Intragenic deletions and a deep intronic mutation affecting pre-mRNA splicing in the dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase gene as novel mechanisms causing 5-fluorouracil toxicity.
ABSTRACT: Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) is the initial enzyme acting in the catabolism of the widely used antineoplastic agent 5-fluorouracil (5FU). DPD deficiency is known to cause a potentially lethal toxicity following administration of 5FU. Here, we report novel genetic mechanisms underlying DPD deficiency in patients presenting with grade III/IV 5FU-associated toxicity. In one patient a genomic DPYD deletion of exons 21-23 was observed. In five patients a deep intronic mutation c.1129-5923C>G was identified creating a cryptic splice donor site. As a consequence, a 44 bp fragment corresponding to nucleotides c.1129-5967 to c.1129-5924 of intron 10 was inserted in the mature DPD mRNA. The deleterious c.1129-5923C>G mutation proved to be in cis with three intronic polymorphisms (c.483 + 18G>A, c.959-51T>G, c.680 + 139G>A) and the synonymous mutation c.1236G>A of a previously identified haplotype. Retrospective analysis of 203 cancer patients showed that the c.1129-5923C>G mutation was significantly enriched in patients with severe 5FU-associated toxicity (9.1%) compared to patients without toxicity (2.2%). In addition, a high prevalence was observed for the c.1129-5923C>G mutation in the normal Dutch (2.6%) and German (3.3%) population. Our study demonstrates that a genomic deletion affecting DPYD and a deep intronic mutation affecting pre-mRNA splicing can cause severe 5FU-associated toxicity. We conclude that screening for DPD deficiency should include a search for genomic rearrangements and aberrant splicing.
Project description:Fluoropyrimidines, the mainstay agents for the treatment of colorectal cancer, alone or as a part of combination therapies, cause severe adverse reactions in about 10%-30% of patients. Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), a key enzyme in the catabolism of 5-fluorouracil, has been intensively investigated in relation to fluoropyrimidine toxicity, and several DPD gene (DPYD) polymorphisms are associated with decreased enzyme activity and increased risk of fluoropyrimidine-related toxicity. In patients carrying non-functional DPYD variants (c.1905+1G>A, c.1679T>G, c.2846A>T), fluoropyrimidines should be avoided or reduced according to the patients' homozygous or heterozygous status, respectively. For other common DPYD variants (c.496A>G, c.1129-5923C>G, c.1896T>C), conflicting data are reported and their use in clinical practice still needs to be validated. The high frequency of DPYD polymorphism and the lack of large prospective trials may explain differences in studies' results. The epigenetic regulation of DPD expression has been recently investigated to explain the variable activity of the enzyme. DPYD promoter methylation and its regulation by microRNAs may affect the toxicity risk of fluoropyrimidines. The studies we reviewed indicate that pharmacogenetic testing is promising to direct personalised dosing of fluoropyrimidines, although further investigations are needed to establish the role of DPD in severe toxicity in patients treated for colorectal cancer.
Project description:Severe (grade?3) adverse events (AEs) to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy regimens can result in treatment delays or cessation, and, in extreme cases, life-threatening complications. Current genetic biomarkers for 5-FU toxicity prediction, however, account for only a small proportion of toxic cases. In the current study, we assessed DPYD variants suggested to correlate with 5-FU toxicity, a deep intronic variant (c.1129-5923 C>G), and four variants within a haplotype (hapB3) in 1953 stage III colon cancer patients who received adjuvant FOLFOX±cetuximab. Logistic regression was used to assess multivariable associations between DPYD variant status and AEs common to 5-FU (5FU-AEs). In our study cohort, 1228 patients (62.9%) reported any grade?3 AE (overall AE), with 638 patients (32.7%) reporting any grade?3 5FU-AE. Only 32 of 78 (41.0%) patients carrying DPYD c.1129-5923 C>G and the completely linked hapB3 variants c.1236 C>G and c.959-51 T>C showed at least one grade?3 5FU-AE, resulting in no statistically significant association (adjusted odds ratio=1.47, 95% confidence interval=0.90-2.43, P=0.1267). No significant associations were identified between c.1129-5923 C>G/hapB3 and overall grade?3 AE rate. Our results suggest that c.1129-5923 C>G/hapB3 have limited predictive value for severe toxicity to 5-FU-based combination chemotherapy.
Project description:AIMS:Triplet chemotherapy with fluoropyrimidines, oxaliplatin and irinotecan is a standard therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DPYD and UGT1A1 influence fluoropyrimdines and irinotecan adverse events (AEs). Low frequency DPYD variants (c.1905 + 1G > A, c.1679 T > G, c.2846A > T) are validated but more frequent ones (c.496A > G, c.1129-5923C > G and c.1896 T > C) are not. rs895819 T > C polymorphism in hsa-mir-27a is associated with reduced DPD activity. In this study, we evaluated the clinical usefulness of a pharmacogenetic panel for patients receiving triplet combinations. METHODS:Germline DNA was available from 64 CRC patients enrolled between 2008 and 2013 in two phase II trials of capecitabine, oxaliplatin and irinotecan plus bevacizumab or cetuximab. SNPs were determined by Real-Time PCR. We evaluated the functional variants in DPYD (rare: c.1905 + 1G > A, c.1679 T > G, c.2846A > T; most common: c.496A > G, c.1129-5923C > G, c.1896 T > C), hsa-mir-27a (rs895819) and UGT1A1 (*28) genes to assess their association with grade 3-4 AEs. RESULTS:None of the patients carried rare DPYD variants. We found DPYD c.496A > G, c.1129-5923C > G, c.1896 T > C in heterozygosity in 19%, 5% and 8%, respectively, homozygous rs895819 in hsa-mir-27a in 9% and homozygous UGT1A1*28 in 8%. Grade 3-4 AEs were observed in 36% patients and were associated with DPYD c.496A > G (odds ratio (OR) 4.93, 95% CI 1.29, 18.87; P = 0.021) and homozygous rs895819 in hsa-mir-27a (OR 11.11, 95% CI 1.21, 102.09; P = 0.020). Carriers of DPYD c.1896 T > C and homozygous UGT1A1*28 showed an OR of 8.42 (95% CI 0.88, 80.56; P = 0.052). Multivariate analysis confirmed an independent value for DPYD c.496A > G and c.1896 T > C. CONCLUSIONS:Concomitant assessment of DPYD variants and the UGT1A1*28 allele is a promising strategy needing further validation for dose personalization.
Project description:Objective:Fluoropyrimidine treatment can be optimized based on dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) activity. DPD dysfunction leads to increased exposure to active metabolites, which can result in severe or even fatal toxicity. Methods:We provide an overview of 8 years of DPD diagnostic testing (n?=?1194). Results:Within the study period, our diagnostic test evolved from a single-enzyme measurement using first a radiochemical and then a nonradiochemical assay by ultra HPLC-MS in peripheral blood mononuclear cells with uracil, to a combined enzymatic and genetic test (ie, polymerase chain reaction) followed by Sanger sequence analysis of 4 variants of the DPYD gene (ie, DPYD*2A, DPYD*13, c.2846A>T, and 1129-5923C>G; allele frequencies 0.58%, 0.03%, 0.29%, and 1.35%, respectively). Patients who have 1 of the 4 variants tested (n?=?814) have lower enzyme activity than the overall patient group. The majority of patients with the DPYD*2A variant (83%) consistently showed decreased enzyme activity. Only 24 (25.3%) of 95 patients (tested for 4 variants) with low enzyme activity carried a variant. Complete DPYD sequencing in a subgroup with low enzyme activity and without DPYD*2A variant (n?=?47) revealed 10 genetic variants, of which 4 have not been described previously. We did not observe a strong link between DPYD genotype and enzyme activity. Conclusions:Previous studies have shown that DPD status should be determined before treatment with fluoropyrimidine agents to prevent unnecessary side effects with possible fatal consequences. Our study in combination with literature shows that there is a discrepancy between the DPD enzyme activity and the presence of clinically relevant single nucleotide polymorphisms. At this moment, a combination of a genetic and enzyme test is preferable for diagnostic testing. (Curr Ther Res Clin Exp. 2018; 79:XXX-XXX).
Project description:We investigated the predictive value of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) phenotype, measured as pretreatment serum uracil and dihydrouracil concentrations, for severe as well as fatal fluoropyrimidine-associated toxicity in 550 patients treated previously with fluoropyrimidines during a prospective multicenter study.Pretreatment serum concentrations of uracil and dihydrouracil were measured using a validated LC-MS/MS method. The primary endpoint of this analysis was global (any) severe fluoropyrimidine-associated toxicity, that is, grade ?3 toxicity according to the NCI CTC-AE v3.0, occurring during the first cycle of treatment. The predictive value of uracil and the uracil/dihydrouracil ratio for early severe fluoropyrimidine-associated toxicity were compared. Pharmacogenetic variants in DPYD (c.2846A>T, c.1679T>G, c.1129-5923C>G, and c.1601G>A) and TYMS (TYMS 5'-UTR VNTR and TYMS 3'-UTR 6-bp ins/del) were measured and tested for associations with severe fluoropyrimidine-associated toxicity to compare predictive value with DPD phenotype. The Benjamini-Hochberg false discovery rate method was used to control for type I errors at level q<0.050 (corresponding to P<0.010).Uracil was superior to the dihydrouracil/uracil ratio as a predictor of severe toxicity. High pretreatment uracil concentrations (>16?ng?ml-1) were strongly associated with global severe toxicity (OR 5.3, P=0.009), severe gastrointestinal toxicity (OR 33.7, P<0.0001), toxicity-related hospitalisation (OR 16.9, P<0.0001), as well as fatal treatment-related toxicity (OR 44.8, P=0.001). None of the DPYD variants alone, or TYMS variants alone, were associated with severe toxicity.High pretreatment uracil concentration was strongly predictive of severe, including fatal, fluoropyrimidine-associated toxicity, and is a highly promising phenotypic marker to identify patients at risk of severe fluoropyrimidine-associated toxicity.
Project description:Deficiency in dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) enzyme is the main cause of severe and lethal fluoropyrimidine-related toxicity. Various approaches have been developed for DPD-deficiency screening, including DPYD genotyping and phenotyping. The goal of this prospective observational study was to perform exhaustive exome DPYD sequencing and to examine relationships between DPYD variants and toxicity in advanced breast cancer patients receiving capecitabine.Two-hundred forty-three patients were analysed (88.5% capecitabine monotherapy). Grade 3 and grade 4 capecitabine-related digestive and/or neurologic and/or hemato-toxicities were observed in 10.3% and 2.1% of patients, respectively. DPYD exome, along with flanking intronic regions 3'UTR and 5'UTR, were sequenced on MiSeq Illumina. DPD phenotype was assessed by pre-treatment plasma uracil (U) and dihydrouracil (UH2) measurement.Among the 48 SNPs identified, 19 were located in coding regions, including 3 novel variations, each observed in a single patient (among which, F100L and A26T, both pathogenic in silico). Combined analysis of deleterious variants *2A, I560S (*13) and D949V showed significant association with grade 3-4 toxicity (sensitivity 16.7%, positive predictive value (PPV) 71.4%, relative risk (RR) 6.7, p<0.001) but not with grade 4 toxicity. Considering additional deleterious coding variants D342G, S492L, R592W and F100L increased the sensitivity to 26.7% for grade 3-4 toxicity (PPV 72.7%, RR 7.6, p<0.001), and was significantly associated with grade 4 toxicity (sensitivity 60%, PPV 27.3%, RR 31.4, p = 0.001), suggesting the clinical relevance of extended targeted DPYD genotyping. As compared to extended genotype, combining genotyping (7 variants) and phenotyping (U>16 ng/ml) did not substantially increase the sensitivity, while impairing PPV and RR.Exploring an extended set of deleterious DPYD variants improves the performance of DPYD genotyping for predicting both grade 3-4 and grade 4 toxicities (digestive and/or neurologic and/or hematotoxicities) related to capecitabine, as compared to conventional genotyping restricted to consensual variants *2A, *13 and D949V.
Project description:Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD; DPYD gene) variants have emerged as reliable predictors of adverse toxicity to the chemotherapy agent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The intronic DPYD variant rs75017182 has been recently suggested to promote alternative splicing of DPYD. However, both the extent of alternative splicing and the true contribution of rs75017182 to DPD function remain unclear. In the present study we quantified alternative splicing and DPD enzyme activity in rs75017182 carriers utilizing healthy volunteer specimens from the Mayo Clinic Biobank. Although the alternatively spliced transcript was uniquely detected in rs75017182 carriers, canonically spliced DPYD levels were only reduced by 30% (P = 2.8 × 10-6 ) relative to controls. Similarly, DPD enzyme function was reduced by 35% (P = 0.025). Carriers of the well-studied toxicity-associated variant rs67376798 displayed similar reductions in DPD activity (31% reduction). The modest effects on splicing and function suggest that rs75017182 may have clinical utility as a predictor of 5-FU toxicity similar to rs67376798.
Project description:5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and its pro-drug capecitabine are widely used anticancer agents. Most 5-FU catabolism is dependent on dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) encoded by the <i>DPYD</i> gene, and <i>DPYD</i> variants that reduce DPD function increase 5-FU toxicity. Most DPD deficient patients are heterozygous and can be treated with reduced 5-FU dosing. We describe a patient with a genotype associated with near complete absence of DPD function, and severe and likely fatal toxicity with 5-FU treatment. The patient was treated effectively with alternative systemic therapy. Routine pretreatment <i>DPYD</i> genotyping is recommended by the European Medicines Agency, and guidelines for use of 5-FU in DPD deficient patients are available. However, outside the province of Quebec, routine pretreatment screening for DPD deficiency remains unavailable in Canada. It is likely our patient would have died from 5-FU toxicity under the current standard of care, but instead provides an example of the potential benefit of <i>DPYD</i> screening on patient outcomes.
Project description:Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of the pyrimidine degradation pathway and can lead to intellectual disability, motor retardation, and seizures. Genetic variations in DPYD have also emerged as predictive risk factors for severe toxicity in cancer patients treated with fluoropyrimidines. We recently observed a child born to non-consanguineous parents, who demonstrated seizures, cognitive impairment, language delay, and MRI abnormalities and was found to have marked thymine-uraciluria. No residual DPD activity could be detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Molecular analysis showed that the child was homozygous for the very rare c.257C > T (p.Pro86Leu) variant in DPYD. Functional analysis of the recombinantly expressed DPD mutant showed that the DPD mutant carrying the p.Pro86Leu did not possess any residual DPD activity. Carrier testing in parents revealed that the father was heterozygous for the variant but unexpectedly the mother did not carry the variant. Microsatellite repeat testing with markers covering chromosome 1 showed that the DPD deficiency in the child is due to paternal uniparental isodisomy. Our report thus extends the genetic spectrum underlying DPYD deficiency.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Deleterious polymorphisms in the gene encoding DPD (DPYD) may result in severe reduction of DPD enzymatic activity that causes life-threatening toxicities when the standard dose of fluorouracil is used. The best panel of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) of DPYD is not well defined. METHODS:In 2011, we began screening DPYD*2A in patients candidate for fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy. We planned a case-control study with all cases of DPYD*2A wild type who developed toxicity ?G3 and with a cohort of patients who did not present severe toxicities. Then, we tested the additional SNPs: c.2846A>T, c.1679T>G, c.2194G>A. RESULTS:From 2011 to 2016, we screened 1827 patients for DPD deficiency; of those, 31 subjects (1.7%) showed DPYD*2A SNP. We selected 146 subjects who developed severe toxicities (Cases) and 220 patients who experienced no or mild toxicities (Controls); 53 patients carried one of the additional SNPs: 35 subjects (66%) fell into the Cases and 18 (34%) into the Controls (p?<?0.0001). c.2194G>A was the most frequent SNP (12.5%) and showed a correlation with neutropenia. We confirmed that c.2846A>T and c.1679T>G were related to various toxicities. CONCLUSIONS:The additional DPYD polymorphisms could enhance the prevention of fluoropyrimidine toxicity. c.2194G>A is the most frequent polymorphism and it was found to be associated with neutropenia.