Ku prevents Exo1 and Sgs1-dependent resection of DNA ends in the absence of a functional MRX complex or Sae2.
ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigate the interplay between Ku, a central non-homologous end-joining component, and the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 (MRX) complex and Sae2, end-processing factors crucial for initiating 5'-3' resection of double-strand break (DSB) ends. We show that in the absence of end protection by Ku, the requirement for the MRX complex is bypassed and resection is executed by Exo1. In contrast, both the Exo1 and Sgs1 resection pathways contribute to DSB processing in the absence of Ku and Sae2 or when the MRX complex is intact, but functionally compromised by elimination of the Mre11 nuclease activity. The ionizing radiation sensitivity of a mutant defective for extensive resection (exo1? sgs1?) cannot be suppressed by the yku70? mutation, indicating that Ku suppression is specific to the initiation of resection. We provide evidence that replication-associated DSBs need to be processed by Sae2 for repair by homologous recombination unless Ku is absent. Finally, we show that the presence of Ku exacerbates DNA end-processing defects established in the sae2? sgs1? mutant, leading to its lethality.
Project description:Single-stranded DNA constitutes an important early intermediate for homologous recombination and damage-induced cell cycle checkpoint activation. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, efficient double-strand break (DSB) end resection requires several enzymes; Mre11/Rad50/Xrs2 (MRX) and Sae2 are implicated in the onset of 5'-strand resection, whereas Sgs1/Top3/Rmi1 with Dna2 and Exo1 are involved in extensive resection. However, the molecular events leading to a switch from the MRX/Sae2-dependent initiation to the Exo1- and Dna2-dependent resection remain unclear. Here, we show that MRX recruits Dna2 nuclease to DSB ends. MRX also stimulates recruitment of Exo1 and antagonizes excess binding of the Ku complex to DSB ends. Using resection assay with purified enzymes in vitro, we found that Ku and MRX regulate the nuclease activity of Exo1 in an opposite way. Efficient loading of Dna2 and Exo1 requires neither Sae2 nor Mre11 nuclease activities. However, Mre11 nuclease activity is essential for resection in the absence of extensive resection enzymes. The results provide new insights into how MRX catalyses end resection and recombination initiation.
Project description:The multifunctional Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) protein complex recruits ATM/Tel1 checkpoint kinase and CtIP/Ctp1 homologous recombination (HR) repair factor to double-strand breaks (DSBs). HR repair commences with the 5'-to-3' resection of DNA ends, generating 3' single-strand DNA (ssDNA) overhangs that bind Replication Protein A (RPA) complex, followed by Rad51 recombinase. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 (MRX) complex is critical for DSB resection, although the enigmatic ssDNA endonuclease activity of Mre11 and the DNA-end processing factor Sae2 (CtIP/Ctp1 ortholog) are largely unnecessary unless the resection activities of Exo1 and Sgs1-Dna2 are also eliminated. Mre11 nuclease activity and Ctp1/CtIP are essential for DSB repair in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and mammals. To investigate DNA end resection in Schizo. pombe, we adapted an assay that directly measures ssDNA formation at a defined DSB. We found that Mre11 and Ctp1 are essential for the efficient initiation of resection, consistent with their equally crucial roles in DSB repair. Exo1 is largely responsible for extended resection up to 3.1 kb from a DSB, with an activity dependent on Rqh1 (Sgs1) DNA helicase having a minor role. Despite its critical function in DSB repair, Mre11 nuclease activity is not required for resection in fission yeast. However, Mre11 nuclease and Ctp1 are required to disassociate the MRN complex and the Ku70-Ku80 nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) complex from DSBs, which is required for efficient RPA localization. Eliminating Ku makes Mre11 nuclease activity dispensable for MRN disassociation and RPA localization, while improving repair of a one-ended DSB formed by replication fork collapse. From these data we propose that release of the MRN complex and Ku from DNA ends by Mre11 nuclease activity and Ctp1 is a critical step required to expose ssDNA for RPA localization and ensuing HR repair.
Project description:The Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 nuclease complex, together with Sae2, initiates the 5'-to-3' resection of Double-Strand DNA Breaks (DSBs). Extended 3' single stranded DNA filaments can be exposed from a DSB through the redundant activities of the Exo1 nuclease and the Dna2 nuclease with the Sgs1 helicase. In the absence of Sae2, Mre11 binding to a DSB is prolonged, the two DNA ends cannot be kept tethered, and the DSB is not efficiently repaired. Here we show that deletion of the yeast 53BP1-ortholog RAD9 reduces Mre11 binding to a DSB, leading to Rad52 recruitment and efficient DSB end-tethering, through an Sgs1-dependent mechanism. As a consequence, deletion of RAD9 restores DSB repair either in absence of Sae2 or in presence of a nuclease defective MRX complex. We propose that, in cells lacking Sae2, Rad9/53BP1 contributes to keep Mre11 bound to a persistent DSB, protecting it from extensive DNA end resection, which may lead to potentially deleterious DNA deletions and genome rearrangements.
Project description:Homologous recombination is triggered by nucleolytic degradation (resection) of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). DSB resection requires the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 (MRX) complex, which promotes the activity of Exo1 nuclease through a poorly understood mechanism. Here, we describe the Mre11-R10T mutant variant that accelerates DSB resection compared to wild-type Mre11 by potentiating Exo1-mediated processing. This increased Exo1 resection activity leads to a decreased association of the Ku complex to DSBs and an enhanced DSB resection in G1, indicating that Exo1 has a direct function in preventing Ku association with DSBs. Molecular dynamics simulations show that rotation of the Mre11 capping domains is able to induce unwinding of double-strand DNA (dsDNA). The R10T substitution causes altered orientation of the Mre11 capping domain that leads to persistent melting of the dsDNA end. We propose that MRX creates a specific DNA end structure that promotes Exo1 resection activity by facilitating the persistence of this nuclease on the DSB ends, uncovering a novel MRX function in DSB resection.
Project description:While regulating the choice between homologous recombination and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) as mechanisms of double-strand break (DSB) repair is exerted at several steps, the key step is DNA end resection, which in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is controlled by the MRX complex and the Sgs1 DNA helicase or the Sae2 and Exo1 nucleases. To assay the role of DNA resection in sister-chromatid recombination (SCR) as the major repair mechanism of spontaneous DSBs, we used a circular minichromosome system for the repair of replication-born DSBs by SCR in yeast. We provide evidence that MRX, particularly its Mre11 nuclease activity, and Sae2 are required for SCR-mediated repair of DSBs. The phenotype of nuclease-deficient MRX mutants is suppressed by ablation of Yku70 or overexpression of Exo1, suggesting a competition between NHEJ and resection factors for DNA ends arising during replication. In addition, we observe partially redundant roles for Sgs1 and Exo1 in SCR, with a more prominent role for Sgs1. Using human U2OS cells, we also show that the competitive nature of these reactions is likely evolutionarily conserved. These results further our understanding of the role of DNA resection in repair of replication-born DSBs revealing unanticipated differences between these events and repair of enzymatically induced DSBs.
Project description:The ends of both double-strand breaks (DSBs) and telomeres undergo tightly regulated 5' to 3' resection. Resection of DNA ends, which is specifically inhibited during the G1 cell cycle phase, requires the MRX complex, Sae2, Sgs1 and Exo1. Moreover, it is negatively regulated by the non-homologous end-joining component Yku and the telomeric protein Rif2. Here, we investigate the nuclease activities that are inhibited at DNA ends by Rif2 and Yku in G1 versus G2 by using an inducible short telomere assay. We show that, in the absence of the protective function of Rif2, resection in G1 depends primarily on MRX nuclease activity and Sae2, whereas Exo1 and Sgs1 bypass the requirement of MRX nuclease activity only if Yku is absent. In contrast, Yku-mediated inhibition is relieved in G2, where resection depends on Mre11 nuclease activity, Exo1 and, to a minor extent, Sgs1. Furthermore, Exo1 compensates for a defective MRX nuclease activity more efficiently in the absence than in the presence of Rif2, suggesting that Rif2 inhibits not only MRX but also Exo1. Notably, the presence of MRX, but not its nuclease activity, is required and sufficient to override Yku-mediated inhibition of Exo1 in G2, whereas it is required but not sufficient in G1. Finally, the integrity of MRX is also necessary to promote Exo1- and Sgs1-dependent resection, possibly by facilitating Exo1 and Sgs1 recruitment to DNA ends. Thus, resection of DNA ends that are protected by Yku and Rif2 involves multiple functions of the MRX complex that do not necessarily require its nuclease activity.
Project description:Homologous recombination requires nucleolytic degradation (resection) of DNA double-strand break (DSB) ends. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the MRX complex and Sae2 are involved in the onset of DSB resection, whereas extensive resection requires Exo1 and the concerted action of Dna2 and Sgs1. Here, we show that the checkpoint protein Rad9 limits the action of Sgs1/Dna2 in DSB resection by inhibiting Sgs1 binding/persistence at the DSB ends. When inhibition by Rad9 is abolished by the Sgs1-ss mutant variant or by deletion of RAD9, the requirement for Sae2 and functional MRX in DSB resection is reduced. These results provide new insights into how early and long-range resection is coordinated.
Project description:The repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by homologous recombination is essential for genomic stability. The first step in this process is resection of 5' strands to generate 3' single-stranded DNA intermediates. Efficient resection in budding yeast requires the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 (MRX) complex and the Sae2 protein, although the role of MRX has been unclear because Mre11 paradoxically has 3'?5' exonuclease activity in vitro. Here we reconstitute resection with purified MRX, Sae2 and Exo1 proteins and show that degradation of the 5' strand is catalyzed by Exo1 yet completely dependent on MRX and Sae2 when Exo1 levels are limiting. This stimulation is mainly caused by cooperative binding of DNA substrates by Exo1, MRX and Sae2. This work establishes the direct role of MRX and Sae2 in promoting the resection of 5' strands in DNA DSB repair.
Project description:Sae2 cooperates with the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 (MRX) complex to initiate resection of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and to maintain the DSB ends in close proximity to allow their repair. How these diverse MRX-Sae2 functions contribute to DNA damage resistance is not known. Here, we describe mre11 alleles that suppress the hypersensitivity of sae2? cells to genotoxic agents. By assessing the impact of these mutations at the cellular and structural levels, we found that all the mre11 alleles that restore sae2? resistance to both camptothecin and phleomycin affect the Mre11 N-terminus and suppress the resection defect of sae2? cells by lowering MRX and Tel1 association to DSBs. As a consequence, the diminished Tel1 persistence potentiates Sgs1-Dna2 resection activity by decreasing Rad9 association to DSBs. By contrast, the mre11 mutations restoring sae2? resistance only to phleomycin are located in Mre11 C-terminus and bypass Sae2 function in end-tethering but not in DSB resection, possibly by destabilizing the Mre11-Rad50 open conformation. These findings unmask the existence of structurally distinct Mre11 domains that support resistance to genotoxic agents by mediating different processes.
Project description:Sae2 functions in the DNA damage response by controlling Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 (MRX)-catalyzed end resection, an essential step for homology-dependent repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs), and by attenuating DNA damage checkpoint signaling. Phosphorylation of Sae2 by cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK1/Cdc28) activates the Mre11 endonuclease, while the physiological role of Sae2 phosphorylation by Mec1 and Tel1 checkpoint kinases is not fully understood. Here, we compare the phenotype of sae2 mutants lacking the main CDK (sae2-S267A) or Mec1 and Tel1 phosphorylation sites (sae2-5A) with sae2? and Mre11 nuclease defective (mre11-nd) mutants. The phosphorylation-site mutations confer DNA damage sensitivity, but not to the same extent as sae2?. The sae2-S267A mutation is epistatic to mre11-nd for camptothecin (CPT) sensitivity and synergizes with sgs1?, whereas sae2-5A synergizes with mre11-nd and exhibits epistasis with sgs1?. We find that attenuation of checkpoint signaling by Sae2 is mostly independent of Mre11 endonuclease activation but requires Mec1 and Tel1-dependent phosphorylation of Sae2. These results support a model whereby CDK-catalyzed phosphorylation of Sae2 activates resection via Mre11 endonuclease, whereas Sae2 phosphorylation by Mec1 and Tel1 promotes resection by the Dna2-Sgs1 and Exo1 pathways indirectly by dampening the DNA damage response.