Regulation of memory CD8 T-cell differentiation by cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1.
ABSTRACT: Induction of potent T-cell memory is the goal of vaccinations, but the molecular mechanisms that regulate the formation of memory CD8 T cells are not well understood. Despite the recognition that controls of cellular proliferation and apoptosis govern the number of memory T cells, the cell cycle regulatory mechanisms that control these key cellular processes in CD8 T cells during an immune response are poorly defined. Here, we have identified the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1) as a critical regulator of the CD8 T-cell homeostasis at all phases of the T-cell response to an acute viral infection in mice. By acting as a timer for cell cycle exit, p27(Kip1) curtailed the programmed expansion of interleukin-2-producing memory precursors and markedly limited the magnitude and quality of CD8 T-cell memory. In the absence of p27(Kip1), CD8 T cells showed superior recall responses shortly after vaccination with recombinant Listeria monocytogenes. Additionally, we show that p27(Kip1) constrains proliferative renewal of memory CD8 T cells, especially of the effector memory subset. These findings provide critical insights into the cell cycle regulation of CD8 T-cell homeostasis and suggest that modulation of p27(Kip1) could bolster vaccine-induced T-cell memory and protective immunity.
Project description:CD8 T cells exhibit dynamic alterations in proliferation and apoptosis during various phases of the CD8 T-cell response, but the mechanisms that regulate cellular proliferation from the standpoint of CD8 T-cell memory are not well defined. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1) functions as a negative regulator of the cell cycle in T cells, and it has been implicated in regulating cellular processes, including differentiation, transcription and migration. Here, we investigated whether p27(Kip1) regulates CD8 T-cell memory by T-cell-intrinsic or T-cell-extrinsic mechanisms, by conditional ablation of p27(Kip1) in T cells or non-T cells. Studies of T-cell responses to an acute viral infection show that p27(Kip1) negatively regulates the proliferation of CD8 T cells by T-cell-intrinsic mechanisms. However, the enhanced proliferation of CD8 T cells induced by T-cell-specific p27(Kip1) deficiency minimally affects the primary expansion or the magnitude of CD8 T-cell memory. Unexpectedly, p27(Kip1) ablation in non-T cells markedly augmented the number of high-quality memory CD8 T cells by enhancing the accumulation of memory precursor effector cells without increasing their proliferation. Further studies show that p27(Kip1) deficiency in immunizing dendritic cells fail to enhance CD8 T-cell memory. Nevertheless, we have delineated the T-cell-intrinsic, anti-proliferative activities of p27(Kip1) in CD8 T cells from its role as a factor in non-T cells that restricts the development of CD8 T-cell memory. These findings have implications in vaccine development and understanding the mechanisms that maintain T-cell homeostasis.
Project description:Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) couples ligand activation of cell surface cytokine receptors to the regulation of cellular functions including cell cycle progression, differentiation and apoptosis. It thereby coordinates biological programs such as development and hematopoiesis. Unscheduled activation of JAK2 by point mutations or chromosomal translocations can induce hyperproliferation and hematological malignancies. Typical signal transduction by the JAK2 tyrosine kinase comprises phosphorylation of STAT transcription factors. In this study, we describe the identification of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p27(Kip1) as a novel JAK2 substrate. JAK2 can directly bind and phosphorylate p27(Kip1). Both, the JAK2 FERM domain and its kinase domain bind to p27(Kip1). JAK2 phosphorylates tyrosine residue 88 (Y88) of p27(Kip1). We previously reported that Y88 phosphorylation of p27(Kip1) by oncogenic tyrosine kinases impairs p27(Kip1)-mediated CDK inhibition, and initiates its ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation. Consistently, we now find that active oncogenic JAK2V617F reduces p27(Kip1) stability and protein levels in patient-derived cell lines harboring the mutant JAK2V617F allele. Moreover, tyrosine phosphorylation of p27(Kip1) is impaired and p27(Kip1) expression is restored upon JAK2V617F inactivation by small hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown or by the pyridone-containing tetracycle JAK inhibitor-I, indicating that direct phosphorylation of p27(Kip1) can contribute to hyperproliferation of JAK2V617F-transformed cells. Activation of endogenous JAK2 by interleukin-3 (IL-3) induces Y88 phosphorylation of p27(Kip1), thus unveiling a novel link between cytokine signaling and cell cycle control in non-transformed cells. Oncogenic tyrosine kinases could use this novel pathway to promote hyperproliferation in tumor cells.
Project description:Exposure of normal and tumor-derived cells to TGF? results in different outcomes, depending on the regulation of key targets. The CDK inhibitor p27(Kip1) is one of these TGF? targets and is essential for the TGF?-induced cell cycle arrest. TGF? treatment inhibits p27(Kip1) degradation and induces its nuclear translocation, through mechanisms that are still unknown. Recent evidences suggest that SUMOylation, a post-translational modification able to modulate the stability and subcellular localization of target proteins, critically modifies members of the TGF? signaling pathway. Here, we demonstrate that p27(Kip1) is SUMOylated in response to TGF? treatment. Using different p27(Kip1) point mutants, we identified lysine 134 (K134) as the residue modified by small ubiquitin-like modifier 1 (SUMO1) in response to TGF? treatment. TGF?-induced K134 SUMOylation increased protein stability and nuclear localization of both endogenous and exogenously expressed p27(Kip1). We observed that SUMOylation regulated p27(Kip1) binding to CDK2, thereby governing its nuclear proteasomal degradation through the phosphorylation of threonine 187. Importantly, p27(Kip1) SUMOylation was necessary for proper cell cycle exit following TGF? treatment. These data indicate that SUMOylation is a novel regulatory mechanism that modulates p27(Kip1) function in response to TGF? stimulation. Given the involvement of TGF? signaling in cancer cell proliferation and invasion, our data may shed light on an important aspect of this pathway during tumor progression.
Project description:The cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p27(kip1) is a critical regulator of the G1/S-phase transition of the cell cycle and also regulates microtubule (MT) stability. This latter function is exerted by modulating the activity of stathmin, an MT-destabilizing protein, and by direct binding to MTs. We recently demonstrated that increased proliferation in p27(kip1)-null mice is reverted by concomitant deletion of stathmin in p27(kip1)/stathmin double-KO mice, suggesting that a CDK-independent function of p27(kip1) contributes to the control of cell proliferation. Whether the regulation of MT stability by p27(kip1) impinges on signaling pathway activation and contributes to the decision to enter the cell cycle is largely unknown. Here, we report that faster cell cycle entry of p27(kip1)-null cells was impaired by the concomitant deletion of stathmin. Using gene expression profiling coupled with bioinformatic analyses, we show that p27(kip1) and stathmin conjunctly control activation of the MAPK pathway. From a molecular point of view, we observed that p27(kip1), by controlling MT stability, impinges on H-Ras trafficking and ubiquitination levels, eventually restraining its full activation. Our study identifies a regulatory axis controlling the G1/S-phase transition, relying on the regulation of MT stability by p27(kip1) and finely controlling the spatiotemporal activation of the Ras-MAPK signaling pathway.
Project description:Mechanisms coordinating neural progenitor cell cycle exit and differentiation are incompletely understood. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1) is transcriptionally induced, switching specific neural progenitors from proliferation to differentiation. However, neuronal differentiation-specific transcription factors mediating p27(Kip1) transcription have not been identified. We demonstrate the homeodomain transcription factor Phox2a, required for central nervous system (CNS)- and neural crest (NC)-derived noradrenergic neuron differentiation, coordinates cell cycle exit and differentiation by inducing p27(Kip1) transcription. Phox2a transcription and activation in the CNS-derived CAD cell line and primary NC cells is mediated by combined cyclic AMP (cAMP) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) signaling. In the CAD cellular model, cAMP and BMP2 signaling initially induces proliferation of the undifferentiated precursors, followed by p27(Kip1) transcription, G(1) arrest, and neuronal differentiation. Small interfering RNA silencing of either Phox2a or p27(Kip1) suppresses p27(Kip1) transcription and neuronal differentiation, suggesting a causal link between p27(Kip1) expression and differentiation. Conversely, ectopic Phox2a expression via the Tet-off expression system promotes accelerated CAD cell neuronal differentiation and p27(Kip1) transcription only in the presence of cAMP signaling. Importantly, endogenous or ectopically expressed Phox2a activated by cAMP signaling binds homeodomain cis-acting elements of the p27(Kip1) promoter in vivo and mediates p27(Kip1)-luciferase expression in CAD and NC cells. We conclude that developmental cues of cAMP signaling causally link Phox2a activation with p27(Kip1) transcription, thereby coordinating neural progenitor cell cycle exit and differentiation.
Project description:Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial pediatric tumor. NB patients over 18 months of age at the time of diagnosis are often in the later stages of the disease, present with widespread dissemination, and often possess MYCN tumor gene amplification. MYCN is a transcription factor that regulates the expression of a number of genes including ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), a rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of polyamines. Inhibiting ODC in NB cells produces many deleterious effects including G(1) cell cycle arrest, inhibition of cell proliferation, and decreased tumor growth, making ODC a promising target for drug interference. DFMO treatment leads to the accumulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1) protein and causes p27(Kip1)/Rb-coupled G(1) cell cycle arrest in MYCN-amplified NB tumor cells through a process that involves p27(Kip1) phosphorylation at residues Ser10 and Thr198. While p27(Kip1) is well known for its role as a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, recent studies have revealed a novel function of p27(Kip1) as a regulator of cell migration and invasion. In the present study we found that p27(Kip1) regulates the migration and invasion in NB and that these events are dependent on the state of phosphorylation of p27(Kip1). DFMO treatments induced MYCN protein downregulation and phosphorylation of Akt/PKB (Ser473) and GSK3-? (Ser9), and polyamine supplementation alleviated the DFMO-induced effects. Importantly, we provide strong evidence that p27(Kip1) mRNA correlates with clinical features and the survival probability of NB patients.
Project description:Dioxins have been reported to exert various adverse effects, including cell-cycle dysregulation in vitro and impairment of spatial learning and memory after in utero exposure in rodents. Furthermore, children born to mothers who are exposed to dioxin analogs polychlorinated dibenzofurans or polychlorinated biphenyls have developmental impairments in cognitive functions. Here, we show that in utero exposure to dioxins in mice alters differentiation patterns of neural progenitors and leads to decreased numbers of non-GABAergic neurons and thinner deep neocortical layers. This reduction in number of non-GABAergic neurons is assumed to be caused by accumulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1) in nuclei of neural progenitors. Lending support to this presumption, mice lacking p27(Kip1) are not susceptible to in utero dioxin exposure. These results show that environmental pollutants may affect neocortical histogenesis through alterations of functions of specific gene(s)/protein(s) (in our case, dioxins), exerting adverse effects by altering functions of p27(Kip1).
Project description:The effect of thrombin on tumor cell cycle activation and spontaneous growth was examined in synchronized serum-starved tumor cell lines and a model of spontaneous prostate cancer development in TRAMP mice. BrdUrd incorporation and propidium iodide staining of prostate LNCaP cells arrested in G(0) and treated with thrombin or serum revealed a 48- and 29-fold increase in S phase cells, respectively, at 8 hours. Similar results were obtained with TRAMP cells and a glioblastoma cell line, T98G. Cell cycle kinases and inhibitors in synchronized tumor cells revealed high levels of p27(Kip1) and low levels of Skp2 and cyclins D1 and A. Addition of thrombin, TFLLRN, or serum down-regulated p27(Kip1) with concomitant induction of Skp2, Cyclin D1, and Cyclin A with similar kinetics. LNCaP p27(Kip1)-transfected cells or Skp2 knockdown cells were refractory to thrombin-induced cell cycle activation. MicroRNA 222, an inhibitor of p27(Kip1), was robustly up-regulated by thrombin. The in vitro observations were tested in vivo with transgenic TRAMP mice. Repetitive thrombin injection enhanced prostate tumor volume 6- to 8-fold (P < 0.04). Repetitive hirudin, a specific potent antithrombin, decreased tumor volume 13- to 24-fold (P < 0.04). Thus, thrombin stimulates tumor cell growth in vivo by down-regulation of p27(Kip1).
Project description:Temporal control of p27(Kip1) (p27) degradation imposes periodicity in its activity during cell cycle progression and its accumulation during cell cycle exit. Degradation of p27 is initiated by phosphorylation of p27 at Thr-187, which marks the protein for ubiquitination by SCF(Skp2) and subsequent proteolysis by the 26S proteasome. Here we show that the p27 ubiquitination activity in cell extracts depends on the presence of the ubiquitin-like protein Nedd8 and enzymes that catalyze Nedd8 conjugation to proteins. Moreover, we show that reconstitution of the p27 ubiquitination activity of recombinant SCF(Skp2) also requires Nedd8 conjugation pathway components. Inactivation of the Nedd8 conjugation pathway by a dominant negative mutant of the Nedd8-conjugating enzyme Nce1/Ubc12 blocks the ubiquitination and degradation of p27 in cell extracts. Consistent with a role in cell-cycle progression, Nedd8 is expressed in proliferating cells and is itself down-regulated upon cellular differentiation. These results suggest that the Nedd8 conjugation pathway may regulate the turnover of p27(Kip1), independently of p27 phosphorylation, and further establishes the identity of protein components involved in p27 ubiquitination. Finally, these findings provide a direct demonstration of a function for Nedd8 in a biological process.
Project description:We describe the design of a potent and selective peptidomimetic inhibitor of geranylgeranyltransferase I (GGTI), GGTI-2418, and its methyl ester GGTI-2417, which increases the levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor p27(Kip1) and induces breast tumor regression in vivo. Experiments with p27(Kip1) small interfering RNA in breast cancer cells and p27(Kip1) null murine embryonic fibroblasts demonstrate that the ability of GGTI-2417 to induce cell death requires p27(Kip1). GGTI-2417 inhibits the Cdk2-mediated phosphorylation of p27(Kip1) at Thr187 and accumulates p27(Kip1) in the nucleus. In nude mouse xenografts, GGTI-2418 suppresses the growth of human breast tumors. Furthermore, in ErbB2 transgenic mice, GGTI-2418 increases p27(Kip1) and induces significant regression of breast tumors. We conclude that GGTIs' antitumor activity is, at least in part, due to inhibiting Cdk2-dependent p27(Kip1) phosphorylation at Thr187 and accumulating nuclear p27(Kip1). Thus, GGTI treatment might improve the poor prognosis of breast cancer patients with low nuclear p27(Kip1) levels.