Intracellular uptake and trafficking of difluoroboron dibenzoylmethane-polylactide nanoparticles in HeLa cells.
ABSTRACT: In this study, nanoparticles based on difluoroboron dibenzoylmethane-poly(lactic acid) (BF(2)dbmPLA) are prepared. Polylactic acid or polylactide is a commonly used degradable polymer, while the boron dye possesses a large extinction coefficient, high emission quantum yield, two-photon absorption, and sensitivity to the surrounding environment. BF(2)dbmPLA exhibits molecular-weight-dependent emission properties and can be formulated as stable nanoparticles, suggesting that its unique optical properties may be useful in multiple contexts for probing intracellular environments. Here we show that BF(2)dbmPLA nanoparticles are internalized into cultured HeLa cells by endocytosis, and that within the cellular milieu, they retain their fluorescence properties. BF(2)dbmPLA nanoparticles are photostable, resisting laser-induced photobleaching under conditions that destroy the fluorescence of a common photostable probe, LysoTracker Blue. Their endocytosis is also lipid-raft-dependent, as evidenced by their significant colocalization with cholera toxin B subunit in membrane compartments after uptake and their sensitivity of uptake to methyl-beta-cyclodextrin. Additionally, BF(2)dbmPLA nanoparticle endocytosis utilizes microtubules and actin filaments. Internalized BF(2)dbmPLA nanoparticles do not accumulate in acidic late endosomes and lysosomes but within a perinuclear nonlysosomal compartment. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of using novel BF(2)dbmPLA nanoparticles exhibiting diverse emission properties for in situ, live cell imaging and suggest that their endogenous uptake occurs through a lipid-raft-dependent endocytosis mechanism.
Project description:Luminescent materials are widely used for imaging and sensing owing to their high sensitivity, rapid response and facile detection by many optical technologies. Typically materials must be chemically tailored to achieve intense, photostable fluorescence, oxygen-sensitive phosphorescence or dual emission for ratiometric sensing, often by blending two dyes in a matrix. Dual-emissive materials combining all of these features in one easily tunable molecular platform are desirable, but when fluorescence and phosphorescence originate from the same dye, it can be challenging to vary relative fluorescence/phosphorescence intensities for practical sensing applications. Heavy-atom substitution alone increases phosphorescence by a given, not variable amount. Here, we report a strategy for modulating fluorescence/phosphorescence for a single-component, dual-emissive, iodide-substituted difluoroboron dibenzoylmethane-poly(lactic acid) (BF(2)dbm(I)PLA) solid-state sensor material. This is accomplished through systematic variation of the PLA chain length in controlled solvent-free lactide polymerization combined with heavy-atom substitution. We demonstrate the versatility of this approach by showing that films made from low-molecular-weight BF(2)dbm(I)PLA with weak fluorescence and strong phosphorescence are promising as 'turn on' sensors for aerodynamics applications, and that nanoparticles fabricated from a higher-molecular-weight polymer with balanced fluorescence and phosphorescence intensities serve as ratiometric tumour hypoxia imaging agents.
Project description:The modular assembly of boronic acids with Schiff-base ligands enabled the construction of innovative fluorescent dyes [boronic acid salicylidenehydrazone (BASHY)] with suitable structural and photophysical properties for live cell bioimaging applications. This reaction enabled the straightforward synthesis (yields up to 99%) of structurally diverse and photostable dyes that exhibit a polarity-sensitive green-to-yellow emission with high quantum yields of up to 0.6 in nonpolar environments. These dyes displayed a high brightness (up to 54,000 M(-1) cm(-1)). The promising structural and fluorescence properties of BASHY dyes fostered the preparation of non-cytotoxic, stable, and highly fluorescent poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles that were effectively internalized by dendritic cells. The dyes were also shown to selectively stain lipid droplets in HeLa cells, without inducing any appreciable cytotoxicity or competing plasma membrane labeling; this confirmed their potential as fluorescent stains.
Project description:The ability to specifically deliver therapeutic agents to selected cell types while minimizing systemic toxicity is a principal goal of nanoparticle-based drug delivery approaches. Numerous cellular portals exist for cargo uptake and transport, but after targeting, intact nanoparticles typically are internalized via endocytosis prior to drug release. However, in this work, we show that certain classes of nanoparticles, namely lipid-coated liquid perfluorocarbon emulsions, undergo unique interactions with cells to deliver lipophilic substances to target cells without the need for entire nanoparticle internalization. To define the delivery mechanisms, fluorescently-labeled nanoparticles complexed with alphav beta 3-integrin targeting ligands were incubated with alphav beta 3-integrin expressing cells (C32 melanoma) under selected inhibitory conditions that revealed specific nanoparticle-to-cell interactions. We observed that the predominant mechanism of lipophilic delivery entailed direct delivery of lipophilic substances to the target cell plasma membrane via lipid mixing and subsequent intracellular trafficking through lipid raft-dependent processes. We suggest that local drug delivery to selected cell types could be facilitated by employing targeted nanoparticles designed specifically to utilize alternative membrane transport mechanisms.
Project description:There is considerable interest in using nanoparticles as labels or to deliver drugs and other bioactive compounds to cells in vitro and in vivo. Fluorescent imaging, commonly used to study internalization and subcellular localization of nanoparticles, does not allow unequivocal distinction between cell surface-bound and internalized particles, as there is no methodology to turn particles 'off'. We have developed a simple technique to rapidly remove silver nanoparticles outside living cells, leaving only the internalized pool for imaging or quantification. The silver nanoparticle (AgNP) etching is based on the sensitivity of Ag to a hexacyanoferrate-thiosulphate redox-based destain solution. In demonstration of the technique we present a class of multicoloured plasmonic nanoprobes comprising dye-labelled AgNPs that are exceptionally bright and photostable, carry peptides as model targeting ligands, can be etched rapidly and with minimal toxicity in mice, and that show tumour uptake in vivo.
Project description:Precise knowledge regarding cellular uptake of nanoparticles is of great importance for future biomedical applications. Four different endocytotic uptake mechanisms, that is, phagocytosis, macropinocytosis, clathrin- and caveolin-mediated endocytosis, were investigated using a mouse macrophage (J774A.1) and a human alveolar epithelial type II cell line (A549). In order to deduce the involved pathway in nanoparticle uptake, selected inhibitors specific for one of the endocytotic pathways were optimized regarding concentration and incubation time in combination with fluorescently tagged marker proteins. Qualitative immunolocalization showed that J774A.1 cells highly expressed the lipid raft-related protein flotillin-1 and clathrin heavy chain, however, no caveolin-1. A549 cells expressed clathrin heavy chain and caveolin-1, but no flotillin-1 uptake-related proteins. Our data revealed an impeded uptake of 40 nm polystyrene nanoparticles by J774A.1 macrophages when actin polymerization and clathrin-coated pit formation was blocked. From this result, it is suggested that macropinocytosis and phagocytosis, as well as clathrin-mediated endocytosis, play a crucial role. The uptake of 40 nm nanoparticles in alveolar epithelial A549 cells was inhibited after depletion of cholesterol in the plasma membrane (preventing caveolin-mediated endocytosis) and inhibition of clathrin-coated vesicles (preventing clathrin-mediated endocytosis). Our data showed that a combination of several distinguishable endocytotic uptake mechanisms are involved in the uptake of 40 nm polystyrene nanoparticles in both the macrophage and epithelial cell line.
Project description:The ALP (alkyl-lysophospholipid) edelfosine (1-O-octadecyl-2-O-methyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine; Et-18-OCH3) induces apoptosis in S49 mouse lymphoma cells. To this end, ALP is internalized by lipid raft-dependent endocytosis and inhibits phosphatidylcholine synthesis. A variant cell-line, S49AR, which is resistant to ALP, was shown previously to be unable to internalize ALP via this lipid raft pathway. The reason for this uptake failure is not understood. In the present study, we show that S49AR cells are unable to synthesize SM (sphingomyelin) due to down-regulated SMS1 (SM synthase 1) expression. In parental S49 cells, resistance to ALP could be mimicked by small interfering RNA-induced SMS1 suppression, resulting in SM deficiency and blockage of raft-dependent internalization of ALP and induction of apoptosis. Similar results were obtained by treatment of the cells with myriocin/ISP-1, an inhibitor of general sphingolipid synthesis, or with U18666A, a cholesterol homoeostasis perturbing agent. U18666A is known to inhibit Niemann-Pick C1 protein-dependent vesicular transport of cholesterol from endosomal compartments to the trans-Golgi network and the plasma membrane. U18666A reduced cholesterol partitioning in detergent-resistant lipid rafts and inhibited SM synthesis in S49 cells, causing ALP resistance similar to that observed in S49AR cells. The results are explained by the strong physical interaction between (newly synthesized) SM and available cholesterol at the Golgi, where they facilitate lipid raft formation. We propose that ALP internalization by lipid-raft-dependent endocytosis represents the retrograde route of a constitutive SMS1- and lipid-raft-dependent membrane vesicular recycling process.
Project description:Endocytosis is an important pathway to regulate the metabolism of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in cells. At the same time, engineering nanoparticles (ENPs) enter the cell through endocytosis in biomedical applications. Therefore, a crucial question is whether the nanoparticles involved in endocytosis could impact the natural metabolism of LDL in cells. In this study, we fabricated a series of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) (13.00 ± 0.69 nm) with varied surface charge densities. The internalized AuNPs with high-surface negative-charge densities (HSNCD) significantly reduced LDL uptake in HepG-2, HeLa, and SMMC-7721 cells compared with those cells in control group. Notably, the significant reduction of LDL uptake in cells correlates with the reduction of LDL receptors (LDL-R) on the cell surface, but there is no change in protein and mRNA of LDL-Rs. The cyclic utilization of LDL-R in cells is a crucial pathway to maintain the homoeostasis of LDL uptake. The release of LDL-Rs from LDL/LDL-R complexes in endosomes depended on reduction of the pH in the lumen. AuNPs with HSNCD hampered vacuolar-type H?-ATPase V1 (ATPaseV1) and ATPaseV0 binding on the endosome membrane, blocking protons to enter the endosome by the pump. Hence, fewer freed LDL-Rs were transported into recycling endosomes (REs) to be returned to cell surface for reuse, reducing the LDL uptake of cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis. The restrained LDL-Rs in the LDL/LDL-R complex were degraded in lysosomes.
Project description:Intestinal mucosal inflammation is associated with epithelial wounds that rapidly reseal by migration of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). Cell migration involves cycles of cell-matrix adhesion/deadhesion that is mediated by dynamic turnover (assembly and disassembly) of integrin-based focal adhesions. Integrin endocytosis appears to be critical for deadhesion of motile cells. However, mechanisms of integrin internalization during remodeling of focal adhesions of migrating IECs are not understood. This study was designed to define the endocytic pathway that mediates internalization of beta(1)-integrin in migrating model IECs. We observed that, in SK-CO15 and T84 colonic epithelial cells, beta(1)-integrin is internalized in a dynamin-dependent manner. Pharmacological inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis or macropinocytosis and small-interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knock down of clathrin did not prevent beta(1)-integrin internalization. However, beta(1)-integrin internalization was inhibited following cholesterol extraction and after overexpression of lipid raft protein, caveolin-1. Furthermore, internalized beta(1)-integrin colocalized with the lipid rafts marker cholera toxin, and siRNA-mediated knockdown of caveolin-1 and flotillin-1/2 increased beta(1)-integrin endocytosis. Our data suggest that, in migrating IEC, beta(1)-integrin is internalized via a dynamin-dependent lipid raft-mediated pathway. Such endocytosis is likely to be important for disassembly of integrin-based cell-matrix adhesions and therefore in regulating IEC migration and wound closure.
Project description:Autocrine motility factor/phosphoglucose isomerase (AMF/PGI) is the extracellular ligand for the gp78/AMFR receptor overexpressed in a variety of human cancers. We showed previously that raft-dependent internalization of AMF/PGI is elevated in metastatic MDA-435 cells, but not metastatic, caveolin-1-expressing MDA-231 cells, relative to non-metastatic MCF7 and dysplastic MCF10A cells suggesting that it might represent a tumor cell-specific endocytic pathway.Similarly, using flow cytometry, we demonstrate that raft-dependent endocytosis of AMF/PGI is increased in metastatic HT29 cancer cells expressing low levels of caveolin-1 relative to metastatic, caveolin-1-expressing, HCT116 colon cells and non-metastatic Caco-2 cells. Therefore, we exploited the raft-dependent internalization of AMF/PGI as a potential tumor-cell specific targeting mechanism. We synthesized an AMF/PGI-paclitaxel conjugate and found it to be as efficient as free paclitaxel in inducing cytotoxicity and apoptosis in tumor cells that readily internalize AMF/PGI compared to tumor cells that poorly internalize AMF/PGI. Murine K1735-M1 and B16-F1 melanoma cells internalize FITC-conjugated AMF/PGI and are acutely sensitive to AMF/PGI-paclitaxel mediated cytotoxicity in vitro. Moreover, following in vivo intratumoral injection, FITC-conjugated AMF/PGI is internalized in K1735-M1 tumors. Intratumoral injection of AMF/PGI-paclitaxel induced significantly higher tumor regression compared to free paclitaxel, even in B16-F1 cells, known to be resistant to taxol treatment. Treatment with AMF/PGI-paclitaxel significantly prolonged the median survival time of tumor bearing mice. Free AMF/PGI exhibited a pro-survival role, reducing the cytotoxic effect of both AMF/PGI-paclitaxel and free paclitaxel suggesting that AMF/PGI-paclitaxel targets a pathway associated with resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. AMF/PGI-FITC uptake by normal murine spleen and thymus cells was negligible both in vitro and following intravenous injection in vivo where AMF/PGI-FITC was selectively internalized by subcutaneous B16-F1 tumor cells.The raft-dependent endocytosis of AMF/PGI may therefore represent a tumor cell specific endocytic pathway of potential value for drug delivery to tumor cells.
Project description:Environmental natural organic matters (NOMs) have great effects on the physicochemical properties of engineering nanoparticles, which may impact the transport of nanoparticles across plasma membrane and the cytotoxicity. Therefore, the kinetics, uptake pathway and mass of transporting into A549 cell membrane of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) coated with citric acid (CA), tartaric acid (TA) and fulvic acid (FA) were investigated, respectively. CA, FA and TA enhanced the colloidal stability of AgNPs in culture medium and have greatly changed the surface plasmon resonance spectrum of AgNPs due to the absorption of CA, FA and TA on surface of AgNPs. Internalizing model showed that velocity of CA-, TA- and FA-nAg transporting into A549 cell were 5.82-, 1.69- and 0.29-fold higher than those of the control group, respectively. Intracellular mass of Ag was dependent on mass of AgNPs delivered to cell from suspension, which obeyed Logistic model and was affected by NOMs that CA- and TA-nAg showed a large promotion on intracellular mass of Ag. The lipid raft/caveolae-mediated endocytosis (LME) of A549 cell uptake of AgNPs were susceptible to CA, TA and FA that uptake of CA-, TA- and FA-nAg showed lower degree of dependent on LME than that of the control (uncoated AgNPs). Actin-involved uptake pathway and macropinocytosis would have less contribution to uptake of FA-nAg. Overall, transmembrane transport of NOMs-coated AgNPs differs greatly from that of the pristine AgNPs.