Preliminary quantitative profile of differential protein expression between rat L6 myoblasts and myotubes by stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture.
ABSTRACT: Defining the mechanisms governing myogenesis has advanced in recent years. Skeletal-muscle differentiation is a multi-step process controlled spatially and temporally by various factors at the transcription level. To explore those factors involved in myogenesis, stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC), coupled with high-accuracy mass spectrometry (LTQ-Orbitrap), was applied successfully. Rat L6 cell line is an excellent model system for studying muscle myogenesis in vitro. When mononucleate L6 myoblast cells reach confluence in culture plate, they could transform into multinucleate myotubes by serum starvation. By comparing protein expression of L6 myoblasts and terminally differentiated multinucleated myotubes, 1170 proteins were quantified and 379 proteins changed significantly in fully differentiated myotubes in contrast to myoblasts. These differentially expressed proteins are mainly involved in inter-or intracellular signaling, protein synthesis and degradation, protein folding, cell adhesion and extracellular matrix, cell structure and motility, metabolism, substance transportation, etc. These findings were supported by many previous studies on myogenic differentiation, of which many up-regulated proteins were found to be involved in promoting skeletal muscle differentiation for the first time in our study. In summary, our results provide new clues for understanding the mechanism of myogenesis.
Project description:Myogenesis is a multi-step process that leads to the formation of skeletal muscle during embryonic development and repair of injured myofibers. In this process, myoblasts are the main effector cell type which fuse with each other or to injured myofibers leading to the formation of new myofibers or regeneration of skeletal muscle in adults. Many steps of myogenesis can be recapitulated through in vitro differentiation of myoblasts into myotubes. Most laboratories use immortalized myogenic cells lines that also differentiate into myotubes. Although these cell lines have been found quite useful to delineating the regulatory mechanisms of myogenesis, they often show a great degree of variability depending on the origin of the cells and culture conditions. Primary myoblasts have been suggested as the most physiologically relevant model for studying myogenesis in vitro. However, due to their low abundance in adult skeletal muscle, isolation of primary myoblasts is technically challenging. In this article, we describe an improved protocol for the isolation of primary myoblasts from adult skeletal muscle of mice. We also describe methods for their culturing and differentiation into myotubes.
Project description:Skeletal myogenesis is a regulated process in which mononucleated cells, the myoblasts, undergo proliferation and differentiation. Upon differentiation, the cells align with each other, and subsequently fuse to form terminally differentiated multinucleated myotubes. Previous reports have identified the protein osteoglycin (Ogn) as an important component of the skeletal muscle secretome, which is expressed differentially during muscle development. However, the posttranscriptional regulation of Ogn by microRNAs during myogenesis is unknown. Bioinformatic analysis showed that miR-155 potentially targeted the Ogn transcript at the 3´-untranslated region (3´ UTR). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that miR-155 inhibits the expression of the Ogn to regulate skeletal myogenesis. C2C12 myoblast cells were cultured and miR-155 overexpression or Ogn knockdown was induced by transfection with miR-155 mimic, siRNA-Ogn, and negative controls with lipofectamine for 15 hours. Near confluence (80-90%), myoblasts were induced to differentiate myotubes in a differentiation medium. Luciferase assay was used to confirm the interaction between miR-155 and Ogn 3'UTR. RT-qPCR and Western blot analyses were used to confirm that the differential expression of miR-155 correlates with the differential expression of myogenic molecular markers (Myh2, MyoD, and MyoG) and inhibits Ogn protein and gene expression in myoblasts and myotubes. Myoblast migration and proliferation were assessed using Wound Healing and MTT assays. Our results show that miR-155 interacts with the 3'UTR Ogn region and decrease the levels of Ogn in myotubes. The overexpression of miR-155 increased MyoG expression, decreased myoblasts wound closure rate, and decreased Myh2 expression in myotubes. Moreover, Ogn knockdown reduced the expression levels of MyoD, MyoG, and Myh2 in myotubes. These results reveal a novel pathway in which miR-155 inhibits Ogn expression to regulate proliferation and differentiation of C2C12 myoblast cells.
Project description:The coordinated expression of myogenic regulatory factors, including MyoD and myogenin, orchestrates the steps of skeletal muscle development, from myoblast proliferation and cell-cycle exit, to myoblast fusion and myotubes maturation. Yet, it remains unclear how key transcription factors and epigenetic enzymes cooperate to guide myogenic differentiation. Proteins of the SMYD (SET and MYND domain-containing) methyltransferase family participate in cardiac and skeletal myogenesis during development in zebrafish, Drosophila and mice. Here, we show that the mammalian SMYD3 methyltransferase coordinates skeletal muscle differentiation in vitro. Overexpression of SMYD3 in myoblasts promoted muscle differentiation and myoblasts fusion. Conversely, silencing of endogenous SMYD3 or its pharmacological inhibition impaired muscle differentiation. Genome-wide transcriptomic analysis of murine myoblasts, with silenced or overexpressed SMYD3, revealed that SMYD3 impacts skeletal muscle differentiation by targeting the key muscle regulatory factor myogenin. The role of SMYD3 in the regulation of skeletal muscle differentiation and myotube formation, partially via the myogenin transcriptional network, highlights the importance of methyltransferases in mammalian myogenesis.
Project description:TGF-beta1 has been shown to induce autophagy in certain cells but whether and how this action is exerted in muscle and whether this activity relates to TGF-beta1 control of muscle cell differentiation remains unknown. Here, we show that expression of the autophagy-promoting protein phosphoprotein enriched in diabetes/phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes (PED/PEA-15) progressively declines during L6 and C2C12 skeletal muscle cell differentiation. PED/PEA-15 underwent rapid induction upon TGF-beta1 exposure of L6 and C2C12 myoblasts, accompanied by impaired differentiation into mature myotubes. TGF-beta1 also induced autophagy in the L6 and C2C12 cells through a PP2A/FoxO1-mediated mechanism. Both the TGF-beta1 effect on differentiation and that on autophagy were blocked by specific PED/PEA-15 ShRNAs. Myoblasts stably overexpressing PED/PEA-15 did not differentiate and showed markedly enhanced autophagy. In these same cells, the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine rescued TGF-beta1 effect on both autophagy and myogenesis, indicating that PED/PEA-15 mediates TGF-beta1 effects in muscle. Muscles from transgenic mice overexpressing PED/PEA-15 featured a significant number of atrophic fibers, accompanied by increased light chain 3 (LC3)II to LC3I ratio and reduced PP2A/FoxO1 phosphorylation. Interestingly, these mice showed significantly impaired locomotor activity compared with their non-transgenic littermates. TGF-beta1 causes transcriptional upregulation of the autophagy-promoting gene PED/PEA-15, which in turn is capable to induce atrophic responses in skeletal muscle in vivo.
Project description:Myogenic precursors are myoblasts that have a potency to differentiate into muscle fibers on injury and maintain the regenerative power of skeletal muscle. However, the roles of exogenous nitric oxide (NO) in muscle development and myoblast differentiation are largely unknown. Therefore, in this study, we examined the effects of exogenous NO generated by a microwave plasma torch on rat myoblastic L6 cell proliferation and differentiation. We observed that the differentiation of L6 myogenic precursor cells into myotubes was significantly enhanced after NO treatment. The expression of the myogenesis marker proteins and mRNA level, such as myoD, myogenin, and myosin heavy chain (MHC), as well as the cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) level, were significantly increased after the NO treatment, without creating toxicity. Moreover, we observed that the oxidative stress signaling [extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (Erks), ?and Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)] phosphorylation was higher in NO treated cells than in the control cells [without NO treatment]. Therefore, these results reveal the exogenous NO role in regulating myoblast differentiation through the oxidative stress signaling pathway. Through this work, we can suggest that exogenous NO can help in cell differentiation and tissue regeneration, which provides new possibilities for plasma medicine.
Project description:Nuclear acetyltransferases promote and deacetylases inhibit skeletal muscle-gene expression, suggesting the potential effectiveness of deacetylase inhibitors (DIs) in modulating skeletal myogenesis. Surprisingly, previous studies have indicated that DIs suppress myogenesis. The recent observations that histone deacetylases associate with the muscle-regulatory proteins MyoD and MEF2C only in undifferentiated myoblasts prompted us to evaluate the effect of DIs at distinct stages of the myogenic program. We found that exposure of established rodent and human muscle cells to distinct DIs has stage-specific effects. Exposure of undifferentiated skeletal myoblasts to DIs, followed by incubation in differentiation medium, enhanced the expression of muscle-specific reporters and increased the levels of endogenous muscle proteins, leading to a dramatic increase in the formation of multinucleated myotubes. By contrast, simultaneous exposure of muscle cells to differentiation medium and DIs inhibited the myogenic program. Likewise, embryos exposed in utero to nonteratogenic doses of DI at the early stages of somitic myogenesis (embryonic day 8.5) exhibited an increased number of somites and augmented expression of a muscle-specific transgene as well as endogenous muscle genes. The functional effects induced by DIs were mirrored by changes in the state of acetylation of histones present at a muscle-gene enhancer and of MyoD itself. These results represent the first evidence that DIs can enhance muscle differentiation and suggest the rationale for their use in manipulating adult and embryonic skeletal myogenesis.
Project description:Palladin is a microfilament-associated phosphoprotein whose function in skeletal muscle has rarely been studied. Therefore, we investigate whether myogenesis is influenced by the depletion of palladin expression known to interfere with the actin cytoskeleton dynamic required for skeletal muscle differentiation. The inhibition of palladin in C2C12 myoblasts leads to precocious myogenic differentiation with a concomitant reduction in cell apoptosis. This premature myogenesis is caused, in part, by an accelerated induction of p21, myogenin, and myosin heavy chain, suggesting that palladin acts as a negative regulator in early differentiation phases. Paradoxically, palladin-knockdown myoblasts are unable to differentiate terminally, despite their ability to perform some initial steps of differentiation. Cells with attenuated palladin expression form thinner myotubes with fewer myonuclei compared to those of the control. It is noteworthy that a negative regulator of myogenesis, myostatin, is activated in palladin-deficient myotubes, suggesting the palladin-mediated impairment of late-stage myogenesis. Additionally, overexpression of 140-kDa palladin inhibits myoblast differentiation while 200-kDa and 90-kDa palladin-overexpressed cells display an enhanced differentiation rate. Together, our data suggest that palladin might have both positive and negative roles in maintaining the proper skeletal myogenic differentiation in vitro.
Project description:Studies in murine cell lines and in mouse models suggest that IL-15 promotes myogenesis and may protect against the inflammation-mediated skeletal muscle atrophy which occurs in sarcopenia and cachexia. The effects of IL-15 on human skeletal muscle growth and development remain largely uncharacterised. Myogenic cultures were isolated from the skeletal muscle of young and elderly subjects. Myoblasts were differentiated for 8 d, with or without the addition of recombinant cytokines (rIL-15, rTNF?) and an IL-15 receptor neutralising antibody. Although myotubes were 19% thinner in cultures derived from elderly subjects, rIL-15 increased the thickness of myotubes (MTT) from both age groups to a similar extent. Neutralisation of the high-affinity IL-15 receptor binding subunit, IL-15r? in elderly myotubes confirmed that autocrine concentrations of IL-15 also support myogenesis. Co-incubation of differentiating myoblasts with rIL-15 and rTNF?, limited the reduction in MTT and nuclear fusion index (NFI) associated with rTNF? stimulation alone. IL-15r? neutralisation and rTNF? decreased MTT and NFI further. This, coupled with our observation that myotubes secrete IL-15 in response to TNF? stimulation supports the notion that IL-15 serves to mitigate inflammatory skeletal muscle loss. IL-15 may be an effective therapeutic target for the attenuation of inflammation-mediated skeletal muscle atrophy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that have recently emerged as important regulators of gene expression. They negatively regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally by translational repression and target mRNA degradation. miRNAs have been shown to play crucial roles in muscle development and in regulation of muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:By comparing miRNA expression profiling of proliferating myoblasts versus differentiated myotubes, a number of modulated miRNAs, not previously implicated in regulation of myogenic differentiation, were identified. Among these, miR-221 and miR-222 were strongly down-regulated upon differentiation of both primary and established myogenic cells. Conversely, miR-221 and miR-222 expression was restored in post-mitotic, terminally differentiated myotubes subjected to Src tyrosine kinase activation. By the use of specific inhibitors we provide evidence that expression of miR-221 and miR-222 is under the control of the Ras-MAPK pathway. Both in myoblasts and in myotubes, levels of the cell cycle inhibitor p27 inversely correlated with miR-221 and miR-222 expression, and indeed we show that p27 mRNA is a direct target of these miRNAs in myogenic cells. Ectopic expression of miR-221 and miR-222 in myoblasts undergoing differentiation induced a delay in withdrawal from the cell cycle and in myogenin expression, followed by inhibition of sarcomeric protein accumulation. When miR-221 and miR-222 were expressed in myotubes undergoing maturation, a profound alteration of myofibrillar organization was observed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:miR-221 and miR-222 have been found to be modulated during myogenesis and to play a role both in the progression from myoblasts to myocytes and in the achievement of the fully differentiated phenotype. Identification of miRNAs modulating muscle gene expression is crucial for the understanding of the circuits controlling skeletal muscle differentiation and maintenance.
Project description:Skeletal muscle is an important metabolic organ of the body, and impaired skeletal muscle differentiation can result in a wide range of metabolic diseases. It has been shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in skeletal muscle differentiation. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of mmu-miR-324-5p in the differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts and lipid droplet deposition in myotubes for future targeted therapies. We found that mmu-miR-324-5p was highly expressed in mouse skeletal muscle. Overexpression of miR-324-5p significantly inhibited C2C12 myoblast differentiation while promoting oleate-induced lipid accumulation and ?-oxidation in C2C12 myoblasts. Conversely, inhibition of mmu-miR-324-5p promoted C2C12 myoblast differentiation and inhibited lipid deposition in myotubes. Mechanistically, mmu-miR-324-5p negatively regulated the expression of long non-coding Dum (lncDum) and peptidase M20 domain containing 1 (Pm20d1) in C2C12 myoblasts. Reduced lncDum expression was associated with a significant decrease in the expression of myogenesis-related genes. Knockdown of mmu-miR-324-5p increased the levels of lncDum and myogenesis-related gene expression. Following oleate-induced lipid deposition in C2C12 myoblasts, overexpression of mmu-miR-324-5p decreased the expression of Pm20d1 while increasing the expression of mitochondrial ?-oxidation and long-chain fatty acid synthesis-related genes. In conclusion, we provide evidence that miR-324-5p inhibits C2C12 myoblast differentiation and promotes intramuscular lipid deposition by targeting lncDum and Pm20d1, respectively. Graphical Abstract This study identified miR-324-5p as a key factor that inhibits the differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts by targeting lncDum and promotes intramuscular lipid deposition in myotubes by inhibiting the expression of PM20D1, and it revealed a potential target for the future therapy of muscle-related diseases.