Decapping activators in Saccharomyces cerevisiae act by multiple mechanisms.
ABSTRACT: Eukaryotic mRNA degradation often occurs in a process whereby translation initiation is inhibited and the mRNA is targeted for decapping. In yeast cells, Pat1, Scd6, Edc3, and Dhh1 all function to promote decapping by an unknown mechanism(s). We demonstrate that purified Scd6 and a region of Pat1 directly repress translation in vitro by limiting the formation of a stable 48S preinitiation complex. Moreover, while Pat1, Edc3, Dhh1, and Scd6 all bind the decapping enzyme, only Pat1 and Edc3 enhance its activity. We also identify numerous direct interactions between Pat1, Dcp1, Dcp2, Dhh1, Scd6, Edc3, Xrn1, and the Lsm1-7 complex. These observations identify three classes of decapping activators that function to directly repress translation initiation and/or stimulate Dcp1/2. Moreover, Pat1 is identified as critical in mRNA decay by first inhibiting translation initiation, then serving as a scaffold to recruit components of the decapping complex, and finally activating Dcp2.
Project description:The Dcp1:Dcp2 decapping complex catalyses the removal of the mRNA 5' cap structure. Activator proteins, including Edc3 (enhancer of decapping 3), modulate its activity. Here, we solved the structure of the yeast Edc3 LSm domain in complex with a short helical leucine-rich motif (HLM) from Dcp2. The motif interacts with the monomeric Edc3 LSm domain in an unprecedented manner and recognizes a noncanonical binding surface. Based on the structure, we identified additional HLMs in the disordered C-terminal extension of Dcp2 that can interact with Edc3. Moreover, the LSm domain of the Edc3-related protein Scd6 competes with Edc3 for the interaction with these HLMs. We show that both Edc3 and Scd6 stimulate decapping in vitro, presumably by preventing the Dcp1:Dcp2 complex from adopting an inactive conformation. In addition, we show that the C-terminal HLMs in Dcp2 are necessary for the localization of the Dcp1:Dcp2 decapping complex to P-bodies in vivo. Unexpectedly, in contrast to yeast, in metazoans the HLM is found in Dcp1, suggesting that details underlying the regulation of mRNA decapping changed throughout evolution.
Project description:The Dcp1-Dcp2 decapping enzyme and the decapping activators Pat1, Dhh1, and Lsm1 regulate mRNA decapping, but their mechanistic integration is unknown. We analyzed the gene expression consequences of deleting PAT1, LSM1, or DHH1, or the DCP2 C-terminal domain, and found that: i) the Dcp2 C-terminal domain is an effector of both negative and positive regulation; ii) rather than being global activators of decapping, Pat1, Lsm1, and Dhh1 directly target specific subsets of yeast mRNAs and loss of the functions of each of these factors has substantial indirect consequences for genome-wide mRNA expression; and iii) transcripts targeted by Pat1, Lsm1, and Dhh1 exhibit only partial overlap, are generally translated inefficiently, and, as expected, are targeted to decapping-dependent decay. Our results define the roles of Pat1, Lsm1, and Dhh1 in decapping of general mRNAs and suggest that these factors may monitor mRNA translation and target unique features of individual mRNAs.
Project description:In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mRNA transcripts with premature termination codons are targeted for deadenylation independent decapping and 5' to 3' decay in a quality control pathway termed nonsense-mediated decay (NMD). Critical factors in NMD include Upf1, Upf2, and Upf3, as well as the decapping enzyme, Dcp2/Dcp1. Loss of Upf2 or Upf3 leads to the accumulation of not only Upf1 and Dcp2 in P-bodies, but also of the decapping-activators Pat1, Dhh1, and Lsm1. An interaction between Upf1 and Dcp2 has been identified, which might recruit Dcp2 to the NMD decapping complex. To determine the nature and significance of the Dcp2-Upf1 interaction, we utilized the yeast two-hybrid assay to assess Upf1 interactions with various mRNA decapping factors. We find that although Dcp2 can interact with Upf1, this interaction is indirect and is largely dependent on the Edc3 protein, which interacts with the N-terminal domain of Upf1 at an overlapping, but not identical, site as Upf2. We also found that Pat1 has an independent two-hybrid interaction with the N-terminus of Upf1. Assessment of both reporter and endogenous NMD transcripts suggest that the decapping stimulators, including Edc3 and Pat1, as well as Edc1 and Edc2, are not essential for NMD under normal conditions. This work defines a larger decapping complex involved in NMD, but indicates that components of that complex are not required for general NMD and might either regulate a subset of NMD transcripts or be essential for proper NMD under different environmental conditions.
Project description:Scd6 protein family members are evolutionarily conserved components of translationally silent mRNA granules. Yeast Scd6 interacts with Dcp2 and Dhh1, respectively a subunit and a regulator of the mRNA decapping enzyme, and also associates with translation initiation factor eIF4G to inhibit translation in cell extracts. However, the role of Scd6 in mRNA turnover and translational repression in vivo is unclear. We demonstrate that tethering Scd6 to a GFP reporter mRNA reduces mRNA abundance via Dcp2 and suppresses reporter mRNA translation via Dhh1. Thus, in a dcp2? mutant, tethered Scd6 reduces GFP protein expression with little effect on mRNA abundance, whereas tethered Scd6 has no impact on GFP protein or mRNA expression in a dcp2? dhh1? double mutant. The conserved LSm domain of Scd6 is required for translational repression and mRNA turnover by tethered Scd6. Both functions are enhanced in a ccr4? mutant, suggesting that the deadenylase function of Ccr4-Not complex interferes with a more efficient repression pathway enlisted by Scd6. Ribosome profiling and RNA-Seq analysis of scd6? and dhh1? mutants suggests that Scd6 cooperates with Dhh1 in translational repression and turnover of particular native mRNAs, with both processes dependent on Dcp2. Our results suggest that Scd6 can (i) recruit Dhh1 to confer translational repression and (ii) activate mRNA decapping by Dcp2 with attendant degradation of specific mRNAs in vivo, in a manner dependent on the Scd6 LSm domain and modulated by Ccr4.
Project description:Scd6, a yeast homologue of human RAP55, is a component of messenger ribonucleoproteins (mRNPs) that repress translation by binding to translation initiation factors, and also is a decapping activator along with the binding partners Edc3 and Dhh1. Herein, we report that Scd6 is a substrate of the intrinsic protein arginine methyltransferase, Hmt1, in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed that several arginine residues within the Scd6 RGG motif, which is important for mRNA binding, were methylated in Hmt1 dependent manner. Under stress conditions such as glucose starvation, Scd6 localized to cytoplasmic processing bodies (P-bodies) wherein translationally repressed mRNPs and untranslated mRNAs accumulate. Localization of Scd6 to P-bodies was impaired in hmt1 deletion mutant and in the presence of methylation-deficient substitution of Scd6. In addition, deletion of scd6 and dhh1 led to severe synthetic growth defect at high temperature. Methylation-deficient mutation of Scd6 suppressed the phenotypic defects of scd6 dhh1 double mutant, whereas methylation-mimic mutation did not, suggesting that the arginine methylation might negatively regulate Scd6 function relating to Dhh1. Therefore, the present data suggest that Hmt1-based arginine methylation is required for Scd6 localization and function.
Project description:mRNA decapping commits a transcript to complete turnover in eukaryotic cells. In yeast, general mRNA decapping requires the Dcp1/Dcp2 decapping enzyme and a set of decapping activators, including Pat1, Dhh1, Edc3, and the Lsm1-7 complex. The exact function and mode of action of each of these decapping activators in mRNA decapping largely remain elusive. Here, we analyzed the role of Edc3 in the decay of yeast RPS28B mRNA, a pathway triggered by a negative-feedback autoregulatory mechanism. We show that Edc3-mediated RPS28B mRNA decay requires either of two orthologous proteins, Rps28a and Rps28b, expressed from the RPS28A and RPS28B genes, respectively. Contrary to a generally accepted model, we found that Rps28b does not bind to the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) regulatory element in RPS28B mRNA. Instead, Edc3 is directly involved in binding the element, and Rps28b binds Edc3 and regulates its activity. Decay of RPS28B mRNA requires the Lsm and YjeF-N domains of Edc3, but surprisingly, decay of YRA1 pre-mRNA, the only other known substrate of Edc3, requires only the Lsm domain. Collectively, our experiments reveal a new role for Edc3 in mRNA substrate recognition and suggest that this activity is subject to intricate regulation by additional factors, including the Rps28 ribosomal protein.
Project description:Eukaryotic mRNA decay is a highly regulated process allowing cells to rapidly modulate protein production in response to internal and environmental cues. Mature translatable eukaryotic mRNAs are protected from fast and uncontrolled degradation in the cytoplasm by two cis-acting stability determinants: a methylguanosine (m(7)G) cap and a poly(A) tail at their 5' and 3' extremities, respectively. The hydrolysis of the m(7)G cap structure, known as decapping, is performed by the complex composed of the Dcp2 catalytic subunit and its partner Dcp1. The Dcp1-Dcp2 decapping complex has a low intrinsic activity and requires accessory factors to be fully active. Among these factors, Pat1 is considered to be a central scaffolding protein involved in Dcp2 activation but also in inhibition of translation initiation. Here, we present the structural and functional study of the C-terminal domain from S. cerevisiae Pat1 protein. We have identified two conserved and functionally important regions located at both extremities of the domain. The first region is involved in binding to Lsm1-7 complex. The second patch is specific for fungal proteins and is responsible for Pat1 interaction with Edc3. These observations support the plasticity of the protein interaction network involved in mRNA decay and show that evolution has extended the C-terminal alpha-helical domain from fungal Pat1 proteins to generate a new binding platform for protein partners.
Project description:The removal of the 5' 7-methylguanosine mRNA cap structure (decapping) is a central step in the 5'-3' mRNA degradation pathway and is performed by the Dcp1:Dcp2 decapping complex. The activity of this complex is tightly regulated to prevent premature degradation of the transcript. Here, we establish that the aromatic groove of the EVH1 domain of Schizosaccharomyces pombe Dcp1 can interact with proline-rich sequences in the exonuclease Xrn1, the scaffolding protein Pat1, the helicase Dhh1, and the C-terminal disordered region of Dcp2. We show that this region of Dcp1 can also recruit a previously unidentified enhancer of decapping protein (Edc1) and solved the crystal structure of the complex. NMR relaxation dispersion experiments reveal that the Dcp1 binding site can adopt multiple conformations, thus providing the plasticity that is required to accommodate different ligands. We show that the activator Edc1 makes additional contacts with the regulatory domain of Dcp2 and that an activation motif in Edc1 increases the RNA affinity of Dcp1:Dcp2. Our data support a model where Edc1 stabilizes the RNA in the active site, which results in enhanced decapping rates. In summary, we show that multiple decapping factors, including the Dcp2 C-terminal region, compete with Edc1 for Dcp1 binding. Our data thus reveal a network of interactions that can fine-tune the catalytic activity of the decapping complex.
Project description:We analyzed mRNA expression profiles in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells that had been depleted of proteins known as mRNA decapping co-activators. mRNA decapping is catalyzed by DCP2, and DCP2 activity is stimulated by decapping co-activators. This group of proteins includes DCP1, Hedls (also known as Ge-1), LSm16 (also known as EDC3), rck/p54 (also known as DHH1 or Me31B), Pat1, and the heptameric LSm1-7 complex. We used the RNA interference technology to deplete cultured S2 cells of DCP1 (CG11183), Ge-1 (CG6181), Pat1 (CG5208), LSm16 (CG6311), and LSm1 (CG4279). We used Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarrays to analyze two independent samples for each depletion. We included the following controls: mock RNAi treatment and GFP dsRNA treatment (two profiles each). We also profiled AGO1 (CG6671) depleted cells (3 independent samples). AGO1 is a key protein required for miRNA-mediated gene silencing. We had shown previously that silencing by miRNAs involves decapping of target mRNAs.
Project description:The conserved decapping enzyme Dcp2 recognizes and removes the 5' eukaryotic cap from mRNA transcripts in a critical step of many cellular RNA decay pathways. Dcp2 is a dynamic enzyme that functions in concert with the essential activator Dcp1 and a diverse set of coactivators to selectively and efficiently decap target mRNAs in the cell. Here we present a 2.84?Å crystal structure of K. lactis Dcp1-Dcp2 in complex with coactivators Edc1 and Edc3, and with substrate analog bound to the Dcp2 active site. Our structure shows how Dcp2 recognizes cap substrate in the catalytically active conformation of the enzyme, and how coactivator Edc1 forms a three-way interface that bridges the domains of Dcp2 to consolidate the active conformation. Kinetic data reveal Dcp2 has selectivity for the first transcribed nucleotide during the catalytic step. The heterotetrameric Edc1-Dcp1-Dcp2-Edc3 structure shows how coactivators Edc1 and Edc3 can act simultaneously to activate decapping catalysis.