P27Kip1 mediates addiction of ovarian cancer cells to MYCC (c-MYC) and their dependence on MYC paralogs.
ABSTRACT: The MYCC (c-MYC) gene is amplified in 30-60% of human ovarian cancers. We assessed the functional significance of MYCC amplification by siRNA inhibition of MYCC or MYC paralogs in a panel of ovarian cancer cell lines expressing varying levels of MYCC. Inactivation of MYCC inhibited cell proliferation and induced replicative senescence only in lines with amplified MYCC, indicating that these cells are addicted to continued MYCC overexpression. In contrast, siRNA knockdown of all three MYC isoforms inhibited proliferation of MYCC non-amplified ovarian cancer cells without inducing replicative senescence, and did not inhibit the proliferation of telomerase-immortalized ovarian surface epithelial cells. The arrest induced by MYCC knockdown was accompanied by an increase in the level of the Cdk inhibitor p27(Kip1) and a decrease in cyclin A expression and Cdk2 activity, and could be reversed by RNAi knockdown of p27(Kip1) or Rb, or by overexpression of cyclin A/Cdk2. The arrest induced by knockdown of all three MYC isoforms could similarly be reversed by p27(Kip1) knockdown. Our findings indicate that the addiction of MYCC-amplified ovarian cancer cells to MYCC differs from the dependence of MYCC non-amplified cancer cells on MYC paralogs, but both are mediated, at least in part, by p27(Kip1). They also suggest that growth of ovarian cancers may be blocked by inhibition of MYCC or MYC paralogs.
Project description:The Myc oncoprotein is tightly regulated at multiple levels including ubiquitin-mediated protein turnover. We recently demonstrated that inhibition of Cdk2-mediated phosphorylation of Myc at Ser-62 pharmacologically or through interferon (IFN)-?-induced expression of p27(Kip1) (p27) repressed Myc's activity to suppress cellular senescence and differentiation. In this study we identified an additional activity of p27 to interfere with Myc independent of Ser-62 phosphorylation. p27 is required and sufficient for IFN-?-induced turnover of Myc. p27 interacted with Myc in the nucleus involving the C-termini of the two proteins, including Myc box 4 of Myc. The C-terminus but not the Cdk2 binding fragment of p27 was sufficient for inducing Myc degradation. Protein expression data of The Cancer Genome Atlas breast invasive carcinoma set revealed significantly lower Myc protein levels in tumors with highly expressed p27 lacking phosphorylation at Thr-157--a marker for active p27 localized in the nucleus. Further, these conditions correlated with favorable tumor stage and patient outcome. This novel regulation of Myc by IFN-?/p27(KIP1) potentially offers new possibilities for therapeutic intervention in tumors with deregulated Myc.
Project description:The universal cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1) functions as a tumor suppressor, and reduced levels of p27(Kip1) connote poor prognosis in several human malignancies. p27(Kip1) levels are predominately regulated by ubiquitin-mediated turnover of the protein, which is marked for destruction by the E3 ubiquitin ligase SCF(Skp2) complex following its phosphorylation by the cyclin E-cyclin-dependent kinase 2 complex. Binding of phospho-p27(Kip1) is directed by the Skp2 F-box protein, and this is greatly augmented by its allosteric regulator Cks1. We have established that programmed expression of c-Myc in the B cells of Emu-Myc transgenic mice triggers p27(Kip1) destruction by inducing Cks1, that this response controls Myc-driven proliferation, and that loss of Cks1 markedly delays Myc-induced lymphomagenesis and cancels the dissemination of these tumors. Here, we report that elevated levels of Skp2 are a characteristic of Emu-Myc lymphomas and of human Burkitt lymphoma that bear MYC/Immunoglobulin chromosomal translocations. As expected, Myc-mediated suppression of p27(Kip1) was abolished in Skp2-null Emu-Myc B cells. However, the effect of Skp2 loss on Myc-driven proliferation and lymphomagenesis was surprisingly modest compared with the effects of Cks1 loss. Collectively, these findings suggest that Cks1 targets, in addition to p27(Kip1), are critical for Myc-driven proliferation and tumorigenesis.
Project description:Reduced levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1) connote poor prognosis in cancer. In human Burkitt lymphoma and in precancerous B cells and lymphomas arising in Emu-Myc transgenic mice, p27(Kip1) expression is markedly reduced. We show that the transcription of the Cks1 component of the SCF(Skp2) complex that is necessary for p27(Kip1) ubiquitylation and degradation is induced by Myc. Further, Cks1 expression is elevated in precancerous Emu-Myc B cells, and high levels of Cks1 are also a hallmark of Emu-Myc lymphoma and of human Burkitt lymphoma. Finally, loss of Cks1 in Emu-Myc B cells elevates p27(Kip1) levels, reduces proliferation and markedly delays lymphoma development and dissemination of disease. Therefore, Myc suppresses p27(Kip1) expression, accelerates cell proliferation and promotes tumorigenesis at least in part through its ability to selectively induce Cks1.
Project description:Oncogenic c-Myc plays a critical role in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and tumorigenesis, but the precise mechanisms that drive this activity remain largely unknown. P27Kip1 (CDKN1B) arrests cells in G1, and SAP155 (SF3B1), a subunit of the essential splicing factor 3b (SF3b) subcomplex of the spliceosome, is required for proper P27 pre-mRNA splicing. FUSE-binding protein-interacting repressor (FIR), a splicing variant of PUF60 lacking exon5, is a c-Myc transcriptional target that suppresses the DNA helicase p89 (ERCC3) and is alternatively spliced in colorectal cancer lacking the transcriptional repression domain within exon 2 (FIR?exon2). FIR and FIR?exon2 form a homo- or hetero-dimer that complexes with SAP155. Our study indicates that the FIR/FIR?exon2/SAP155 interaction bridges c-Myc and P27 expression. Knockdown of FIR/FIR?exon2 or SAP155 reduced p27 expression, inhibited its pre-mRNA splicing, and reduced CDK2/Cyclin E expression. Moreover, spliceostatin A, a natural SF3b inhibitor, markedly inhibited P27 expression by disrupting its pre-mRNA splicing and reduced CDK2/Cyclin E expression. The expression of P89, another FIR target, was increased in excised human colorectal cancer tissues. Knockdown of FIR reduced P89; however, the effects on P27 and P89 expression are not simply or directly related to altered FIR expression levels, indicating that the mechanical or physical interaction of the SAP155/FIR/FIR?exon2 complex is potentially essential for sustained expression of both P89 and P27. Together, the interaction between SAP155 and FIR/FIR?exon2 not only integrates cell-cycle progression and c-Myc transcription by modifying P27 and P89 expression but also suggests that the interaction is a potential target for cancer screening and treatment.
Project description:The Cdk2 inhibitor, p27(Kip1), is degraded in a phosphorylation- and ubiquitylation-dependent manner at the G(1)-S transition of the cell cycle. Degradation of p27(Kip1) requires import into the nucleus for phosphorylation by Cdk2. Phosphorylated p27(Kip1) is thought to be subsequently re-exported and degraded in the cytosol. Using two-hybrid screens, we now show that p27(Kip1) interacts with a nuclear pore-associated protein, mNPAP60, map the interaction to the 3(10) helix of p27 and identify a point mutant in p27(Kip1) that is deficient for interaction (R90G). In vivo and in vitro, the loss-of-interaction mutant is poorly transported into the nucleus, while ubiquitylation of p27R90G occurs normally. In vivo, co-expression of cyclin E and Cdk2 rescues the import defect. However, mutant p27(Kip1) accumulates in a phosphorylated form in the nucleus and is not efficiently degraded, arguing that at least one step in the degradation of phosphorylated p27(Kip1) requires an interaction with the nuclear pore. Our results identify a novel component involved in p27(Kip1) degradation and suggest that degradation of p27(Kip1) is tightly linked to its intracellular transport.
Project description:Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) is dispensable for mitotic cell cycle progression and Cdk2 knockout mice are viable due to the compensatory functions of other Cdks. In order to assess the role of Cdk2 under limiting conditions, we used Skp2 knockout mice that exhibit increased levels of Cdk inhibitor, p27(Kip1), which is able to inhibit Cdk2 and Cdk1. Knockdown of Cdk2 abrogated proliferation of Skp2(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts, encouraging us to generate Cdk2(-/-)Skp2(-/-) double knockout mice. Cdk2(-/-)Skp2(-/-) double knockout mice are viable and display similar phenotypes as Cdk2(-/-) and Skp2(-/-) mice. Unexpectedly, fibroblasts generated from Cdk2(-/-)Skp2(-/-) double knockout mice proliferated at normal rates. The increased stability of p27 observed in Skp2(-/-) MEFs was not observed in Cdk2(-/-)Skp2(-/-) double knockout fibroblasts indicating that in the absence of Cdk2, p27 is regulated by Skp2-independent mechanisms. Ablation of other ubiquitin ligases for p27 such as KPC1, DDB1, and Pirh2 did not restore stability of p27 in Cdk2(-/-)Skp2(-/-) MEFs. Our findings point towards novel and alternate pathways for p27 regulation.
Project description:Cell cycle stimulation is a major transforming mechanism of Myc oncoprotein. This is achieved through at least three concomitant mechanisms: upregulation of cyclins and Cdks, downregulation of the Cdk inhibitors p15 and p21 and the degradation of p27. The Myc-p27 antagonism has been shown to be relevant in human cancer. To be degraded, p27 must be phosphorylated at Thr-187 to be recognized by Skp2, a component of the ubiquitination complex. We previously described that Myc induces Skp2 expression. Here we show that not only Cdk2 but Cdk1 phosphorylates p27 at the Thr-187. Moreover, Myc induced p27 degradation in murine fibroblasts through Cdk1 activation, which was achieved by Myc-dependent cyclin A and B induction. In the absence of Cdk2, p27 phosphorylation at Thr-187 was mainly carried out by cyclin A2-Cdk1 and cyclin B1-Cdk1. We also show that Cdk1 inhibition was enough for the synthetic lethal interaction with Myc. This result is relevant because Cdk1 is the only Cdk strictly required for cell cycle and the reported synthetic lethal interaction between Cdk1 and Myc.
Project description:We describe the design of a potent and selective peptidomimetic inhibitor of geranylgeranyltransferase I (GGTI), GGTI-2418, and its methyl ester GGTI-2417, which increases the levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor p27(Kip1) and induces breast tumor regression in vivo. Experiments with p27(Kip1) small interfering RNA in breast cancer cells and p27(Kip1) null murine embryonic fibroblasts demonstrate that the ability of GGTI-2417 to induce cell death requires p27(Kip1). GGTI-2417 inhibits the Cdk2-mediated phosphorylation of p27(Kip1) at Thr187 and accumulates p27(Kip1) in the nucleus. In nude mouse xenografts, GGTI-2418 suppresses the growth of human breast tumors. Furthermore, in ErbB2 transgenic mice, GGTI-2418 increases p27(Kip1) and induces significant regression of breast tumors. We conclude that GGTIs' antitumor activity is, at least in part, due to inhibiting Cdk2-dependent p27(Kip1) phosphorylation at Thr187 and accumulating nuclear p27(Kip1). Thus, GGTI treatment might improve the poor prognosis of breast cancer patients with low nuclear p27(Kip1) levels.
Project description:Elevated expression of MYC is a shared property of many human cancers. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been associated with lymphoid malignancies, yet collaborative roles between MYC and EBV in lymphomagenesis are unclear. EBV latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A) functions as a B-cell receptor (BCR) mimic known to provide survival signals to infected B cells. Co-expression of human MYC and LMP2A in mice (LMP2A/?-MYC) accelerates B lymphoma onset compared with mice expressing human MYC alone (?-MYC mice). Here we show a novel role of LMP2A in potentiating MYC to promote G1-S transition and hyperproliferation by downregulating cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(kip1) in a proteasome-dependent manner. Expressing a gain-of-function S10A mutant of p27(kip1) has minor effect on tumor latency. However, pretumor B cells from ?-MYC mice expressing homozygous S10A mutant show a significant decrease in the percentage of S-phase cells. Interestingly, LMP2A is able to counteract the antiproliferative effect of the S10A mutant to promote S-phase entry. Finally, we show that LMP2A expression correlates with higher levels of MYC expression and suppression of p27(kip1) before lymphoma onset. Our study demonstrates a novel function of EBV LMP2A in maximizing MYC expression, resulting in hyperproliferation and cellular transformation into cancer cells in vivo.
Project description:SKP2 is the ubiquitin ligase subunit that targets p27(KIP1) (p27) for degradation. SKP2 is induced in the G(1)-S transit of the cell cycle, is frequently overexpressed in human cancer, and displays transformation activity in experimental models. Here we show that MYC induces SKP2 expression at the mRNA and protein levels in human myeloid leukemia K562 cells with conditional MYC expression. Importantly, in these systems, induction of MYC did not activate cell proliferation, ruling out SKP2 up-regulation as a consequence of cell cycle entry. MYC-dependent SKP2 expression was also detected in other cell types such as lymphoid, fibroblastic, and epithelial cell lines. MYC induced SKP2 mRNA expression in the absence of protein synthesis and activated the SKP2 promoter in luciferase reporter assays. With chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, MYC was detected bound to a region of human SKP2 gene promoter that includes E-boxes. The K562 cell line derives from human chronic myeloid leukemia. In a cohort of chronic myeloid leukemia bone marrow samples, we found a correlation between MYC and SKP2 mRNA levels. Analysis of cancer expression databases also indicated a correlation between MYC and SKP2 expression in lymphoma. Finally, MYC-induced SKP2 expression resulted in a decrease in p27 protein in K562 cells. Moreover, silencing of SKP2 abrogated the MYC-mediated down-regulation of p27. Our data show that SKP2 is a direct MYC target gene and that MYC-mediated SKP2 induction leads to reduced p27 levels. The results suggest the induction of SKP2 oncogene as a new mechanism for MYC-dependent transformation.