Extracellular heat shock protein 60, cardiac myocytes, and apoptosis.
ABSTRACT: Previously, we have found that changes in the location of intracellular heat shock protein (HSP)60 are associated with apoptosis. HSP60 has been reported to be a ligand of toll-like receptor (TLR)-4.We hypothesized that extracellular HSP60 (exHSP60) would mediate apoptosis via TLR4.Adult rat cardiac myocytes were treated with HSP60, either recombinant human or with HSP60 purified from the media of injured rat cardiac myocytes. ExHSP60 induced apoptosis in cardiac myocytes, as detected by increased caspase 3 activity and increased DNA fragmentation. Apoptosis could be reduced by blocking antibodies to TLR4 and by nuclear factor kappaB binding decoys, but not completely inhibited, even though similar treatment blocked lipopolysaccharide-induced apoptosis. Three distinct controls showed no evidence for involvement of a ligand other than exHSP60 in the mediation of apoptosis.This is the first report of HSP60-induced apoptosis via the TLRs. HSP60-mediated activation of TLR4 may be a mechanism of myocyte loss in heart failure, where HSP60 has been detected in the plasma.
Project description:Innate immune response after transient ischemia is the most common cause of myocardial inflammation and may contribute to injury, yet the detailed signaling mechanisms leading to such a response are not well understood. Herein we tested the hypothesis that myocardial ischemia activates interleukin receptor-associated kinase-1 (IRAK-1), a kinase critical for the innate immune signaling such as that of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), via a mechanism that involves heat shock proteins (HSPs) and TLRs. Coronary artery occlusion induced a rapid myocardial IRAK-1 activation within 30 min in wild-type (WT), TLR2(-/-), or Trif(-/-) mice, but not in TLR4(def) or MyD88(-/-) mice. HSP60 protein was markedly increased in serum or in perfusate of isolated heart following ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). In vitro, recombinant HSP60 induced IRAK-1 activation in cells derived from WT, TLR2(-/-), or Trif(-/-) mice, but not from TLR4(def) or MyD88(-/-) mice. Both myocardial ischemia- and HSP60-induced IRAK-1 activation was abolished by anti-HSP60 antibody. Moreover, HSP60 treatment of cardiomyocytes (CMs) led to marked activation of caspase-8 and -3, but not -9. Expression of dominant-negative mutant of Fas-associated death domain protein or a caspase-8 inhibitor completely blocked HSP60-induced caspase-8 activation, suggesting that HSP60 likely activates an apoptotic program via the death-receptor pathway. In vivo, I/R-induced myocardial apoptosis and cytokine expression were significantly attenuated in TLR4(def) mice or in WT mice treated with anti-HSP60 antibody compared with WT controls. Taken together, the current study demonstrates that myocardial ischemia activates an innate immune signaling via HSP60 and TLR4, which plays an important role in mediating apoptosis and inflammation during I/R.
Project description:Oxidative stress plays a critical role in ischemia/reperfusion-injury, atherosclerosis, and aging. It causes cell damage that leads to apoptosis via uncertain mechanisms. Because conditioned medium from cardiac myocytes subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation induces extensive apoptosis of cardiac myocytes under normoxia, we hypothesized that a humoral factor released from the hypoxic/reoxygenated cardiac myocytes mediates apoptosis. We identified an apoptosis-inducing humoral factor in the hypoxia/reoxygenation-conditioned medium. Here, we found that eIF5A undergoes tyrosine sulfation in the trans-Golgi and is rapidly secreted from cardiac myocytes in response to hypoxia/reoxygenation; then, eIF5A induces apoptosis by acting as a pro-apoptotic ligand. The apoptosis of cardiac myocytes induced by hypoxia/reoxygenation or ultraviolet irradiation was suppressed by anti-eIF5A neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in vitro. Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (but not ischemia alone) markedly increased the plasma levels of eIF5A, and treatment with anti-eIF5A neutralizing mAbs significantly reduced myocardial injury. These results identify an important, novel specific biomarker and a critical therapeutic target for oxidative stress-induced cell injury.
Project description:Puma (p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis), a proapoptotic BH3-only member of the Bcl-2 protein family, has been implicated in the pathomechanism of several diseases, including cancer, AIDS, and ischemic brain disease. We have recently shown that Puma is required for cardiac cell death upon ischemia/reperfusion of mouse hearts. Since ischemia/reperfusion is also associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, in the present study we investigated whether Puma contributes to the ER stress-dependent component of cardiomyocyte apoptosis.Primary cultures of rat and mouse neonatal cardiomyocytes were treated with 3 muM thapsigargin or 100 ng mL(-1) tunicamycin. Puma levels were suppressed by adenoviral delivery of shRNA or targeted deletion of the puma gene. Puma expression was detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting. Apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL assay, caspase-3 cleavage, and cytochrome c release.We have shown that in rat neonatal cardiac myocytes, thapsigargin or tunicamycin treatment led to ER-stress, transcriptional upregulation of Puma, and apoptosis. Most importantly, cardiac myocytes acquired resistance to ER stress-induced apoptosis if Puma expression was downregulated by adenoviral delivery of shRNA or eliminated by targeted deletion in knockout mice.Taken together, our data indicate that Puma is a critical component of ER stress-induced apoptosis in cardiac myocytes, and inhibition of Puma activity may be used to treat cardiac infarcts or prevent heart failure by blocking ER stress-induced apoptosis.
Project description:It remains unclear whether and how cardiomyocytes contribute to the inflammation in chronic heart failure (CHF). We recently reviewed the capacity of cardiomyocytes to initiate inflammation, by means of expressing certain immune receptors such as toll-like receptors (TLRs) that respond to pathogen- and damage-associated molecular patterns (PAMP and DAMP). Previous studies observed TLR4-mediated inflammation within days of myocardial infarction (MI). This study examined TLR4 expression and function in cardiomyocytes of failing hearts after 4 weeks of MI in rats. The increases of TLR4 mRNA and proteins, as well as inflammatory cytokine production, were observed in both the infarct and remote myocardium. Enhanced immunostaining for TLR4 was observed in cardiomyocytes but not infiltrating leucocytes. The injection of lentivirus shRNA against TLR4 into the infarcted heart decreased inflammatory cytokine production and improved heart function in vivo. Accordingly, in cardiomyocytes isolated from CHF hearts, increases of TLR4 mRNA and proteins were detected. More robust binding of TLR4 with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a PAMP ligand for TLR4, and heat shock protein 60 (HSP60), a DAMP ligand for TLR4, was observed in CHF cardiomyocytes under a confocal microscope. The maximum binding capacity (Bmax ) of TLR4 was increased for LPS and HSP60, whereas the binding affinity (Kd) was not significantly changed. Furthermore, both LPS and HSP60 induced more robust production of inflammatory cytokines in CHF cardiomyocytes, which was reduced by TLR4-blocking antibodies. We conclude that the expression, ligand-binding capacity and pro-inflammatory function of cardiomyocyte TLR4 are up-regulated after long-term MI, which promote inflammation and exacerbate heart failure.
Project description:The identification of the molecular mechanisms controlling cardiomyocyte proliferation during the embryonic, fetal, and early neonatal life appears of paramount interest in regard to exploiting this information to promote cardiac regeneration. Here, we show that the proliferative potential of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes is powerfully stimulated by the sustained activation of the Notch pathway. We found that Notch1 is expressed in proliferating ventricular immature cardiac myocytes (ICMs) both in vitro and in vivo, and that the number of Notch1-positive cells in the heart declines with age. Notch1 expression in ICMs paralleled the expression of its Jagged1 ligand on non-myocyte supporting cells. The inhibition of Notch signaling in ICMs blocked their proliferation and induced apoptosis; in contrast, its activation by Jagged1 or by the constitutive expression of its activated form using an adeno-associated virus markedly stimulated proliferative signaling and promoted ICM expansion. Maintenance or reactivation of Notch signaling in cardiac myocytes might represent an interesting target for innovative regenerative therapy.
Project description:Exosomes, which are 50- to 100-nm-diameter lipid vesicles, have been implicated in intercellular communication, including transmitting malignancy, and as a way for viral particles to evade detection while spreading to new cells. Previously, we demonstrated that adult cardiac myocytes release heat shock protein (HSP)60 in exosomes. Extracellular HSP60, when not in exosomes, causes cardiac myocyte apoptosis via the activation of Toll-like receptor 4. Thus, release of HSP60 from exosomes would be damaging to the surrounding cardiac myocytes. We hypothesized that 1) pathological changes in the environment, such as fever, change in pH, or ethanol consumption, would increase exosome permeability; 2) different exosome inducers would result in different exosomal protein content; 3) ethanol at "physiological" concentrations would cause exosome release; and 4) ROS production is an underlying mechanism of increased exosome production. We found the following: first, exosomes retained their protein cargo under different physiological/pathological conditions, based on Western blot analyses. Second, mass spectrometry demonstrated that the protein content of cardiac exosomes differed significantly from other types of exosomes in the literature and contained cytosolic, sarcomeric, and mitochondrial proteins. Third, ethanol did not affect exosome stability but greatly increased the production of exosomes by cardiac myocytes. Fourth, ethanol- and hypoxia/reoxygenation-derived exosomes had different protein content. Finally, ROS inhibition reduced exosome production but did not completely inhibit it. In conclusion, exosomal protein content is influenced by the cell source and stimulus for exosome formation. ROS stimulate exosome production. The functions of exosomes remain to be fully elucidated.
Project description:Adiponectin, an adipokine produced and secreted by adipocytes, is involved in regulating the development and progression of insulin resistance, diabetes, and diabetic complications. Heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) is a molecular chaperone, most commonly presenting in mitochondria and participating in the maintenance of protein homeostasis. Accumulating studies have demonstrated that the elevated circulating HSP60 and the decreased intracellular HSP60 are closely associated with diabetic complications such as diabetic cardiomyopathy. However, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. In the present study, we reported that HSP60 interacted directly with adiponectin receptors. Its abundance was positively associated with adiponectin action. Furthermore, HSP60 depletion markedly mitigated the protective impacts of adiponectin on high glucose-induced oxidative stress and cell apoptosis in rat cardiac H9c2 cells. In addition, HSP60 knockdown significantly enhanced proteasome activity leading to the degradation of adiponectin receptor 1. Taken together, we showed for the first time that HSP60 interacted with adiponectin receptors and mediated adiponectin signaling through stabilizing adiponectin receptor. This in vitro study also provides an alternative explanation for mechanism by which adiponectin exerts its action. Video abstract.
Project description:We propose that the fetal heart is highly resilient to hypoxic stress. Our objective was to elucidate the human fetal gene expression profile in response to simulated ischemia and reperfusion to identify molecular targets that account for the innate cardioprotection exhibited by the fetal phenotype.Primary cultures of human fetal cardiac myocytes (gestational age, 15-20 weeks) were exposed to simulated ischemia and reperfusion in vitro by using a simulated ischemic buffer under anoxic conditions. Total RNA from treated and baseline cells were isolated, reverse transcribed, and labeled with Cy3 or Cy5 and hybridized to a human cDNA microarray for expression analysis. This analysis revealed a highly significant (false discovery rate, <3%) suppression of interleukin 6 transcript levels during the reperfusion phase confirmed by means of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (0.25 +/- 0.11-fold). Interleukin 6 signaling during ischemia and reperfusion was assessed at the protein expression level by means of Western measurements of interleukin 6 receptor, the signaling subunit of the interleukin 6 receptor complex (gp130), and signal transducer of activated transcription 3. Posttranslational changes in the protein kinase B signaling pathway were determined on the basis of the phosphorylation status of protein kinase B, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and glycogen synthase kinase 3beta. The effect of suppression of a prohypertrophic kinase, integrin-linked kinase, with short-interfering RNA was determined in an ischemia and reperfusion-stressed neonatal rat cardiac myocyte model. Endogenous secretion of interleukin 6 protein in culture supernatants was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Human fetal cardiac myocytes exhibited a significantly lower rate of apoptosis induction during ischemia and reperfusion and after exposure to staurosporine and recombinant interleukin 6 compared with that observed in neonatal rat cardiac myocytes ( P < .05 for all comparisons, analysis of variance). Exposure to exogenously added recombinant interleukin 6 increased the apoptotic rate in both rat and human fetal cardiac myocytes ( P < .05). Short-interfering RNA-mediated suppression of integrin-linked kinase, a prohypertrophy upstream kinase regulating protein kinase B and glycogen synthase kinase 3beta phosphorylation, was cytoprotective against ischemia and reperfusion-induced apoptosis in neonatal rat cardiac myocytes ( P < .05).Human fetal cardiac myocytes exhibit a uniquely adaptive transcriptional response to ischemia and reperfusion that is associated with an apoptosis-resistant phenotype. The stress-inducible fetal cardiac myocyte gene repertoire is a useful platform for identification of targets relevant to the mitigation of cardiac ischemic injury and highlights a novel avenue involving interleukin 6 modulation for preventing the cardiac myocyte injury associated with ischemia and reperfusion.
Project description:Coronary microembolization (CME)-induced inflammation and cardiomyocyte apoptosis are two key factors contributing to CME-induced myocardial dysfunction. High-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) plays essential role in progression of CME-induced injury and inhibition of HMGB1 has been shown to be protective. In present study, the potential effects of glycyrrhizin, a HMGB1 inhibitor, on CME-induced myocardial dysfunction are evaluated. Using a rat model of CME, we administrated glycyrrhizin in rats prior to CME induction. The level of HMGB1, TNF-?, iNOS, IL-6, IL-1?, cleaved caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2 were measured. The serum level of cardiac troponin I, creatine kinase, was detected. The cardiac function and cardiomyocyte apoptosis were evaluated. The activation of TLR4/NF-?B signaling pathway was analyzed. Glycyrrhizin prevented CME-induced production of HMGB1, TNF-?, iNOS, IL-6, and IL-1?. Glycyrrhizin inhibited CME-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and the expression of cleaved caspase-3 and Bax, while enhanced the expression of Bcl-2. Glycyrrhizin decreased cardiac troponin I and creatine kinase levels and improved cardiac function. Glycyrrhizin prevented the activation of HMGB1/TLR4/NF-?B signaling pathway. Glycyrrhizin ameliorated myocardial dysfunction in CME rats by preventing inflammation and apoptosis of cardiomyocytes.
Project description:Accumulating evidence indicates that heat shock protein (HSP) 60 is strongly associated with the pathology of atherosclerosis (AS). However, the precise mechanisms by which HSP60 promotes atherosclerosis remain unclear. In the present study, we found that HSP60 mRNA and protein expression levels in the thoracic aorta are enhanced not only in a mouse model of AS but also in high-fat diet (HFD) mice. HSP60 expression and secretion was activated by platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) and interleukin (IL)-8 in both human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). HSP60 was found to induce VSMC migration, and exposure to HSP60 activated ERK MAPK signaling. U0126, an inhibitor of ERK, reduced VSMC migration. The HSP60-stimulated VSMCs were found to express TLR4 mRNA but not TLR2 mRNA. Knockdown of TLR4 by siRNA reduced HSP60-induced VSMC migration and HSP60-induced ERK activation. Finally, HSP60 induced IL-8 secretion in VSMCs. Together these results suggest that HSP60 is involved in the stimulation of VSMC migration, via TLR4 and ERK MAPK activation. Meanwhile, activation of HSP60 is one of the most powerful methods of sending a 'danger signal' to the immune system to generate IL-8, which assists in the management of an infection or disease.