyses show that embedding the deep cavitands in lipid bilayers slows the guest exchange rate, due to the lipids acting as a "compression sleeve" around the host, restricting guest egress. This effect also enhances guest conformations in the host that are not observed in free solution, such as axial cyclohexane conformers and ketone hydrates.
Project description:The synthesis and characterization of a deep cavitand bearing a fluorescent benzoquinoxaline wall is reported. Noncovalent host-guest recognition events are exploited to sense small charged molecules including acetylcholine. The cavitand also exhibits an anion dependent change in fluorescence that is used to differentiate halide ions in solution.
Project description:Water-soluble, deep cavitands serve as chaperones of long-chain diesters for their selective hydrolysis in aqueous solution. The cavitands bind the diesters in rapidly exchanging, folded J-shape conformations that bury the hydrocarbon chain and expose each ester group in turn to the aqueous medium. The acid hydrolyses in the presence of the cavitand result in enhanced yields of monoacid monoester products. Product distributions indicate a two- to fourfold relative decrease in the hydrolysis rate constant of the second ester caused by the confined space in the cavitand. The rate constant for the first acid hydrolysis step is enhanced approximately 10-fold in the presence of the cavitand, compared with control reactions of the molecules in bulk solution. Hydrolysis under basic conditions (saponification) with the cavitand gave >90% yields of the corresponding monoesters. Under basic conditions the cavitand complex of the monoanion precipitates from solution and prevents further reaction.
Project description:Macrocyclic hosts have long been the workhorses of molecular recognition. Despite the widespread use of container-shaped molecules as synthetic receptors, an efficient preparation of cavitands bearing multiple functional groups has not been realized. This Letter describes a new cavitand derived from a sequence-defined oligoamide foldamer scaffold. A solid-phase synthesis approach is reported, which enables the display of multiple chemically diverse functional groups on the cavitand rim.
Project description:Cavitand octa acid (OA) is established to form a stable capsular assembly with one or two hydrophobic guest molecules (1:2 or 2:2 guest/host complex). Examples are known in which the guest molecule tumbles within the capsule without disrupting the structure of the capsuleplex. This process makes the two OA molecules that form the capsule magnetically equivalent. In this study, we have examined the dynamics of capsules that host amphiphilic benzylidene-3-methylimidazolidinone molecules as guests. In these capsuleplexes, although the guest does not tumble, the two OA molecules become magnetically equivalent because the two OA molecules that form the capsule exchange their positions in the NMR time scale. This is equivalent to the content of the capsule remaining stationary while the capsule swirls around it. Benzylidene-3-methylimidazolidinones form both 1:1 and 1:2 supramolecular complexes with cavitand OA. Two-dimensional NMR, ROESY, and NOESY data suggest that in a 300 ms time scale, the two halves of the capsule exchange between themselves and with free OA. The conclusion drawn here provides valuable information concerning the stability of the OA capsuleplex and cavitandplex that is used as the well-defined space to control the excited-state chemistry and dynamics of confined guest molecules.
Project description:We developed methods to solubilize, coat, and functionalize with NeutrAvidin elongated semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum nanorods, QRs) for use in single molecule polarized fluorescence microscopy. Three different ligands were compared with regard to efficacy for attaching NeutrAvidin using the "zero-length cross-linker" 1-ethyl-3-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]carbodiimide (EDC). Biotin-4-fluorescene (B4F), a fluorophore that is quenched when bound to avidin proteins, was used to quantify biotin binding activity of the NeutrAvidin coated QRs and biotin binding activity of commercially available streptavidin coated quantum dots (QDs). All three coating methods produced QRs with NeutrAvidin coating density comparable to the streptavidin coating density of the commercially available quantum dots (QDs) in the B4F assay. One type of QD available from the supplier (ITK QDs) exhibited ?5-fold higher streptavidin surface density compared to our QRs, whereas the other type of QD (PEG QDs) had 5-fold lower density. The number of streptavidins per QD increased from ?7 streptavidin tetramers for the smallest QDs emitting fluorescence at 525 nm (QD525) to ?20 tetramers for larger, longer wavelength QDs (QD655, QD705, and QD800). QRs coated with NeutrAvidin using mercaptoundecanoicacid (MUA) and QDs coated with streptavidin bound to biotinylated cytoplasmic dynein in single molecule TIRF microscopy assays, whereas Poly(maleic anhydride-alt-1-ocatdecene) (PMAOD) or glutathione (GSH) QRs did not bind cytoplasmic dynein. The coating methods require optimization of conditions and concentrations to balance between substantial NeutrAvidin binding vs tendency of QRs to aggregate and degrade over time.