Polymorphisms in NFkB, PXR, LXR and risk of colorectal cancer in a prospective study of Danes.
ABSTRACT: Transcription factors and nuclear receptors constitute a link between exposure to heterocyclic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from meat and tobacco smoke and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. The aim of this study was to investigate if polymorphisms in nuclear factor kappa-B, pregnane X receptor, and liver X receptor were associated with risk of CRC, and to investigate possible interactions with lifestyle factors such as smoking, meat consumption, and NSAID use.The polymorphisms nuclear factor kappa-B (NFkB, NFKB1) -94 insertion/deletion ATTG (rs28362491), pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2) A-24381C (rs1523127), C8055T (rs2276707), A7635G (rs6785049), liver X receptor (LXR-?, NR1H3) C-rs1405655T, T-rs2695121C were assessed together with lifestyle factors in a nested case-cohort study of 378 CRC cases and 756 random participants from the Danish prospective Diet, Cancer and Health study of 57,053 persons.Carriers of NFkB -94deletion were at 1.45-fold higher risk of CRC than homozygous carriers of the insertion allele (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.45, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.10-1.92). There was interaction between this polymorphism and intake of red and processed meat in relation to CRC risk. Carriers of NFkB -94deletion were at 3% increased risk pr 25 gram meat per day (95% CI: 0.98-1.09) whereas homozygous carriers of the insertion were not at increased risk (p for interaction = 0.03). PXR and LXR polymorphisms were not associated with CRC risk. There was no interaction between use of nonsteroid antiinflammatory drugs (NSAID) or smoking status and NFkB, PXR or LXR polymorphisms.A polymorphism in NFkB was associated with CRC risk and there was interaction between this polymorphism and meat intake in relation to CRC risk. This study suggests a role for NFkB in CRC aetiology.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The xenobiotic transporters, Multidrug Resistance 1 (MDR1/ABCB1) and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP/ABCG2) may restrict intestinal absorption of various carcinogens, including heterocyclic amines (HCA) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) derived prostaglandins promote gastrointestinal carcinogenesis, affecting angiogenesis, apoptosis, and invasiveness.The aim of this study was to investigate if polymorphisms in these genes were associated with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), and to investigate possible interactions with lifestyle factors such as smoking, meat consumption, and NSAID use. METHODS: The following polymorphisms were analyzed; a synonymous MDR1 C3435T (rs1045642) in exon26, G-rs3789243-A in intron3, the functional BCRP C421A (rs2231142), the two COX-2 A-1195G (rs689466) and G-765C (rs20417) in the promoter region, and the COX-2 T8473C (rs5275) polymorphisms in the 3'-untranslated region. The polymorphisms were assessed together with lifestyle factors in a nested case-cohort study of 359 cases and a random cohort sample of 765 participants from the Danish prospective Diet, Cancer and Health study. RESULTS: Carriers of the variant allele of MDR1 intron 3 polymorphism were at 1.52-fold higher risk of CRC than homozygous wild type allele carriers (Incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.52, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.12-2.06). Carriers of the variant allele of MDR1 C3435T exon 26 had a lower risk of CRC than homozygous C-allele carriers (IRR = 0.71 (CI:0.50-1.00)). There was interaction between these MDR1 polymorphisms and intake of red and processed meat in relation to CRC risk. Homozygous MDR1 C3435T C-allele carriers were at 8% increased risk pr 25 gram meat per day (CI: 1.00-1.16) whereas variant allele carriers were not at increased risk (p for interaction = 0.02). COX-2 and BCRP polymorphisms were not associated with CRC risk. There was interaction between NSAID use and MDR1 C3435T and COX-2 T8473C (p-values for interaction 0.001 and 0.04, respectively). CONCLUSION: Two polymorphisms in MDR1 were associated with CRC risk and there was interaction between these polymorphisms and meat intake in relation to CRC risk. Our results suggest that MDR1 polymorphisms affect the relationship between meat and CRC risk.
Project description:To investigate the contribution of polymorphisms in nuclear receptors to risk of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).Genotypes of nuclear factor (NF)-?B (NFKB1) NF?B -94ins/del (rs28362491); peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-? (PPAR?) PPAR? Pro12Ala (rs 1801282) and C1431T (rs 3856806); pregnane X receptor (PXR) (NR1I2) PXR A-24381C (rs1523127), C8055T (2276707), and A7635G (rs 6785049); and liver X receptor (LXR) (NR1H2) LXR T-rs1405655-C and T-rs2695121-C were assessed in a Danish case-control study of 327 Crohn's disease patients, 495 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients, and 779 healthy controls. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI were estimated by logistic regression models.The PXR A7635G variant, the PPAR? Pro12Ala and LXR T-rs2695121-C homozygous variant genotypes were associated with risk of UC (OR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.03-1.66, P = 0.03, OR: 2.30, 95% CI: 1.04-5.08, P = 0.04, and OR: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.00-1.98, P = 0.05, respectively) compared to the corresponding homozygous wild-type genotypes. Among never smokers, PXR A7635G and the LXR T-rs1405655-C and T-rs2695121-C variant genotypes were associated with risk of IBD (OR: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.05-1.91, P = 0.02, OR: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.21-2.20, P = 0.001, and OR: 2.02, 95% CI: 1.36-2.99, P = 0.0005, respectively) compared to the respective homozygous variant genotypes. PXR A7635G (rs6785049) variant genotype was associated with a higher risk of UC diagnosis before the age of 40 years and with a higher risk of extensive disease (OR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.03-1.75 and OR: 2.49, 95% CI: 1.24-5.03, respectively).Common PXR and LXR polymorphisms may contribute to risk of IBD, especially among never smokers.
Project description:Red and processed meat have been associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), whereas long-term use of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may reduce the risk. The aim was to investigate potential interactions between meat intake, NSAID use, and gene variants in fatty acid metabolism and NSAID pathways in relation to the risk of CRC. A nested case-cohort study of 1038 CRC cases and 1857 randomly selected participants from the Danish prospective "Diet, Cancer and Health" study encompassing 57,053 persons was performed using the Cox proportional hazard model. Gene variants in SLC25A20, PRKAB1, LPCAT1, PLA2G4A, ALOX5, PTGER3, TP53, CCAT2, TCF7L2, and BCL2 were investigated. CCAT2 rs6983267 was associated with the risk of CRC per se (p < 0.01). Statistically significant interactions were found between intake of red and processed meat and CCAT2 rs6983267, TP53 rs1042522, LPCAT1 rs7737692, SLC25A20 rs7623023 (pinteraction = 0.04, 0.04, 0.02, 0.03, respectively), and the use of NSAID and alcohol intake and TP53 rs1042522 (pinteraction = 0.04, 0.04, respectively) in relation to the risk of CRC. No other consistent associations or interactions were found. This study replicated an association of CCAT2 rs6983267 with CRC and an interaction between TP53 rs1042522 and NSAID in relation to CRC. Interactions between genetic variants in fatty acid metabolism and NSAID pathways and the intake of red and processed meat were found. Our results suggest that meat intake and NSAID use affect the same carcinogenic mechanisms. All new findings should be sought replicated in independent prospective studies. Future studies on the cancer-protective effects of aspirin/NSAID should include gene and meat assessments.
Project description:Meat intake is associated with the risk of colorectal cancer. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate interactions between meat intake and genetic variation in order to identify biological pathways involved in meat carcinogenesis. We performed a literature search of PubMed and Embase using "interaction", "meat", "polymorphisms", and "colorectal cancer", and data on meat-gene interactions were extracted. The studies were divided according to whether information on meat intake was collected prospectively or retrospectively. In prospective studies, interactions between meat intake and polymorphisms in PTGS2 (encoding COX-2), ABCB1, IL10, NFKB1, MSH3, XPC (P int = 0.006, 0.01, 0.04, 0.03, 0.002, 0.01, respectively), but not IL1B, HMOX1, ABCC2, ABCG2, NR1I2 (encoding PXR), NR1H2 (encoding LXR), NAT1, NAT2, MSH6, or MLH1 in relation to CRC were found. Interaction between a polymorphism in XPC and meat was found in one prospective and one case-control study; however, the directions of the risk estimates were opposite. Thus, none of the findings were replicated. The results from this systematic review suggest that genetic variation in the inflammatory response and DNA repair pathway is involved in meat-related colorectal carcinogenesis, whereas no support for the involvement of heme and iron from meat or cooking mutagens was found. Further studies assessing interactions between meat intake and genetic variation in relation to CRC in large well-characterised prospective cohorts with relevant meat exposure are warranted.
Project description:A low-meat diet and regular use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) have been associated with decreased mortality among colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Here, we investigated the association between prediagnosis usual meat consumption and CRC-specific mortality, and whether meat consumption modifies the previously noted association between NSAID use and CRC-specific mortality among women in the California Teachers Study cohort. Women joining the California Teachers Study in 1995-1996 without prior CRC diagnosis, diagnosed with incident CRC during follow-up through December 2007, were eligible for inclusion. Meat intake (frequency and serving size) and NSAID use (aspirin or ibuprofen use) were ascertained via self-administered questionnaires before diagnosis. Vital status and cause of death were determined by linkage with mortality files. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios for death and 95% confidence intervals. Prediagnosis meat consumption was not associated with CRC-specific mortality among 704 CRC patients (and 201 CRC-specific deaths), comparing patients in the lowest consumption tertile (0-5.4 medium-sized servings/wk) to those in the higher consumption tertiles. Regular NSAID use (1-3 times/wk, 4-6 times/wk, daily) versus none was associated with decreased CRC-specific mortality among patients in the lowest meat consumption tertile (hazard ratio, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.06-0.82), but not among patients in the higher meat intake tertiles. The previously observed mortality risk reduction among female CRC patients associated with regular NSAID use was restricted to patients who reported low meat intake before diagnosis. These findings have implications for CRC survivorship and tertiary CRC prevention.
Project description:BACKGROUND: More than 50% of the colorectal cancer (CRC) etiology has been attributed to diet. Established or suspected dietary factors modifying risk of CRC are red meat, cereals, fish, and fibre. Diet and lifestyle may be linked to cancer through inflammation. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an anti-inflammatory cytokine. We wanted to test if dietary factors and IL10 polymorphisms interact in relation to colorectal carcinogenesis. METHODS: The functional IL10 polymorphism C-592A (rs1800872) and the marker rs3024505 were assessed in relation to diet and lifestyle in a nested case-cohort study of 378 CRC cases and 775 randomly selected participants from a prospective study of 57,053 persons. Genotyping data on the IL10 polymorphism C-592A, smoking and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) was retrieved from Vogel et al. (Mutat Res, 2007; 624:88). Incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) were calculated. RESULTS: No associations were found between the IL10 rs3024505 polymorphism and risk of CRC. There was interaction between rs3024505 and dietary fibre (P-value for interaction?=?0.01). IL10 rs3024505 homozygous wildtype carriers were at 27% reduced risk of CRC per 10?g fibre per day (95% CI: 0.60-0.88) whereas variant carriers had no risk reduction by fibre intake. Also, interaction between IL10 C-592A and intake of fibre was found (P-value for interaction?=?0.02). Among those eating <17.0 grams of fibre per day, carriers of an C-592A variant allele had a statistically significantly higher risk of colorectal cancer compared to homozygous wildtypes. No significant differences in colorectal cancer risk were observed between the reference group (CC and <17.0?g/day) and carriers of one C-592A variant allele eating 17.0 or more grams of dietary fibre per day. This suggests that the increased risk due to carrying the variant allele can be overcome by higher fibre intake. No interactions between IL10 polymorphisms and dietary meat, cereal, or fish intake, or between IL10 rs3024505 and smoking or NSAID use were found. CONCLUSIONS: In this northern Caucasian cohort we found interaction between IL10 and dietary fibre in CRC carcinogenesis. High intake of fibre seems to protect against CRC among individuals with IL10 related genetic susceptibility to CRC. This finding should be evaluated in other prospective and population-based cohorts with different ethnic groups.
Project description:Liver X receptor (LXR) is a nuclear receptor that regulates various biological processes, including de novo lipogenesis, cholesterol metabolism, and inflammation. Selective inhibition of LXR may aid the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Sesamin is a naturally occurring lignan in many dietary plants and has a wide range of beneficial effects on metabolism. The mechanism underlying sesamin action especially on the regulation of LXR remains elusive. Reporter assays, mRNA and protein expression, and in silico modeling were used to identify sesamin as an antagonist of LXR?. Sesamin was applied to the hepatic HepaRG and intestinal LS174T cells and showed that it markedly ameliorated lipid accumulation in the HepaRG cells, by reducing LXR? transactivation, inhibiting the expression of downstream target genes. This effect was associated with the stimulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway, followed by decreased T0901317-LXR?-induced expression of SREBP-1c and its downstream target genes. Mechanistically, sesamin reduced the recruitment of SRC-1 but enhanced that of SMILE to the SREBP-1c promoter region under T0901317 treatment. It regulated the transcriptional control exerted by LXR? by influencing its interaction with coregulators and thus decreased mRNA and protein levels of genes downstream of LXR? and reduced lipid accumulation in hepatic cells. Additionally, sesamin reduced valproate- and rifampin-induced LXR? and pregnane X receptor (PXR) transactivation. This was associated with reduced expression of target genes and decreased lipid accumulation. Thus, sesamin is an antagonist of LXR? and PXR and suggests that it may alleviate drug-induced lipogenesis via the suppression of LXR? and PXR signaling.
Project description:Activation of pregnane X receptor (PXR) elevates circulating 4?-hydroxycholesterol (4?HC), an agonist of liver X receptor (LXR). PXR may also regulate 25-hydroxycholesterol and 27-hydroxycholesterol. Our aim was to elucidate the roles of PXR and oxysterols in the regulation of cholesterol transporters. We measured oxysterols in serum of volunteers dosed with PXR agonist rifampicin 600 mg/day versus placebo for a week and analyzed the expression of cholesterol transporters in mononuclear cells. The effect of 4?HC on the transport of cholesterol and the expression of cholesterol transporters was studied in human primary monocyte-derived macrophages and foam cells in vitro. The expression of cholesterol transporters was measured also in rat tissues after dosing with a PXR agonist. The levels of 4?HC were elevated, while 25-hydroxycholesterol and 27-hydroxycholesterol remained unchanged in volunteers dosed with rifampicin. The expression of ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) was induced in human mononuclear cells in vivo. The influx of cholesterol was repressed by 4?HC, as was the expression of influx transporter lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 in vitro. The cholesterol efflux and the expression of efflux transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1 were induced. The expression of inducible degrader of the LDL receptor was induced. In rats, PXR agonist increased circulating 4?HC and expression of LXR targets in peripheral tissues, especially ABCA1 and ABCG1 in heart. In conclusion, PXR activation-elevated 4?HC is a signaling molecule that represses cholesterol influx and induces efflux. The PXR-4?HC-LXR pathway could link the hepatic xenobiotic exposure and the regulation of cholesterol transport in peripheral tissues.
Project description:The human pregnane X receptor (PXR), a master regulator of drug metabolism, has important roles in intestinal homeostasis and abrogating inflammation. Existing PXR ligands have substantial off-target toxicity. Based on prior work that established microbial (indole) metabolites as PXR ligands, we proposed microbial metabolite mimicry as a novel strategy for drug discovery that allows to exploit previously unexplored parts of chemical space. Here we report functionalized indole-derivatives as first-in-class non-cytotoxic PXR agonists, as a proof-of-concept for microbial metabolite mimicry. The lead compound, FKK6, binds directly to PXR protein in solution, induces PXR specific target gene expression in, cells, human organoids, and mice. FKK6 significantly represses pro-inflammatory cytokine production cells and abrogates inflammation in human intestinal organoids and Caco-2 expressing the human PXR gene. These confocal images show FKK6 reduces NfKB translocation to the nucelus of intestinal organoids and caco-2 incubated with pro-inflammatory cocktail.
Project description:Aldo-keto reductase (AKR) family 1, member 7 (AKR1B7), a member of the AKR superfamily, has been suggested to play an important role in the detoxification of lipid peroxidation by-products. The nuclear receptors pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) are xenosensors postulated to alleviate xeno- and endobiotic chemical insults. In this study, we show that the mouse Akr1b7 is a shared transcriptional target of PXR and CAR in the liver and intestine. Treatment of wild-type mice with the PXR agonist pregnenolone-16alpha-carbonitrile (PCN) activated Akr1b7 gene expression, whereas the effect was abrogated in PXR(-/-) mice. Similarly, the activation of Akr1b7 gene expression by the CAR agonist 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichlorpyridyloxyl)]-benzene, seen in wild-type mice, was abolished in CAR(-/-) mice. The promoter of Akr1b7 gene was activated by PXR and CAR, and this activation was achieved through the binding of PXR-retinoid X receptor (RXR) or CAR-RXR heterodimers to direct repeat-4 type nuclear receptor-binding sites found in the Akr1b7 gene promoter. At the functional level, treatment with PCN in wild-type mice, but not PXR(-/-) mice, led to a decreased intestinal accumulation of malondialdehyde, a biomarker of lipid peroxidation. The regulation of Akr1b7 by PXR was independent of the liver X receptor (LXR), another nuclear receptor known to regulate this AKR isoform. Because a major function of Akr1b7 is to detoxify lipid peroxidation, the PXR-, CAR-, and LXR-controlled regulatory network of Akr1b7 may have contributed to alleviate toxicity associated with lipid peroxidation.