Distribution of capsular serotypes and virulence markers of Streptococcus suis isolated from pigs with polyserositis in Korea.
ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine the capsular serotypes and potential virulence factors of Streptococcus suis isolated from pigs with polyserositis. Among the 24 isolates evaluated, serotype 3 [7 (29%) of the isolates] and serotype 4 [5 (21%)] were the most common. The isolates were also studied for the presence of the genes mrp, epf, and sly, which encode muramidase-released protein (MRP), extracellular factor (EF), and suilysin (SLY), respectively. Of the 24 isolates, 8 carried mrp: 4 of serotype 3, 2 of serotype 2, and 2 of serotype 4. One mrp(+) isolate (serotype 2) also carried the epf gene. All 24 isolates carried the sly gene. The serotype and genotype distribution greatly differed from that reported for isolates from pigs with other clinical manifestations of S. suis infection in other countries.
Project description:Invasive serotype 2 (cps2+) strains of Streptococcus suis cause meningitis in pigs and humans. Four case reports of S. suis meningitis in hunters suggest transmission of S. suis through the butchering of wild boars. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of potentially human-pathogenic S. suis strains in wild boars. S. suis was isolated from 92% of all tested tonsils (n=200) from wild boars. A total of 244 S. suis isolates were genotyped using PCR assays for the detection of serotype-specific genes, the hemolysin gene sly, and the virulence-associated genes mrp and epf. The prevalence of the cps2+ genotype among strains from wild boars was comparable to that of control strains from domestic pig carriers. Ninety-five percent of the cps2+ wild boar strains were positive for mrp, sly, and epf*, the large variant of epf. Interestingly, epf* was significantly more frequently detected in cps2+ strains from wild boars than in those from domestic pigs; epf* is also typically found in European S. suis isolates from humans, including a meningitis isolate from a German hunter. These results suggest that at least 10% of wild boars in Northwestern Germany carry S. suis strains that are potentially virulent in humans. Additional amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis supported this hypothesis, since homogeneous clustering of the epf* mrp+ sly+ cps2+ strains from wild boars with invasive human and porcine strains was observed.
Project description:Streptococcus suis is an emerging zoonotic pathogen that causes septicemia, meningitis, arthritis, and pneumonia in swine and humans. The present study aimed to characterize the genetic diversity of S. suis serotype 2 isolated from pigs showing signs of illness in Brazil using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), single-enzyme amplified fragment length polymorphism (SE-AFLP), and profiling of virulence-associated markers. A total of 110 isolates were studied, 62.7% of which were isolated from the central nervous system and 19.1% from the respiratory tract. Eight genotypes were obtained from the combination of virulence genes, with 43.6% and 5.5% frequencies for the mrp (+) /epf (+) /sly (+) and mrp (-) /epf (-) /sly (-) genotypes, respectively. The presence of isolates with epf gene variation with higher molecular weight also appears to be a characteristic of Brazilian S. suis serotype 2. The PFGE and SE-AFLP were able to type all isolates and, although they presented a slight tendency to cluster according to state and year of isolation, it was also evident the grouping of different herds in the same PFGE subtype and the existence of isolates originated from the same herd classified into distinct subtypes. No further correlation between the isolation sites and mrp/epf/sly genotypes was observed.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is an important swine pathogen and emerging zoonotic agent causing meningitis and septicemia/septic shock. Strains are usually virulent (Eurasia) or of intermediate/low virulence (North America). Very few data regarding human and swine isolates from South America are available. CASE PRESENTATION:Seventeen new human S. suis cases in Argentina (16 serotype 2 strains and a serotype 5 strain) are reported. Alongside, 14 isolates from pigs are analyzed: 12 from systemic disease, one from lungs and one from tonsils of a healthy animal. All human serotype 2 strains and most swine isolates are sequence type (ST) 1, as determined by multilocus sequence typing and present a mrp+/epf+/sly+ genotype typical of virulent Eurasian ST1 strains. The remaining two strains (recovered from swine lungs and tonsils) are ST28 and possess a mrp+/epf - /sly- genotype typical of low virulence North American strains. Representative human ST1 strains as well as one swine ST28 strain were analyzed by whole-genome sequencing and compared with genomes from GenBank. ST1 strains clustered together with three strains from Vietnam and this cluster is close to another one composed of 11 strains from the United Kingdom. CONCLUSION:Close contact with pigs/pork products, a good surveillance system, and the presence of potentially virulent Eurasian-like serotype 2 strains in Argentina may be an important factor contributing to the higher number of human cases observed. In fact, Argentina is now fifth among Western countries regarding the number of reported human cases after the Netherlands, France, the UK and Poland.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>There is limited information on the distribution of virulence-associated genes (VAGs) in U.S. Streptococcus suis isolates, resulting in little understanding of the pathogenic potential of these isolates. This lack also reduces our understanding of the epidemiology associated with S. suis in the United States and thus affects the efficiency of control and prevention strategies. In this study we applied whole genome sequencing (WGS)-based approaches for the characterization of S. suis and identification of VAGs.<h4>Results</h4>Of 208?S. suis isolates classified as pathogenic, possibly opportunistic, and commensal pathotypes, the genotype based on the classical VAGs (epf, mrp, and sly encoding the extracellular protein factor, muramidase-release protein, and suilysin, respectively) was identified in 9% (epf+/mrp+/sly+) of the pathogenic pathotype. Using the chi-square test and LASSO regression model, the VAGs ofs (encoding the serum opacity factor) and srtF (encoding sortase F) were selected out of 71 published VAGs as having a significant association with pathotype, and both genes were found in 95% of the pathogenic pathotype. The ofs+/srtF+ genotype was also present in 74% of 'pathogenic' isolates from a separate validation set of isolates. Pan-genome clustering resulted in the differentiation of a group of isolates from five swine production companies into clusters corresponding to clonal complex (CC) and virulence-associated (VA) genotypes. The same CC-VA genotype patterns were identified in multiple production companies, suggesting a lack of association between production company, CC, or VA genotype.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The proposed ofs and srtF genes were stronger predictors for differentiating pathogenic and commensal S. suis isolates compared to the classical VAGs in two sets of U.S. isolates. Pan-genome analysis in combination with metadata (serotype, ST/CC, VA genotype) was illustrated to be a valuable subtyping tool to describe the genetic diversity of S. suis.
Project description:In this present study, the serotype of 40 Streptococcus suis isolates from submaxillary glands of pig carcasses sold in wet markets in Chiang Mai Province, northern Thailand, was investigated. Eleven serotypes, including types 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 17, 21, 22 and 31, were found in the isolates by a Multiplex PCR combined with serum agglutination. Of the eleven serotypes present, type 3 was the most prevalent, while types 2, 4, 5 and 21 were of primary interest due to their human isolate serotype. The mrp+/epf - /sly - genotype was found to be the most prevalent genotype. This study indicates the importance of effective control of human S. suis infection due to raw pork or pig carcass handling in northern Thailand.
Project description:<i>Streptococcus suis</i> is a zoonotic pathogen that causes invasive infections in humans and pigs. Although <i>S. suis</i> serotype 2 is prevalent among patient and swine infections, other serotypes are occasionally detected in humans. Of these, serotype 24 clonal complex (CC) 221/234 are recognized as emerging clones of human infection. Genomic exploration of three <i>S. suis</i> serotype 24 CC221/234 strains revealed antimicrobial resistance genes, pathotyping, virulence-associated gene (VAG) profiles, minimum core genome (MCG) typing, and comparison of the genomes. Based on these analyzes, all three serotype 24 strains were MCG7-3 and should be classified in the intermediate/weakly virulent (I/WV) group. All selected serotype 24 strains were susceptible to several antibiotics including β-lactam, fluoroquinolone, and chloramphenicol. Resistance to tetracycline, macrolide, and clindamycin was observed and attributed to the genes <i>tet(O)</i> and <i>erm(B)</i>. Genomic comparison revealed the strains S12X, LSS66, LS0L, LS0E, 92-4,172, and IMT40201 that had phylogenetic affinity with serotype 24 CC221/234. Analysis of 80 virulence-associated genes (VAG) showed that all three serotype 24 strains lacked 24 genes consisting of adhesin P, <i>epf, hyl, ihk, irr, mrp, nadR, neuB, NisK/R, ofs</i>, permease <i>(SSU0835), rgg, revS, salK/R, sao, sly, spyM3_0908, srtBCD, srtF, srtG, SSU05_0473, virA, virB4</i>, and <i>virD4.</i> Eleven specific sequences were identified in the 3 serotype 24 genomes that differed from the genomes of the representative strains of epidemic (E; SC84), highly virulent (HV; P1/7), I/WV (89-1,591), and avirulent (T15 and 05HAS68).
Project description:<i>Streptococcus suis</i> is a major pig pathogen causing severe economic losses to the swine industry. This study aimed to analyze the genome of <i>S. suis</i> strain INT-01 isolated from a domestic pig in Korea. We found that the genome of strain INT-01 contains 2,092,054 bp, with a guanine (G) + cytosine (C) content of 41.3%, and the capsular polysaccharide synthesis locus of this strain is almost identical to that of serotype 3 <i>S. suis</i> strain 4961 isolated from China, suggesting that these isolates can be classified as serotype 3. Genomic analyses revealed that strain INT-01 is an extracellular protein factor (<i>epf</i>)<sup>-</sup>/ muraminidase-released protein (<i>mrp</i>)<sup>+</sup>/ suilysin (<i>sly</i>)<sup>-</sup> <i>S. suis</i>, which is the most prevalent genotype in Korea, and several virulence-related genes associated with the pathogenicity of <i>S. suis</i> were also detected. The genomic information of strain INT-01 may provide important insights into the development of control strategies against <i>S. suis</i> infections in Korea.
Project description:Streptococcus suis, an important zoonotic pathogen, is a highly diverse species with only a subset of strains that cause disease in humans. Our previous study proposed a minimum core genome (MCG) sequence typing method and defined seven MCG groups, with MCG group 1 as the prevalent group causing human infections. In this study, we identified a set of 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distributed in six genes that were used to identify the seven MCG groups. The 10 SNPs were typed for 179 S. suis isolates collected from slaughtered pigs. The most prevalent groups among the tested isolates were MCG groups 6 and 7. Most of the isolates (147/179) were genotyped as mrp negative, epf negative, sly negative, and CDS2157 positive. The 179 isolates were also typed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and divided into 115 sequence types (STs), 111 of which were new. The 6 serotypes (29, 11, 5, 12, 30, and 2) represented 72.3% of the serotyped isolates. Our data show that the typing assay facilitates the application of genome data to the surveillance of S. suis.
Project description:Streptococcus suis causes numerous diseases in pigs, most importantly, meningitis, arthritis, septicemia, and bronchopneumonia. One of the major problems in modern swine production is the lack of a vaccine protecting against more than one S. suis serotype. The objective of this study was to determine the protective efficacy of a serotype 2 murein-associated protein (MAP) fraction subunit vaccine in comparison to that of a bacterin against experimental challenge with serotype 2 (containing muramidase-released protein [MRP], extracellular factor, and suilysin [SLY]) and serotype 9 (containing MRP variant MRP* and SLY) strains. MAP was shown to include different surface-associated proteins, such as the MRP and surface antigen one (SAO) expressed by both pathotypes used for challenge. The results of this study demonstrated that the serotype 2 bacterin induced protective immunity against homologous challenge. In contrast, the protective efficacy of the MAP subunit vaccine was low, though MAP immunization resulted in high serum immunoglobulin G2 titers against MRP and SAO. Importantly, immunization with bacterin but not with MAP induced opsonizing antibody titers against the serotype 2 strain, and these antibody titers were found to correlate with protection. However, after absorption with a nonencapsulated isogenic mutant, the sera from bacterin-immunized piglets failed to facilitate neutrophil killing, indicating that antibodies directed against capsule may not have been essential for opsonophagocytosis. Furthermore, induction of opsonizing antibodies against serotype 9 was not detectable in the group receiving bacterin or in the group receiving the MAP vaccine. In agreement, protection against the heterologous serotype 9 strain was low in both groups. Thus, identification of an antigen protecting against these two important S. suis pathotypes remains an important goal of future studies.
Project description:Streptococcus suis (S. suis) is an important swine pathogen and an emerging zoonotic agent. Most clinical S. suis strains express capsular polysaccharides (CPS), which can be typed by antisera using the coagglutination test. In this study, 79 S. suis strains recovered from diseased pigs in Canada and which could not be typed using antisera were further characterized by capsular gene typing and sequencing. Four patterns of cps locus were observed: (1) fifteen strains were grouped into previously reported serotypes but presented several mutations in their cps loci, when compared to available data from reference strains; (2) seven strains presented a complete deletion of the cps locus, which would result in an inability to synthesize capsule; (3) forty-seven strains were classified in recently described novel cps loci (NCLs); and (4) ten strains carried novel NCLs not previously described. Different virulence gene profiles (based on the presence of mrp, epf, and/or sly) were observed in these non-serotypeable strains. This study provides further insight in understanding the genetic characteristics of cps loci in non-serotypeable S. suis strains recovered from diseased animals. When using a combination of the previously described 35 serotypes and the complete NCL system, the number of untypeable strains recovered from diseased animals in Canada would be significantly reduced.