Quantitative proteomic analysis of ribosome assembly and turnover in vivo.
ABSTRACT: Although high-resolution structures of the ribosome have been solved in a series of functional states, relatively little is known about how the ribosome assembles, particularly in vivo. Here, a general method is presented for studying the dynamics of ribosome assembly and ribosomal assembly intermediates. Since significant quantities of assembly intermediates are not present under normal growth conditions, the antibiotic neomycin is used to perturb wild-type Escherichia coli. Treatment of E. coli with the antibiotic neomycin results in the accumulation of a continuum of assembly intermediates for both the 30S and 50S subunits. The protein composition and the protein stoichiometry of these intermediates were determined by quantitative mass spectrometry using purified unlabeled and (15)N-labeled wild-type ribosomes as external standards. The intermediates throughout the continuum are heterogeneous and are largely depleted of late-binding proteins. Pulse-labeling with (15)N-labeled medium time-stamps the ribosomal proteins based on their time of synthesis. The assembly intermediates contain both newly synthesized proteins and proteins that originated in previously synthesized intact subunits. This observation requires either a significant amount of ribosome degradation or the exchange or reuse of ribosomal proteins. These specific methods can be applied to any system where ribosomal assembly intermediates accumulate, including strains with deletions or mutations of assembly factors. This general approach can be applied to study the dynamics of assembly and turnover of other macromolecular complexes that can be isolated from cells.
Project description:The ribosome is an essential and highly complex biological system in all living cells. A large body of literature on the assembly of the ribosome in vitro is available, but a clear picture of this process inside the cell has yet to emerge. Here, we directly characterized in vivo ribosome assembly intermediates and associated assembly factors from wild-type Escherichia coli cells using a general quantitative mass spectrometry (qMS) approach. The presence of distinct populations of ribosome assembly intermediates was verified using an in vivo stable isotope pulse-labeling approach, and their exact ribosomal protein contents were characterized against an isotopically labeled standard. The model-free clustering analysis of the resultant protein levels for the different ribosomal particles produced four 30S assembly groups that correlate very well with previous in vitro assembly studies of the small ribosomal subunit and six 50S assembly groups that clearly define an in vivo assembly landscape for the larger ribosomal subunit. In addition, de novo proteomics identified a total of 21 known and potentially new ribosome assembly factors co-localized with various ribosomal particles. These results represent new in vivo assembly maps of the E. coli 30S and 50S subunits, and the general qMS approach should prove to be a solid platform for future studies of ribosome biogenesis across a host of model organisms.
Project description:Central to all life is the assembly of the ribosome: a coordinated process involving the hierarchical association of ribosomal proteins to the RNAs forming the small and large ribosomal subunits. The process is further complicated by effects arising from the intracellular heterogeneous environment and the location of ribosomal operons within the cell. We provide a simplified model of ribosome biogenesis in slow-growing Escherichia coli. Kinetic models of in vitro small-subunit reconstitution at the level of individual protein/ribosomal RNA interactions are developed for two temperature regimes. The model at low temperatures predicts the existence of a novel 5'?3'?central assembly pathway, which we investigate further using molecular dynamics. The high-temperature assembly network is incorporated into a model of in vivo ribosome biogenesis in slow-growing E. coli. The model, described in terms of reaction-diffusion master equations, contains 1336 reactions and 251 species that dynamically couple transcription and translation to ribosome assembly. We use the Lattice Microbes software package to simulate the stochastic production of mRNA, proteins, and ribosome intermediates over a full cell cycle of 120 min. The whole-cell model captures the correct growth rate of ribosomes, predicts the localization of early assembly intermediates to the nucleoid region, and reproduces the known assembly timescales for the small subunit with no modifications made to the embedded in vitro assembly network.
Project description:Ribosome biogenesis is an efficient and complex assembly process that has not been reconstructed outside a living cell so far, yet is the most critical step for establishing a self-replicating artificial cell. We recreated the biogenesis of Escherichia coli's small ribosomal subunit by synthesizing and capturing all its ribosomal proteins and RNA on a chip. Surface confinement provided favorable conditions for autonomous stepwise assembly of new subunits, spatially segregated from original intact ribosomes. Our real-time fluorescence measurements revealed hierarchal assembly, cooperative interactions, unstable intermediates, and specific binding to large ribosomal subunits. Using only synthetic genes, our methodology is a crucial step toward creation of a self-replicating artificial cell and a general strategy for the mechanistic investigation of diverse multicomponent macromolecular machines.
Project description:Assembly of eukaryotic ribosome is a complicated and dynamic process that involves a series of intermediates. It is unknown how the highly intertwined structure of 60S large ribosomal subunits is established. Here, we report the structure of an early nucleolar pre-60S ribosome determined by cryo-electron microscopy at 3.7 Å resolution, revealing a half-assembled subunit. Domains I, II and VI of 25S/5.8S rRNA pack tightly into a native-like substructure, but domains III, IV and V are not assembled. The structure contains 12 assembly factors and 19 ribosomal proteins, many of which are required for early processing of large subunit rRNA. The Brx1-Ebp2 complex would interfere with the assembly of domains IV and V. Rpf1, Mak16, Nsa1 and Rrp1 form a cluster that consolidates the joining of domains I and II. Our structure reveals a key intermediate on the path to establishing the global architecture of 60S subunits.
Project description:RNA helicases play various roles in ribosome biogenesis depending on the ribosome assembly pathway and stress state of the cell. However, it is unclear how most RNA helicases interact with ribosome assembly intermediates or participate in other cell processes to regulate ribosome assembly. SrmB is a DEAD-box helicase that acts early in the ribosome assembly process, although very little is known about its mechanism of action. Here, we use a combined quantitative mass spectrometry/cryo-electron microscopy approach to detail the protein inventory, rRNA modification state, and structures of 40S ribosomal intermediates that form upon SrmB deletion. We show that the binding site of SrmB is unperturbed by SrmB deletion, but the peptidyl transferase center, the uL7/12 stalk, and 30S contact sites all show severe assembly defects. Taking into account existing data on SrmB function and the experiments presented here, we propose several mechanisms by which SrmB could guide assembling particles from kinetic traps to competent subunits during the 50S ribosome assembly process.
Project description:Reconstitution of ribosomes in vitro from individual ribosomal proteins provides a powerful tool for understanding the ribosome assembly process including the sequential incorporation of ribosomal proteins. However, conventional assembly methods require high-salt conditions for efficient ribosome assembly. In this study, we reconstituted 30S ribosomal subunits from individually purified ribosomal proteins in the presence of ribosome biogenesis factors. In this system, two GTPases (Era and YjeQ) facilitated assembly of a 30S subunit exhibiting poly(U)-directed polyphenylalanine synthesis and native protein synthesis under physiological conditions. This in vitro system permits a study of the assembly process and function of ribosome biogenesis factors, and it will facilitate the generation of ribosomes from DNA without using cells.
Project description:The self-assembly of bacterial 30S ribosomes involves a large number of RNA folding and RNA-protein binding steps. The sequence of steps determines the overall assembly mechanism and the structure of the mechanism has ramifications for the robustness of biogenesis and resilience against kinetic traps. Thermodynamic interdependencies of protein binding inferred from omission-reconstitution experiments are thought to preclude certain assembly pathways and thus enforce ordered assembly, but this concept is at odds with kinetic data suggesting a more parallel assembly landscape. A major challenge is deconvolution of the statistical distribution of intermediates that are populated during assembly at high concentrations approaching in vivo assembly conditions. To specifically resolve the intermediates formed by binding of three ribosomal proteins to the full length 16S rRNA, we introduce Fluorescence Triple-Correlation Spectroscopy (F3CS). F3CS identifies specific ternary complexes by detecting coincident fluctuations in three-color fluorescence data. Triple correlation integrals quantify concentrations and diffusion kinetics of triply labeled species, and F3CS data can be fit alongside auto-correlation and cross-correlation data to quantify the populations of 10 specific ribosome assembly intermediates. The distribution of intermediates generated by binding three ribosomal proteins to the entire native 16S rRNA included significant populations of species that were not previously thought to be thermodynamically accessible, questioning the current interpretation of the classic omission-reconstitution experiments. F3CS is a general approach for analyzing assembly and function of macromolecular complexes, especially those too large for traditional biophysical methods.
Project description:GTPases have been demonstrated to be necessary for the proper assembly of the ribosome in bacteria and eukaryotes. Here, we show that the essential GTPases YphC and YsxC are required for large ribosomal subunit biogenesis in Bacillus subtilis. Sucrose density gradient centrifugation of large ribosomal subunits isolated from YphC-depleted cells and YsxC-depleted cells indicates that they are similar to the 45S intermediate previously identified in RbgA-depleted cells. The sedimentation of the large-subunit intermediate isolated from YphC-depleted cells was identical to the intermediate found in RbgA-depleted cells, while the intermediate isolated from YsxC-depleted cells sedimented slightly slower than 45S, suggesting that it is a novel intermediate. Analysis of the protein composition of the large-subunit intermediates isolated from either YphC-depleted cells or YsxC-depleted cells indicated that L16 and L36 are missing. Purified YphC and YsxC are able to interact with the ribosome in vitro, supporting a direct role for these two proteins in the assembly of the 50S subunit. Our results indicate that, as has been demonstrated for Saccharomyces cerevisiae ribosome biogenesis, bacterial 50S ribosome assembly requires the function of multiple essential GTPases.
Project description:Ribosome biogenesis is a tightly regulated, multi-stepped process. The assembly of ribosomal subunits is a central step of the complex biogenesis process, involving nearly 30 protein factors in vivo in bacteria. Although the assembly process has been extensively studied in vitro for over 40 years, very limited information is known for the in vivo process and specific roles of assembly factors. Such an example is ribosome maturation factor M (RimM), a factor involved in the late-stage assembly of the 30S subunit. Here, we combined quantitative mass spectrometry and cryo-electron microscopy to characterize the in vivo 30S assembly intermediates isolated from mutant Escherichia coli strains with genes for assembly factors deleted. Our compositional and structural data show that the assembly of the 3'-domain of the 30S subunit is severely delayed in these intermediates, featured with highly underrepresented 3'-domain proteins and large conformational difference compared with the mature 30S subunit. Further analysis indicates that RimM functions not only to promote the assembly of a few 3'-domain proteins but also to stabilize the rRNA tertiary structure. More importantly, this study reveals intriguing similarities and dissimilarities between the in vitro and the in vivo assembly pathways, suggesting that they are in general similar but with subtle differences.
Project description:The ribosome biogenesis GTPase A protein RbgA is involved in the assembly of the large ribosomal subunit in Bacillus subtilis, and homologs of RbgA are implicated in the biogenesis of mitochondrial, chloroplast, and cytoplasmic ribosomes in archaea and eukaryotes. The precise function of how RbgA contributes to ribosome assembly is not understood. Defects in RbgA give rise to a large ribosomal subunit that is immature and migrates at 45 S in sucrose density gradients. Here, we report a detailed biochemical analysis of RbgA and its interaction with the ribosome. We found that RbgA, like most other GTPases, exhibits a very slow k(cat) (14 h(-1)) and has a high K(m) (90 ?M). Homology modeling of the RbgA switch I region using the K-loop GTPase MnmE as a template suggested that RbgA requires K(+) ions for GTPase activity, which was confirmed experimentally. Interaction with 50 S subunits, but not 45 S intermediates, increased GTPase activity by ?55-fold. Stable association with 50 S subunits and 45 S intermediates was nucleotide-dependent, and GDP did not support strong interaction with either of the subunits. GTP and guanosine 5'-(?,?-imido)triphosphate (GMPPNP) were sufficient to promote association with the 45 S intermediate, whereas only GMPPNP was able to support binding to the 50 S subunit, presumably due to the stimulation of GTP hydrolysis. These results support a model in which RbgA promotes a late step in ribosome biogenesis and that one role of GTP hydrolysis is to stimulate dissociation of RbgA from the ribosome.