Ang2/fat-free is a conserved subunit of the Golgi-associated retrograde protein complex.
ABSTRACT: The Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP) complex mediates tethering and fusion of endosome-derived transport carriers to the trans-Golgi network (TGN). In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, GARP comprises four subunits named Vps51p, Vps52p, Vps53p, and Vps54p. Orthologues of the GARP subunits, except for Vps51p, have been identified in all other eukaryotes. A yeast two-hybrid screen of a human cDNA library yielded a phylogenetically conserved protein, Ang2/Fat-free, which interacts with human Vps52, Vps53 and Vps54. Human Ang2 is larger than yeast Vps51p, but exhibits significant homology in an N-terminal coiled-coil region that mediates assembly with other GARP subunits. Biochemical analyses show that human Ang2, Vps52, Vps53 and Vps54 form an obligatory 1:1:1:1 complex that strongly interacts with the regulatory Habc domain of the TGN SNARE, Syntaxin 6. Depletion of Ang2 or the GARP subunits similarly impairs protein retrieval to the TGN, lysosomal enzyme sorting, endosomal cholesterol traffic¤ and autophagy. These findings indicate that Ang2 is the missing component of the GARP complex in most eukaryotes.
Project description:Endosomes function as a hub for multiple protein-sorting events, including retrograde transport to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and recycling to the plasma membrane. These processes are mediated by tubular-vesicular carriers that bud from early endosomes and fuse with a corresponding acceptor compartment. Two tethering complexes named GARP (composed of ANG2, VPS52, VPS53, and VPS54 subunits) and EARP (composed of ANG2, VPS52, VPS53, and Syndetin subunits) were previously shown to participate in SNARE-dependent fusion of endosome-derived carriers with the TGN and recycling endosomes, respectively. Little is known, however, about other proteins that function with GARP and EARP in these processes. Here we identify a protein named TSSC1 as a specific interactor of both GARP and EARP and as a novel component of the endosomal retrieval machinery. TSSC1 is a predicted WD40/?-propeller protein that coisolates with both GARP and EARP in affinity purification, immunoprecipitation, and gel filtration analyses. Confocal fluorescence microscopy shows colocalization of TSSC1 with both GARP and EARP. Silencing of TSSC1 impairs transport of internalized Shiga toxin B subunit to the TGN, as well as recycling of internalized transferrin to the plasma membrane. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching shows that TSSC1 is required for efficient recruitment of GARP to the TGN. These studies thus demonstrate that TSSC1 plays a critical role in endosomal retrieval pathways as a regulator of both GARP and EARP function.
Project description:The biosynthetic sorting of acid hydrolases to lysosomes relies on transmembrane, mannose 6-phosphate receptors (MPRs) that cycle between the TGN and endosomes. Herein we report that maintenance of this cycling requires the function of the mammalian Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP) complex. Depletion of any of the three GARP subunits, Vps52, Vps53, or Vps54, by RNAi impairs sorting of the precursor of the acid hydrolase, cathepsin D, to lysosomes and leads to its secretion into the culture medium. As a consequence, lysosomes become swollen, likely due to a buildup of undegraded materials. Missorting of cathepsin D in GARP-depleted cells results from accumulation of recycling MPRs in a population of light, small vesicles downstream of endosomes. These vesicles might correspond to intermediates in retrograde transport from endosomes to the TGN. Depletion of GARP subunits also blocks the retrograde transport of the TGN protein, TGN46, and the B subunit of Shiga toxin. These observations indicate that the mammalian GARP complex plays a general role in the delivery of retrograde cargo into the TGN. We also report that a Vps54 mutant protein in the Wobbler mouse strain is active in retrograde transport, thus explaining the viability of these mutant mice.
Project description:Recycling of endocytic receptors to the cell surface involves passage through a series of membrane-bound compartments by mechanisms that are poorly understood. In particular, it is unknown if endocytic recycling requires the function of multisubunit tethering complexes, as is the case for other intracellular trafficking pathways. Herein we describe a tethering complex named endosome-associated recycling protein (EARP) that is structurally related to the previously described Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP) complex. The two complexes share the Ang2, Vps52 and Vps53 subunits, but EARP contains an uncharacterized protein, syndetin, in place of the Vps54 subunit of GARP. This change determines differential localization of EARP to recycling endosomes and GARP to the Golgi complex. EARP interacts with the target SNARE syntaxin 6 and various cognate SNAREs. Depletion of syndetin or syntaxin 6 delays recycling of internalized transferrin to the cell surface. These findings implicate EARP in canonical membrane-fusion events in the process of endocytic recycling.
Project description:The late Golgi of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae receives membrane traffic from the secretory pathway as well as retrograde traffic from post-Golgi compartments, but the machinery that regulates these vesicle-docking and fusion events has not been characterized. We have identified three components of a novel protein complex that is required for protein sorting at the yeast late Golgi compartment. Mutation of VPS52, VPS53, or VPS54 results in the missorting of 70% of the vacuolar hydrolase carboxypeptidase Y as well as the mislocalization of late Golgi membrane proteins to the vacuole, whereas protein traffic through the early part of the Golgi complex is unaffected. A vps52/53/54 triple mutant strain is phenotypically indistinguishable from each of the single mutants, consistent with the model that all three are required for a common step in membrane transport. Native coimmunoprecipitation experiments indicate that Vps52p, Vps53p, and Vps54p are associated in a 1:1:1 complex that sediments as a single peak on sucrose velocity gradients. This complex, which exists both in a soluble pool and as a peripheral component of a membrane fraction, colocalizes with markers of the yeast late Golgi by immunofluorescence microscopy. Together, the phenotypic and biochemical data suggest that VPS52, VPS53, and VPS54 are required for the retrograde transport of Golgi membrane proteins from an endosomal/prevacuolar compartment. The Vps52/53/54 complex joins a growing list of distinct multisubunit complexes that regulate membrane-trafficking events.
Project description:The importance of endosome-to-trans-Golgi network (TGN) retrograde transport in the anterograde transport of proteins is unclear. In this study, genome-wide screening of the factors necessary for efficient anterograde protein transport in human haploid cells identified subunits of the Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP) complex, a tethering factor involved in endosome-to-TGN transport. Knockout (KO) of each of the four GARP subunits, VPS51-VPS54, in HEK293 cells caused severely defective anterograde transport of both glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored and transmembrane proteins from the TGN. Overexpression of VAMP4, v-SNARE, in VPS54-KO cells partially restored not only endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport, but also anterograde transport of both GPI-anchored and transmembrane proteins. Further screening for genes whose overexpression normalized the VPS54-KO phenotype identified TMEM87A, encoding an uncharacterized Golgi-resident membrane protein. Overexpression of TMEM87A or its close homologue TMEM87B in VPS54-KO cells partially restored endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport and anterograde transport. Therefore GARP- and VAMP4-dependent endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport is required for recycling of molecules critical for efficient post-Golgi anterograde transport of cell-surface integral membrane proteins. In addition, TMEM87A and TMEM87B are involved in endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport.
Project description:Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP) and endosome-associated recycling protein (EARP) are related heterotetrameric complexes that associate with the cytosolic face of the trans-Golgi network and recycling endosomes, respectively. At these locations, GARP and EARP function to promote the fusion of endosome-derived transport carriers with their corresponding compartments. GARP and EARP share three subunits, VPS51, VPS52 and VPS53, and each has an additional complex-specific subunit, VPS54 or VPS50, respectively. The role of these complexes in human physiology, however, remains poorly understood. By exome sequencing, we have identified compound heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding the shared GARP/EARP subunit VPS51 in a 6-year-old patient with severe global developmental delay, microcephaly, hypotonia, epilepsy, cortical vision impairment, pontocerebellar abnormalities, failure to thrive, liver dysfunction, lower extremity edema and dysmorphic features. The mutation in one allele causes a frameshift that produces a longer but highly unstable protein that is degraded by the proteasome. In contrast, the other mutant allele produces a protein with a single amino acid substitution that is stable but assembles less efficiently with the other GARP/EARP subunits. Consequently, skin fibroblasts from the patient have reduced levels of fully assembled GARP and EARP complexes. Likely because of this deficiency, the patient's fibroblasts display altered distribution of the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor, which normally sorts acid hydrolases to lysosomes. Furthermore, a fraction of the patient's fibroblasts exhibits swelling of lysosomes. These findings thus identify a novel genetic locus for a neurodevelopmental disorder and highlight the critical importance of GARP/EARP function in cellular and organismal physiology.
Project description:Intracellular traffic in Aspergillus nidulans hyphae must cope with the challenges that the high rates of apical extension (1?m/min) and the long intracellular distances (>100 ?m) impose. Understanding the ways in which the hyphal tip cell coordinates traffic to meet these challenges is of basic importance, but is also of considerable applied interest, as fungal invasiveness of animals and plants depends critically upon maintaining these high rates of growth. Rapid apical extension requires localization of cell-wall-modifying enzymes to hyphal tips. By combining genetic blocks in different trafficking steps with multidimensional epifluorescence microscopy and quantitative image analyses we demonstrate that polarization of the essential chitin-synthase ChsB occurs by indirect endocytic recycling, involving delivery/exocytosis to apices followed by internalization by the sub-apical endocytic collar of actin patches and subsequent trafficking to TGN cisternae, where it accumulates for ~1 min before being re-delivered to the apex by a RAB11/TRAPPII-dependent pathway. Accordingly, ChsB is stranded at the TGN by Sec7 inactivation but re-polarizes to the apical dome if the block is bypassed by a mutation in geaAgea1 that restores growth in the absence of Sec7. That polarization is independent of RAB5, that ChsB predominates at apex-proximal cisternae, and that upon dynein impairment ChsB is stalled at the tips in an aggregated endosome indicate that endocytosed ChsB traffics to the TGN via sorting endosomes functionally located upstream of the RAB5 domain and that this step requires dynein-mediated basipetal transport. It also requires RAB6 and its effector GARP (Vps51/Vps52/Vps53/Vps54), whose composition we determined by MS/MS following affinity chromatography purification. Ablation of any GARP component diverts ChsB to vacuoles and impairs growth and morphology markedly, emphasizing the important physiological role played by this pathway that, we propose, is central to the hyphal mode of growth.
Project description:Vps54 is a subunit of the Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP) complex, which is involved in tethering endosome-derived vesicles to the trans-Golgi network (TGN). In the wobbler mouse, a model for human motor neuron (MN) disease, reduction in the levels of Vps54 causes neurodegeneration. However, it is unclear how disruption of the GARP complex leads to MN dysfunction. To better understand the role of Vps54 in MNs, we have disrupted expression of the Vps54 ortholog in Drosophila and examined the impact on the larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Surprisingly, we show that both null mutants and MN-specific knockdown of Vps54 leads to NMJ overgrowth. Reduction of Vps54 partially disrupts localization of the t-SNARE, Syntaxin-16, to the TGN but has no visible impact on endosomal pools. MN-specific knockdown of Vps54 in MNs combined with overexpression of the small GTPases Rab5, Rab7, or Rab11 suppresses the Vps54 NMJ phenotype. Conversely, knockdown of Vps54 combined with overexpression of dominant negative Rab7 causes NMJ and behavioral abnormalities including a decrease in postsynaptic Dlg and GluRIIB levels without any effect on GluRIIA. Taken together, these data suggest that Vps54 controls larval MN axon development and postsynaptic density composition through a mechanism that requires Rab7.
Project description:Mutations in Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) cause Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the precise function of LRRK2 remains unclear. We report an interaction between LRRK2 and VPS52, a subunit of the Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP) complex that identifies a function of LRRK2 in regulating membrane fusion at the trans-Golgi network (TGN). At the TGN, LRRK2 further interacts with the Golgi SNAREs VAMP4 and Syntaxin-6 and acts as a scaffolding platform that stabilizes the GARP-SNAREs complex formation. Therefore, LRRK2 influences both retrograde and post-Golgi trafficking pathways in a manner dependent on its GTP binding and kinase activity. This action is exaggerated by mutations associated with Parkinson's disease and can be blocked by kinase inhibitors. Disruption of GARP sensitizes dopamine neurons to mutant LRRK2 toxicity in C. elegans, showing that these pathways are interlinked in vivo and suggesting a link in PD.
Project description:RNF41 (Ring Finger Protein 41) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase involved in the intracellular sorting and function of a diverse set of substrates. Next to BRUCE and Parkin, RNF41 can directly ubiquitinate ErbB3, IL-3, EPO and RAR? receptors or downstream signaling molecules such as Myd88, TBK1 and USP8. In this way it can regulate receptor signaling and routing. To further elucidate the molecular mechanism behind the role of RNF41 in intracellular transport we performed an Array MAPPIT (Mammalian Protein-Protein Interaction Trap) screen using an extensive set of proteins derived from the human ORFeome collection. This paper describes the identification of VPS52, a subunit of the GARP (Golgi-Associated Retrograde Protein) and the EARP (Endosome-Associated Recycling Protein) complexes, as a novel interaction partner of RNF41. Through interaction via their coiled coil domains, RNF41 ubiquitinates and relocates VPS52 away from VPS53, a common subunit of the GARP and EARP complexes, towards RNF41 bodies.