Use of groESL as a target for identification of Abiotrophia, Granulicatella, and Gemella species.
ABSTRACT: We determined the groESL sequences of three species of nutritionally variant streptococci (Abiotrophia defectiva, Granulicatella adiacens, and Granulicatella elegans) and three Gemella species (Gemella morbillorum, Gemella haemolysans, and Gemella sanguinis). The nucleotide sequence similarities between the groES and groEL genes of the above genera were 41.7 to 85.9% and 63.7 to 84.3%, respectively. The intraspecies similarities of groESL sequences for the isolates of Abiotrophia and Granulicatella species were 94.4 to 97.8% for groES and 94.0 to 98.2% for groEL. For Ge. morbillorum and Ge. sanguinis, all strains showed the same groESL spacer length (8 bp), and sequence identities within species were >97.8% for groES and >96.1% for groEL. However, higher intraspecies heterogeneity was observed in Ge. haemolysans. Phylogenetic analysis of groEL sequences separated the 6 isolates of Ge. haemolysans into two subgroups. Among these isolates, three isolates with the same groESL spacer region length (45 bp) clustered together but were distant from the ATCC reference strain (with a spacer length of 8 bp). The remaining three isolates, with a spacer length of 50 or 8 bp, clustered together. Although 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis did not provide enough discrimination for the 6 Ge. haemolysans isolates, rpoB gene sequence analysis supported the subgrouping. Based on the obtained groESL sequences, we developed a multiplex PCR that enables simple, rapid, and accurate identification of Abiotrophia, Granulicatella, and Gemella at the genus level. This assay would be helpful for identifying these fastidious and slow-growing organisms in clinical laboratories.
Project description:The full-length sequences of the groESL genes (also known as cpn10/60) of Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus constellatus, Streptococcus gordonii, and Streptococcus sanguis and the near full-length sequence of the groESL genes of Streptococcus intermedius, Streptococcus bovis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus oralis, and Streptococcus salivarius were determined. The lengths of the groES genes from the 10 species listed above ranged from 282 to 288 bp, and the full-length sequences of groEL determined for 4 species (S. anginosus, S. constellatus, S. gordonii, and S. sanguis) revealed that each was 1,623 bp. The intergenic region (spacer) between the groES and groEL genes varies in size (15 to 111 bp) and sequence between species. The variation of the groES sequences among the species tested was greater (62.1 to 95.1% nucleotide sequence identities) than that of the groEL sequences (77.2 to 95.2% nucleotide sequence identities). Phylogenetic analysis of the groES and groEL genes yielded evolutionary trees similar to the tree constructed by use of the 16S rRNA gene. The intraspecies variation of the spacer was minimal for clinical isolates of some species. The groESL sequence data provide an additional parameter for identification of viridans group streptococcal species.
Project description:Among nine patients with bacteremia caused by Granulicatella or Gemella in a 6-year period (July 1995 to June 2001), three had bacteremia caused by erythromycin-resistant Granulicatella adiacens and one had bacteremia caused by erythromycin-resistant Gemella haemolysans. All four isolates possessed mef genes, whereas none possessed ermT, ermTR, or ermB genes.
Project description:Amplification of the partial Cpn60 (or GroEL) gene segment has been used for identification of many bacteria, including Enterococcus species. To obtain more sequence data from groESL genes of Enterococcus faecalis, the full-length sequence of the E. faecalis groESL genes containing groES (285 bp), spacer (57 bp), and groEL (1,626 bp) was determined. A database search of GenBank revealed that the deduced E. faecalis GroES and GroEL proteins show significant homology to the GroES and GroEL proteins of other bacteria. The GroEL (groEL) of E. faecalis had the highest identity with Streptococcus pneumoniae (81.8% amino acid sequence identity and 73.0% nucleotide sequence identity), followed by Lactococcus zeae, while GroES (groES) had 60.2% (64.6%) identity with Lactobacillus zeae and 58.5% (66.2%) identity with Lactococcus lactis, followed by 57.0% (65.5%) identity with Bacillus subtilis. Based on the groES sequence, an E. faecalis-specific PCR assay was developed, and this PCR assay was positive for all the E. faecalis strains tested. Dot blot hybridization using either groES or groEL as the probe distinguished E. faecalis clearly from other species, indicating that both genes can be used as suitable targets for E. faecalis identification. Moreover, broad-range PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism of groESL was designed to differentiate eight commonly encountered Enterococcus species. The Enterococcus species of reference strains could be easily differentiated on the basis of restriction patterns produced by HaeIII and RsaI. The DNA-based assays developed in this study provide an alternative to currently used methods of identification for clinically important enterococcal species.
Project description:We determined the groESL sequences (groES, groEL, and the intergenic spacer) of 10 clinically relevant Enterococcus species and evaluated the feasibility of identifying Enterococcus species on the basis of these sequences. Seven common clinical Enterococcus species, E. faecalis, E. faecium, E. casseliflavus, E. gallinarum, E. avium, E. raffinosus, and E. hirae, and three less common Enterococcus species, E. cecorum, E. durans, and E. mundtii, were examined in this study. We found that the groES genes of these enterococcal species are identical in length (285 nucleotides) and contain an unusual putative start codon, GTG. The lengths and sequences of the intergenic regions (spacers between the groES and groEL genes) are quite variable (17 to 57 bp in length) among Enterococcus species but are conserved in strains within each species, with only a few exceptions. Considerable variation of groES or groEL sequences was also observed. The evolutionary trees of groES or groEL sequences revealed similarities among Enterococcus species. However, the overall intraspecies variation of groES was less than that of groEL. The high interspecies variation and low intraspecies variation indicate that the groES and spacer sequences are more useful than groEL for identification of clinically relevant Enterococcus species. The sequences of these two genetic traits, groES and spacer, can be determined by a single PCR and direct sequencing and may provide important information for the differentiation of closely related species of Enterococcus.
Project description:The groESL operon of Bartonella bacilliformis, a facultative intracellular, Gram-negative bacterium and etiologic agent of Oroya Fever, was characterized. Sequence analysis revealed an operon containing two genes of 294 (groES) and 1632 nucleotides (groEL) separated by a 55-nt intergenic spacer. The operon is preceded by a 72-nt ORF (ORF1) that encodes a hypothetical protein with homology to a portion of the HrcA repressor for groESL. A divergent fumarate hydratase C (fumC) gene lies further upstream. Deduced amino acid sequences for B. bacilliformis GroEL and GroES revealed a high degree of identity with homologues from other Bartonella and alpha-Protebacteria. A single transcriptional start site (TSS) was mapped 79 nucleotides upstream of the groES start codon, regardless of incubation temperature. The TSS was located immediately 5' to a potential controlling inverted repeat of chaperonin expression (CIRCE) element and is preceded by a sigma70-like promoter. The operon is followed by a predicted rho-independent transcriptional terminator. Northern blot analysis indicated that groES and groEL are co-transcribed as a single mRNA of approximately 2.4 kb. A 6-h time course analysis by qRT-PCR showed that groEL expression increases 1.3-fold within 30 min of a temperature upshift from 30 to 37 degrees C, with maximum transcription reached after 60 min (approximately 4.3-fold), followed by a steady decrease to background (30 degrees C) transcription levels by 6 h. Western blot analysis revealed a 1.4- and 1.5-fold increase in GroEL synthesis following a temperature upshift or by inhibiting DNA supercoiling with coumermycin A1, respectively. Functional expression and complementation of temperature-sensitive Escherichia coli groES or groEL mutants with the cloned operon allowed them to grow at otherwise restrictive temperatures.
Project description:The molecular basis of the pathogenesis of the opportunistic invasive infections caused by isolates of the Gemella genus remains largely unknown. Moreover, inconsistencies in the current species assignation were detected after genome-level comparison of 16 public Gemella isolates. A literature search detected that, between the two most pathogenic species, Gemella morbillorum causes about twice the number of cases compared to Gemella haemolysans. These two species shared their mean diseases - sepsis and endocarditis - but differed in causing other syndromes. A number of well-known virulence factors were harbored by all species, such as a manganese transport/adhesin sharing 83% identity from oral endocarditis-causing streptococci. Likewise, all Gemellae carried the genes required for incorporating phosphorylcholine into their cell walls and encoded some choline-binding proteins. In contrast, other proteins were species-specific, which may justify the known epidemiological differences. G. haemolysans, but not G. morbillorum, harbor a gene cluster potentially encoding a polysaccharidic capsule. Species-specific surface determinants also included Rib and MucBP repeats, hemoglobin-binding NEAT domains, peptidases of C5a complement factor and domains that recognize extracellular matrix molecules exposed in damaged heart valves, such as collagen and fibronectin. Surface virulence determinants were associated with several taxonomically dispersed opportunistic genera of the oral microbiota, such as Granulicatella, Parvimonas, and Streptococcus, suggesting the existence of a horizontally transferrable gene reservoir in the oral environment, likely facilitated by close proximity in biofilms and ultimately linked to endocarditis. The identification of the Gemella virulence pool should be implemented in whole genome-based protocols to rationally predict the pathogenic potential in ongoing clinical infections caused by these poorly known bacterial pathogens.
Project description:The sequence of the 10 N-terminal amino acids of a Bacillus subtilis protein that cross-reacts with antibody to Escherichia coli GroEL was used to design a set of degenerate oligonucleotide probes. These probes identified a clone which carries almost the entire groESL operon from a B. subtilis subgenomic library. By chromosomal walking, an additional fragment carrying the 3' end of groESL and its flanking sequence was isolated. Sequence analysis revealed two open reading frames (ORFs) in the cloned DNA. The upstream ORF encodes a 10-kDa protein which has 47% amino acid identity with E. coli GroES. The downstream ORF encodes a 58-kDa protein which is 62% identical to E. coli GroEL. A 2.1-kb groESL mRNA from B. subtilis was detected independently by Northern (RNA) blot analyses with a groES- and a groEL-specific probe. This demonstrated that groES and groEL are in an operon. The groESL promoter was located by using a promoter-probing plasmid, and the apparent transcription start site was mapped by primer extension analysis. The same promoter is utilized under normal and heat shock conditions. This promoter has the same features as a typical sigma A promoter. A strain in which the groESL operon was under the control of the sucrose-inducible sacB promoter was created. With this strain, it was possible to show that both groES and groEL are essential genes under both normal and heat shock conditions.
Project description:The groESL operon of Clostridium acetobutylicum was cloned in Escherichia coli by using a gene probe of E. coli groESL. Sequencing of a positively reacting 2.2-kbp HindIII fragment contained in the recombinant plasmid pFN1 and a 2.5-kbp XbaI fragment present in pFN4 revealed that both fragments partially overlapped and together spanned 3,493 bp of the clostridial chromosome. Two complete open reading frames (288 and 1632 bp) were found and identified as the groES- and groEL-homologous genes of C. acetobutylicum, respectively. The 3' end of a third gene (orfZ), which was divergently transcribed, showed no significant homology to other sequences available in the EMBL and GenBank data bases. The length of the groESL-specific mRNA (2.2 kb), a transcription terminator downstream of groEL, and a transcription start site upstream of groES, identified by primer extension analysis, indicated that groES and groEL of C. acetobutylicum are organized in a bicistronic operon. From the transcription start site, the promoter structure 5'-TTGCTA (17 bp) TATTAT that shows high homology to the consensus promoter sequence of gram-positive bacteria as well as E. coli was deduced. Transcription of the groESL operon was strongly heat inducible, and maximum levels of mRNA were detected 15 min after heat shock from 30 to 42 degrees C. An 11-bp inverted repeat, located between promoter and translation start sites of groES and partially identical with similar structures in front of several heat shock genes of other bacteria, may play an important role in the regulation of heat shock gene expression in this organism.
Project description:AIMS:To define epidemiology, clinical disease, and outcome of gemella bacteraemia by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. To examine the usefulness of the Vitek, API, and ATB systems in identifying two gemella species. METHODS:All alpha haemolytic streptococci other than Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from blood cultures during a six year period were identified by conventional biochemical methods, the Vitek system, and the API system. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was performed on all isolates identified by both kits as gemella with >or= 95% confidence or by either kit as any bacterial species with < 95% confidence. The ATB expression system was used to identify the two isolates that were defined as gemella species by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. RESULTS:Of the 302 alpha haemolytic streptococci other than S pneumoniae isolated, one was identified as Gemella morbillorum, and another as Gemella haemolysans by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The patient with monomicrobial G morbillorum bacteraemia was a 66 year old man with community acquired infective endocarditis with septic thromboemboli. The patient with G haemolysans bacteraemia was a 41 year old woman with hospital acquired polymicrobial bacteraemia during the neutropenic period of an autologous bone marrow transplant for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, the first case of its kind in the English literature. The API and ATB expression systems only identified the second strain as G haemolysans at 94% and 99% confidence, respectively, whereas the Vitek system identified none of the two strains correctly at > 70% confidence. CONCLUSIONS:Gemella bacteraemia is uncommon. 16S rRNA gene sequencing is the method of choice for identification of gemella and gemella-like isolates.
Project description:Chaperonin GroEL (Cpn60) requires cofactor GroES (Cpn10) for protein refolding in bacteria that possess single <i>groEL</i> and <i>groES</i> genes in a bicistronic <i>groESL</i> operon. Among 4,861 completely-sequenced prokaryotic genomes, 884 possess duplicate <i>groEL</i> genes and 770 possess <i>groEL</i> genes with no neighboring <i>groES</i>. It is unclear whether stand-alone <i>groEL</i> requires <i>groES</i> in order to function and, if required, how duplicate <i>groEL</i> genes and unequal <i>groES</i> genes balance their expressions. In <i>Myxococcus xanthus</i> DK1622, we determined that, while duplicate <i>groEL</i>s were alternatively deletable, the single <i>groES</i> that clusters with <i>groEL1</i> was essential for cell survival. Either GroEL1 or GroEL2 required interactions with GroES for <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i> functions. Deletion of <i>groEL1</i> or <i>groEL2</i> resulted in decreased expressions of both <i>groEL</i> and <i>groES</i>; and ectopic complementation of <i>groEL</i> recovered not only the <i>groEL</i> but also <i>groES</i> expressions. The addition of an extra <i>groES</i> gene upstream <i>groEL2</i> to form a bicistronic operon had almost no influence on <i>groES</i> expression and the cell survival rate, whereas over-expression of <i>groES</i> using a self-replicating plasmid simultaneously increased the <i>groEL</i> expressions. The results indicated that <i>M. xanthus</i> DK1622 cells coordinate expressions of the duplicate <i>groEL</i> and single <i>groES</i> genes for synergistic functions of GroELs and GroES. We proposed a potential regulation mechanism for the expression coordination.