ACTIN-RELATED PROTEIN8 encodes an F-box protein localized to the nucleolus in Arabidopsis.
ABSTRACT: Arabidopsis encodes six nuclear actin-related proteins (ARPs), among them ARP8 is unique in having an F-box domain and an actin homology domain. Analysis of the ARP8 promoter-beta-glucuronidase (GUS) fusion suggests that ARP8 is ubiquitously expressed in all organs and cell types. Immunocytochemical analysis with ARP8-specific monoclonal antibodies revealed that ARP8 protein is localized to the nucleolus in interphase cells and dispersed in the cytoplasm in mitotic cells. The cell cycle-dependent subcellular patterns of distribution of ARP8 are conserved in other members of Brassicaceae. Our findings provide the first insight into the possible contributions of plant ARP8 to nucleolar functions.
Project description:Nuclear actin and actin-related proteins (Arps) are integral components of various chromatin-remodelling complexes. Actin in such nuclear assemblies does not form filaments but associates in defined complexes, for instance with Arp4 and Arp8 in the INO80 remodeller. To understand the relationship between nuclear actin and its associated Arps and to test the possibility that Arp4 and Arp8 help maintain actin in defined states, we structurally analysed Arp4 and Arp8 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and tested their biochemical effects on actin assembly and disassembly. The solution structures of isolated Arp4 and Arp8 indicate them to be monomeric and the crystal structure of ATP-Arp4 reveals several differences to actin that explain why Arp4 does not form filaments itself. Remarkably, Arp4, assisted by Arp8, influences actin polymerization in vitro and is able to depolymerize actin filaments. Arp4 likely forms a complex with monomeric actin via the barbed end. Our data thus help explaining how nuclear actin is held in a discrete complex within the INO80 chromatin remodeller.
Project description:The actin family members, consisting of actin and actin-related proteins (ARPs), are essential components of chromatin remodeling complexes. ARP6, one of the nuclear ARPs, is part of the Snf-2-related CREB-binding protein activator protein (SRCAP) chromatin remodeling complex, which promotes the deposition of the histone variant H2A.Z into the chromatin. In this study, we showed that ARP6 influences the structure and the function of the nucleolus. ARP6 is localized in the central region of the nucleolus, and its knockdown induced a morphological change in the nucleolus. We also found that in the presence of high concentrations of glucose ARP6 contributed to the maintenance of active ribosomal DNA (rDNA) transcription by placing H2A.Z into the chromatin. In contrast, under starvation, ARP6 was required for cell survival through the repression of rDNA transcription independently of H2A.Z. These findings reveal novel pleiotropic roles for the actin family in nuclear organization and metabolic homeostasis.
Project description:Nuclear actin and actin-related proteins (Arps) are key components of chromatin remodeling and modifying complexes. Although Arps are essential for the functions of chromatin remodelers, their specific roles and mechanisms are unclear. Here we define the nucleosome binding interfaces and functions of the evolutionarily conserved Arps in the yeast INO80 chromatin remodeling complex. We show that the N-terminus of Arp8, C-terminus of Arp4 and the HSA domain of Ino80 bind extranucleosomal DNA 37-51 base pairs from the edge of nucleosomes and function as a DNA-length sensor that regulates nucleosome sliding by INO80. Disruption of Arp8 and Arp4 binding to DNA uncouples ATP hydrolysis from nucleosome mobilization by disengaging Arp5 from the acidic patch on histone H2A-H2B and the Ino80-ATPase domain from the Super-helical Location (SHL) -6 of nucleosomes. Our data suggest a functional interplay between INO80's Arp8-Arp4-actin and Arp5 modules in sensing the DNA length separating nucleosomes and regulating nucleosome positioning.
Project description:Actin and actin-related proteins (Arps), which are members of the actin family, are essential components of many of these remodeling complexes. Actin, Arp4, Arp5, and Arp8 are found to be evolutionarily conserved components of the INO80 chromatin remodeling complex, which is involved in transcriptional regulation, DNA replication, and DNA repair. A recent report showed that Arp8 forms a module in the INO80 complex and this module can directly capture a nucleosome. In the present study, we showed that recombinant human Arp8 binds to DNAs, and preferentially binds to single-stranded DNA. Analysis of the binding of adenine nucleotides to Arp8 mutants suggested that the ATP-binding pocket, located in the evolutionarily conserved actin fold, plays a regulatory role in the binding of Arp8 to DNA. To determine the cellular function of Arp8, we derived tetracycline-inducible Arp8 knockout cells from a cultured human cell line. Analysis of results obtained after treating these cells with aphidicolin and camptothecin revealed that Arp8 is involved in DNA repair. Together with the previous observation that Arp8, but not ?-H2AX, is indispensable for recruiting INO80 complex to DSB in human, results of our study suggest an individual role for Arp8 in DNA repair.
Project description:Nuclear actin family proteins, comprising of actin and actin-related proteins (Arps), are essential functional components of the multiple chromatin remodeling complexes. The INO80 chromatin remodeling complex, which is evolutionarily conserved and has roles in transcription, DNA replication and repair, consists of actin and actin-related proteins Arp4, Arp5, and Arp8. We generated Arp5 knockout (KO) and Arp8 KO cells from the human Nalm-6 pre-B cell line and used these KO cells to examine the roles of Arp5 and Arp8 in the transcriptional regulation mediated by the INO80 complex. In both of Arp5 KO and Arp8 KO cells, the oxidative stress-induced expression of HMOX1 gene, encoding for heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), was significantly impaired. Consistent with these observations, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay revealed that oxidative stress caused an increase in the binding of the INO80 complex to the regulatory sites of HMOX1 in wild-type cells. The binding of INO80 complex to chromatin was reduced in Arp8 KO cells compared to that in the wild-type cells. On the other hand, the binding of INO80 complex to chromatin in Arp5 KO cells was similar to that in the wild-type cells even under the oxidative stress condition. However, both remodeling of chromatin at the HMOX1 regulatory sites and binding of a transcriptional activator to these sites were impaired in Arp5 KO cells, indicating that Arp5 is required for the activation of the INO80 complex. Collectively, these results suggested that these nuclear Arps play indispensable roles in the function of the INO80 chromatin remodeling complex.
Project description:Nuclear actin-related proteins (Arps) are subunits of several chromatin remodelers, but their molecular functions within these complexes are unclear. We report the crystal structure of the INO80 complex subunit Arp8 in its ATP-bound form. Human Arp8 has several insertions in the conserved actin fold that explain its inability to polymerize. Most remarkably, one insertion wraps over the active site cleft and appears to rigidify the domain architecture, while active site features shared with actin suggest an allosterically controlled ATPase activity. Quantitative binding studies with nucleosomes and histone complexes reveal that Arp8 and the Arp8-Arp4-actin-HSA sub-complex of INO80 strongly prefer nucleosomes and H3-H4 tetramers over H2A-H2B dimers, suggesting that Arp8 functions as a nucleosome recognition module. In contrast, Arp4 prefers free (H3-H4)(2) over nucleosomes and may serve remodelers through binding to (dis)assembly intermediates in the remodeling reaction.
Project description:The function of nuclear actin is poorly understood. It is known to be a discrete component of several chromatin-modifying complexes. Nevertheless, filamentous forms of actin are important for various nuclear processes as well. Nuclear actin is often associated with nuclear actin-related protein Arp4 and other actin-related proteins like Arp8 in the INO80 chromatin remodeler. We recently determined the crystal structure of S. cerevisiae Arp4 that explains why Arp4 is unable to form actin like filaments and shows that it is constitutively bound to an ATP nucleotide. More interestingly, in vitro activities of Arp4 and Arp8 seem to be directed towards stabilizing monomeric actin and to integrate it stoichiometrically into the INO80 complex. Based on this activity, we discuss possible roles of nuclear Arps in chromatin modifying complexes and in regulating more general aspects of nuclear actin dynamics.
Project description:The presence and functions of nuclear actin have been controversial due to the lack of molecular mechanisms. Nuclear actin and actin-related proteins (Arps) are subunits of several chromatin remodelers, including the evolutionarily conserved INO80 chromatin-remodeling complex. Here, we present an improved cryo-EM structure of the yeast INO80 complex and the first 3D reconstruction of the INO80 actin/Arp module. The modular and subunit architecture is defined using a combination of subunit deletion analysis and published crosslinking-mass spectrometry. The functional interactions of the INO80 actin/Arp module with a nucleosome is 3D EM reconstructed in two different binding states. Nucleosomes initially bind to the Arp8 subunit and the substantial conformational changes maximize nucleosome contacts of the actin/Arp module, which could promote the bound nucleosome to be engaged onto the INO80 ATPase domain. Our findings suggest that the conserved nuclear actin/Arp module acts a conformational switch of the INO80 for nucleosome binding.
Project description:Drosophila Jumonji/Jarid2 (dJmj) has been identified as a component of Polycomb repressive complex 2. However, it is suggested that dJmj has both PRC-dependent and -independent roles. Subcellular localization of dJmj during spermatogenesis is unknown. We therefore performed immunocytochemical analyses with specific antibodies to dJmj and tri-methylation at lysine 27 on histone H3 (H3K27me3). Interestingly, dJmj exclusively localizes at nucleolus in the late growth stage. Examination of the dJmj localization in various Polycomb group (PcG) mutant lines at the late growth stage allowed identification of some PcG genes, including Polycomb (Pc), to be responsible for dJmj recruitment to nucleolus. In addition, we found that size of nucleolus was decreased in some of these mutant lines. In a mutant of testis-specific TAF homolog (tTAF) that is responsible for nucleolus localization of Pc, dJmj signals were detected not only at nucleolus but also on the condensed chromatin in the late growth stage. Duolink In situ Proximity ligation assay clarified that Pc interacts with dJmj at nucleolus in the late growth stage. Furthermore, the level of H3K27me3 decreased in nuclei at this stage. Taken together, we conclude that tTAF is responsible for recruitments of dJmj to nucleolus in the late growth stage that appears to be mediated by Pc. Compartmentalization of dJmj in nucleolus together with some of PcG may be necessary to de-repress the expression of genes required to cellular growth and proliferation in the following meiotic divisions.
Project description:Nuclear actin (N-actin) and actin-related proteins (Arps) are critical components of several chromatin modulating complexes, including the chromatin remodeler INO80, but their function is largely elusive. Here, we report the crystal structure of the 180 kDa Arp8-module of S. cerevisiae INO80 and establish its role as an extranucleosomal DNA binding element. The actin-fold of Arp8 engages N-actin in a novel “side-to-front” interaction and specifies thereby recruitment of the Arp4-N-actin heterodimer to the segmented, “two plug” scaffold of the helical HSA domain of Ino80. The HSA domain spans a distance over 120 Å and provides a binding platform for extranucleosomal DNA, which is required for nucleosome sliding and genome-wide nucleosome positioning. Together with the recent cryoEM structure of INO80Core-nucleosome complex, our results provide insights into the mechanism by which INO80 senses 40 bp extranucleosomal entry DNA to conduct highly processive chromatin remodelling. Overall design: There are 10 samples analyzed in total. Within those 10 samples we used Drosophila histones. Samples consist of the INO80 WT protein and three mutants. Those 10 samples also contain replicates. The salt gradient dialysis samples are used as control samples.