CIAP1-dependent TRAF2 degradation regulates the differentiation of monocytes into macrophages and their response to CD40 ligand.
ABSTRACT: Peripheral blood monocytes are plastic cells that migrate to tissues and differentiate into various cell types, including macrophages, dendritic cells, and osteoclasts. We have described the migration of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (cIAP1), a member of the IAP family of proteins, from the nucleus to the Golgi apparatus in monocytes undergoing differentiation into macrophages. Here we show that, once in the cytoplasm, cIAP1 is involved in the degradation of the adaptor protein tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2) by the proteosomal machinery. Inhibition of cIAP1 prevents the decrease in TRAF2 expression that characterizes macrophage formation. We demonstrate that TRAF2 is initially required for macrophage differentiation as its silencing prevents Ikappa-Balpha degradation, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) p65 nuclear translocation, and the differentiation process. Then, we show that cIAP1-mediated degradation of TRAF2 allows the differentiation process to progress. This degradation is required for the macrophages to be fully functional as TRAF2 overexpression in differentiated cells decreases the c-Jun N-terminal kinase-mediated synthesis and the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) in response to CD40 ligand. We conclude that TRAF2 expression and subsequent degradation are required for the differentiation of monocytes into fully functional macrophages.
Project description:The adaptor and signaling proteins TRAF2, TRAF3, cIAP1 and cIAP2 may inhibit alternative nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) signaling in resting cells by targeting NF-kappaB-inducing kinase (NIK) for ubiquitin-dependent degradation, thus preventing processing of the NF-kappaB2 precursor protein p100 to release p52. However, the respective functions of TRAF2 and TRAF3 in NIK degradation and activation of alternative NF-kappaB signaling have remained elusive. We now show that CD40 or BAFF receptor activation result in TRAF3 degradation in a cIAP1-cIAP2- and TRAF2-dependent way owing to enhanced cIAP1, cIAP2 TRAF3-directed ubiquitin ligase activity. Receptor-induced activation of cIAP1 and cIAP2 correlated with their K63-linked ubiquitination by TRAF2. Degradation of TRAF3 prevented association of NIK with the cIAP1-cIAP2-TRAF2 ubiquitin ligase complex, which resulted in NIK stabilization and NF-kappaB2-p100 processing. Constitutive activation of this pathway causes perinatal lethality and lymphoid defects.
Project description:Synthetic inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) antagonists induce degradation of IAP proteins such as cellular IAP1 (cIAP1), activate nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) signaling, and sensitize cells to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha). The physiological relevance of these discoveries to cIAP1 function remains undetermined. We show that upon ligand binding, the TNF superfamily receptor FN14 recruits a cIAP1-Tnf receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2) complex. Unlike IAP antagonists that cause rapid proteasomal degradation of cIAP1, signaling by FN14 promotes the lysosomal degradation of cIAP1-TRAF2 in a cIAP1-dependent manner. TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK)/FN14 signaling nevertheless promotes the same noncanonical NF-kappaB signaling elicited by IAP antagonists and, in sensitive cells, the same autocrine TNFalpha-induced death occurs. TWEAK-induced loss of the cIAP1-TRAF2 complex sensitizes immortalized and minimally passaged tumor cells to TNFalpha-induced death, whereas primary cells remain resistant. Conversely, cIAP1-TRAF2 complex overexpression limits FN14 signaling and protects tumor cells from TWEAK-induced TNFalpha sensitization. Lysosomal degradation of cIAP1-TRAF2 by TWEAK/FN14 therefore critically alters the balance of life/death signals emanating from TNF-R1 in immortalized cells.
Project description:Recent studies suggest that nuclear factor kappaB-inducing kinase (NIK) is suppressed through constitutive proteasome-mediated degradation regulated by TRAF2, TRAF3 and cIAP1 or cIAP2. Here we demonstrated that the degradation of NIK occurs upon assembly of a regulatory complex through TRAF3 recruitment of NIK and TRAF2 recruitment of cIAP1 and cIAP2. In contrast to TRAF2 and TRAF3, cIAP1 and cIAP2 seem to play redundant roles in the degradation of NIK, as inhibition of both cIAPs was required for noncanonical NF-kappaB activation and increased survival and proliferation of primary B lymphocytes. Furthermore, the lethality of TRAF3 deficiency in mice could be rescued by a single NIK gene, highlighting the importance of tightly regulated NIK.
Project description:Cellular inhibitor of apoptosis (cIAP) proteins, cIAP1 and cIAP2, are important regulators of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily (SF) signaling and are amplified in a number of tumor types. They are targeted by IAP antagonist compounds that are undergoing clinical trials. IAP antagonist compounds trigger cIAP autoubiquitylation and degradation. The TNFSF member TWEAK induces lysosomal degradation of TRAF2 and cIAPs, leading to elevated NIK levels and activation of non-canonical NF-kappaB. To investigate the role of the ubiquitin ligase RING domain of cIAP1 in these pathways, we used cIAP-deleted cells reconstituted with cIAP1 point mutants designed to interfere with the ability of the RING to dimerize or to interact with E2 enzymes. We show that RING dimerization and E2 binding are required for IAP antagonists to induce cIAP1 degradation and protect cells from TNF-induced cell death. The RING functions of cIAP1 are required for full TNF-induced activation of NF-kappaB, however, delayed activation of NF-kappaB still occurs in cIAP1 and -2 double knock-out cells. The RING functions of cIAP1 are also required to prevent constitutive activation of non-canonical NF-kappaB by targeting NIK for proteasomal degradation. However, in cIAP double knock-out cells TWEAK was still able to increase NIK levels demonstrating that NIK can be regulated by cIAP-independent pathways. Finally we show that, unlike IAP antagonists, TWEAK was able to induce degradation of cIAP1 RING mutants. These results emphasize the critical importance of the RING of cIAP1 in many signaling scenarios, but also demonstrate that in some pathways RING functions are not required.
Project description:Mutations involving the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) pathway are present in at least 17% of multiple myeloma (MM) tumors and 40% of MM cell lines (MMCLs). These mutations, which are apparent progression events, enable MM tumors to become less dependent on bone marrow signals that activate NF-kappaB. Studies on a panel of 51 MMCLs provide some clarification of the mechanisms through which these mutations act and the significance of classical versus alternative activation of NF-kappaB. First, only one mutation (NFKB2) selectively activates the alternative pathway, whereas several mutations (CYLD, NFKB1, and TACI) selectively activate the classical pathway. However, most mutations affecting NF-kappaB-inducing kinase (NIK) levels (NIK, TRAF2, TRAF3, cIAP1&2, and CD40) activate the alternative but often both pathways. Second, we confirm the critical role of TRAF2 in regulating NIK degradation, whereas TRAF3 enhances but is not essential for cIAP1/2-mediated proteasomal degradation of NIK in MM. Third, using transfection to selectively activate the classical or alternative NF-kappaB pathways, we show virtually identical changes in gene expression in one MMCL, whereas the changes are similar albeit nonidentical in a second MMCL. Our results suggest that MM tumors can achieve increased autonomy from the bone marrow microenvironment by mutations that activate either NF-kappaB pathway.
Project description:TRAF1/2 and cIAP1/2 are members of the TNF receptor-associated factor (TRAF) and the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) families, respectively. They are critical for canonical and noncanonical NF-kappaB signaling pathways. Here, we report the crystal structures of the TRAF2: cIAP2 and the TRAF1: TRAF2: cIAP2 complexes. A TRAF2 trimer interacts with one cIAP2 both in the crystal and in solution. Two chains of the TRAF2 trimer directly contact cIAP2, and key residues at the interface are confirmed by mutagenesis. TRAF1 and TRAF2 preferentially form the TRAF1: (TRAF2)(2) heterotrimer, which interacts with cIAP2 more strongly than TRAF2 alone. In contrast, TRAF1 alone interacts very weakly with cIAP2. Surprisingly, TRAF1 and one chain of TRAF2 in the TRAF1: (TRAF2)(2): cIAP2 ternary complex mediate interaction with cIAP2. Because TRAF1 is upregulated by many stimuli, it may modulate the interaction of TRAF2 with cIAP1/2, which explains regulatory roles of TRAF1 in TNF signaling.
Project description:A20 negatively regulates inflammation by inhibiting the nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) transcription factor in the tumor necrosis factor-receptor (TNFR) and Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathways. A20 contains deubiquitinase and E3 ligase domains and thus has been proposed to function as a ubiquitin-editing enzyme downstream of TNFR1 by inactivating ubiquitinated RIP1. However, it remains unclear how A20 terminates NF-kappaB signaling downstream of TLRs. We have shown that A20 inhibited the E3 ligase activities of TRAF6, TRAF2, and cIAP1 by antagonizing interactions with the E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzymes Ubc13 and UbcH5c. A20, together with the regulatory molecule TAX1BP1, interacted with Ubc13 and UbcH5c and triggered their ubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation. These findings suggest mechanism of A20 action in the inhibition of inflammatory signaling pathways.
Project description:Monocytes and macrophages constitute the first line of defense of the immune system against external pathogens. Macrophages have a highly plastic phenotype depending on environmental conditions; the extremes of this phenotypic spectrum are a pro-inflammatory defensive role (M1 phenotype) and an anti-inflammatory tissue-repair one (M2 phenotype). The Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAP) proteins have important roles in the regulation of several cellular processes, including innate and adaptive immunity. In this study we have analyzed the differential expression of the IAPs, NAIP, cIAP1 and cIAP2, during macrophage differentiation and polarization into M1 or M2. In polarized THP-1 cells and primary human macrophages, NAIP is abundantly expressed in M2 macrophages, while cIAP1 and cIAP2 show an inverse pattern of expression in polarized macrophages, with elevated expression levels of cIAP1 in M2 and cIAP2 preferentially expressed in M1. Interestingly, treatment with the IAP antagonist SMC-LCL161, induced the upregulation of NAIP in M2, the downregulation of cIAP1 in M1 and M2 and an induction of cIAP2 in M1 macrophages.
Project description:Activation of NF-kappaB has been noted in many tumor types, however only rarely has this been linked to an underlying genetic mutation. An integrated analysis of high-density oligonucleotide array CGH and gene expression profiling data from 155 multiple myeloma samples identified a promiscuous array of abnormalities contributing to the dysregulation of NF-kappaB in approximately 20% of patients. We report mutations in ten genes causing the inactivation of TRAF2, TRAF3, CYLD, cIAP1/cIAP2 and activation of NFKB1, NFKB2, CD40, LTBR, TACI, and NIK that result primarily in constitutive activation of the noncanonical NF-kappaB pathway, with the single most common abnormality being inactivation of TRAF3. These results highlight the critical importance of the NF-kappaB pathway in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma.
Project description:The inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins have pivotal roles in cell proliferation and differentiation, and antagonizing IAPs in certain cancer cell lines results in induction of cell death. A variety of IAP antagonist compounds targeting the baculovirus IAP protein repeat 3 (BIR3) domain of cIAP1have advanced into clinical trials. Here we sought to compare and contrast the biochemical activities of selected monovalent and bivalent IAP antagonists with the intent of identifying functional differences between these two classes of IAP antagonist drug candidates. The anti-cellular IAP1 (cIAP1) and pro-apoptotic activities of monovalent IAP antagonists were increased by using a single covalent bond to combine the monovalent moieties at the P4 position. In addition, regardless of drug concentration, treatment with monovalent compounds resulted in consistently higher levels of residual cIAP1 compared with that seen following bivalent compound treatment. We found that the remaining residual cIAP1 following monovalent compound treatment was predominantly tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2)-associated cIAP1. As a consequence, bivalent compounds were more effective at inhibiting TNF-induced activation of p65/NF-?B compared with monovalent compounds. Moreover, extension of the linker chain at the P4 position of bivalent compounds resulted in a decreased ability to degrade TRAF2-associated cIAP1 in a manner similar to monovalent compounds. This result implied that specific bivalent IAP antagonists but not monovalent compounds were capable of inducing formation of a cIAP1 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex with the capacity to effectively degrade TRAF2-associated cIAP1. These results further suggested that only certain bivalent IAP antagonists are preferred for the targeting of TNF-dependent signaling for the treatment of cancer or infectious diseases.