WSS25 inhibits growth of xenografted hepatocellular cancer cells in nude mice by disrupting angiogenesis via blocking bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)/Smad/Id1 signaling.
ABSTRACT: The highly expressed Id1 (inhibitor of DNA binding/differentiation) protein promotes angiogenesis in HCC and is a well established target for anti-angiogenesis therapeutic strategies. Heparan sulfate (HS) mimetics such as PI-88 can abrogate HS-protein interactions to inhibit angiogenesis. Id1 is the direct downstream effector of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), which are angiogenic and HS-binding proteins. Thus, targeting BMPs by HS mimetics may inhibit angiogenesis via attenuating Id1 expression. We report here that a HS mimetic WSS25 potently inhibited the tube formation of HMEC-1 cells on Matrigel and their migration. Meanwhile, WSS25 (25 ?g/ml) nearly completely blocked Id1 expression in the HMEC-1 cells as demonstrated by oligo-angiogenesis microarray analysis and further confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. BMP/Smad/Id1 signaling also was blocked by WSS25 treatment in HMEC-1 cells. Importantly, Id1 knockdown in HMEC-1 cells caused the disruption of their tube formation on Matrigel. By employing quartz crystal microbalance analysis, we found that WSS25 strongly bound to BMP2. Moreover, WSS25 impaired BMP2-induced tube formation of HMEC-1 cells on Matrigel and angiogenesis in Matrigel transplanted into C57BL6 mice. Furthermore, WSS25 (100 mg/kg) abrogated the growth of HCC cells xenografted in male nude mice. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that both the expression of Id1 and the endothelial cell marker CD31 were lower in the WSS25-treated tumor tissue than in the control. Therefore, WSS25 is a potential drug candidate for HCC therapy as a tumor angiogenesis inhibitor.
Project description:<h4>Background and purpose</h4>Neovascularization occurring in atherosclerotic lesions may promote plaque expansion, intraplaque haemorrhage and rupture. Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) are atherogenic, but their angiogenic effect is controversial; both angiogenic and anti-angiogenic effects have been reported. The angiogenic mechanism of oxLDL is partly understood, but the role of the angiogenic sphingolipid, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), in this process is not known. Thus, we investigated whether S1P is involved in the oxLDL-induced angiogenesis and whether an anti-S1P monoclonal antibody can prevent this effect.<h4>Experimental approach</h4>Angiogenesis was assessed by capillary tube formation by human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) cultured on Matrigel and in vivo by the Matrigel plug assay in C57BL/6 mice.<h4>Key results</h4>Human oxLDL exhibited a biphasic angiogenic effect on HMEC-1; low concentrations were angiogenic, higher concentrations were cytotoxic. The angiogenic response to oxLDL was blocked by the sphingosine kinase (SPHK) inhibitor, dimethylsphingosine, by SPHK1-siRNA and by an anti-S1P monoclonal antibody. Moreover, inhibition of oxLDL uptake and subsequent redox signalling by anti-CD36 and anti-LOX-1 receptor antibodies and by N-acetylcysteine, respectively, blocked SPHK1 activation and tube formation. In vivo, in the Matrigel plug assay, low concentrations of human oxLDL or murine oxVLDL also triggered angiogenesis, which was prevented by i.p. injection of the anti-S1P antibody.<h4>Conclusion and implications</h4>These data highlight the role of S1P in angiogenesis induced by oxLDL both in HMEC-1 cultured on Matrigel and in vivo in the Matrigel plug model in mice, and demonstrate that the anti-S1P antibody effectively blocks the angiogenic effect of oxLDL.
Project description:Signaling proteins, including bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), specifically interact with heparan sulfate (HS). These interactions regulate protein distribution and function and are largely mediated by domains rich in basic amino acids. The N-terminal region of BMP2 and BMP4 contains one such domain with a typical Cardin-Weintraub (CW) motif, but it is unclear whether the same occurs in BMP5, BMP6, and BMP7 that constitute a separate evolutionary subgroup. Peptides spanning the N-terminal domain of BMP2/4 interacted with substrate-bound HS with nanomolar affinity, but peptides spanning BMP5/6/7 N-terminal domain did not. We re-examined the entire BMP5/6/7 sequences and identified a novel CW-like motif at their C terminus. Peptides spanning this domain displayed high-affinity HS binding, but corresponding BMP2/4 C-terminal peptides did not, likely because of acidic or noncharged residue substitutions. Peptides pre-assembled into NeutrAvidin tetramers displayed the same exact binding selectivity of respective monomers but bound HS with greater affinity. Tests of possible peptide biological activities showed that the HS-binding N-terminal BMP2/4 and C-terminal BMP5/6/7 peptides stimulated chondrogenesis in vitro, potentially by freeing endogenous BMPs. Thus, HS interactions appear largely ascribable to domains at opposite ends of BMP2/4 versus BMP5/6/7, reiterating the evolutionary distance of these BMP subgroups and possible functional diversification.
Project description:Angiogenesis is a key step for tumour growth and metastasis, and anti-angiogenesis has been proposed as an important strategy for cancer therapy. Tryptanthrin is a weakly basic alkaloid isolated from the dried roots of medicinal indigo plants and has been shown to possess anti-tumour activities on various cancer cell types. This study aims to investigate the in vitro and in vivo anti-angiogenic activities of tryptanthrin and to unravel its underlying molecular action mechanisms. Our results show that tryptanthrin inhibited the in vitro proliferation, migration, and tube formation of the human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) in a concentration-dependent manner and significantly suppressed angiogenesis in Matrigel plugs in mice. Mechanistic studies indicated that tryptanthrin reduced the expression of several pro-angiogenic factors (Ang-1, PDGFB and MMP2). Tryptanthrin was also found to suppress the VEGFR2-mediated ERK1/2 signalling pathway in HMEC-1 cells and molecular docking simulation indicated that tryptanthrin could bound to the ATP-binding site of VEGFR2. Collectively, the present study demonstrated that tryptanthrin exhibited both in vitro and in vivo anti-angiogenic activities by targeting the VEGFR2-mediated ERK1/2 signalling pathway and might have therapeutic potential for the treatment of angiogenesis-related diseases.