Identification and modeling of a drug target for Clostridium perfringens SM101.
ABSTRACT: In the present study, comparative genome analysis between Clostridium perfringens and the human genome was carried out to identify genes that are essential for the pathogen's survival, and non-homologous to the genes of human host, that can be used as potential drug targets. The study resulted in the identification of 426 such genes. The number of these potential drug targets thus identified is significantly lower than the genome's protein coding capacity (2558 protein coding genes). The 426 genes of C. perfringens were further analyzed for overall similarities with the essential genes of 14 different bacterial species present in Database of Essential Genes (DEG). Our results show that there are only 5 essential genes of C. perfringens that exhibit similarity with 12 species of the 14 different bacterial species present in DEG database. Of these, 1 gene was similar in 12 species and 4 genes were similar in 11 species. Thus, the study opens a new avenue for the development of potential drugs against the highly pathogenic bacterium. Further, by selecting these essential genes of C. perfringens, which are common and essential for other pathogenic microbial species, a broad spectrum anti-microbial drug can be developed. As a case study, we have built a homology model of one of the potential drug targets, ABC transporter-ATP binding protein, which can be employed for in silico docking studies by suitable inhibitors.
Project description:The class 1 carcinogen, Helicobacter pylori, is one of the World Health Organization's high priority pathogens for antimicrobial development. We used three subtractive proteomics approaches using protein pools retrieved from: chokepoint reactions in the BIOCYC database, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, and the database of essential genes (DEG), to find putative drug targets and their inhibition by drug repurposing. The subtractive channels included non-homology to human proteome, essentiality analysis, sub-cellular localization prediction, conservation, lack of similarity to gut flora, druggability, and broad-spectrum activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of three selected ligands was determined to confirm anti-helicobacter activity. Seventeen protein targets were retrieved. They are involved in motility, cell wall biosynthesis, processing of environmental and genetic information, and synthesis and metabolism of secondary metabolites, amino acids, vitamins, and cofactors. The DEG protein pool approach was superior, as it retrieved all drug targets identified by the other two approaches. Binding ligands (n = 42) were mostly small non-antibiotic compounds. Citric, dipicolinic, and pyrophosphoric acid inhibited H. pylori at an MIC of 1.5-2.5 mg/mL. In conclusion, we identified potential drug targets in H. pylori, and repurposed their binding ligands as possible anti-helicobacter agents, saving time and effort required for the development of new antimicrobial compounds.
Project description:Potential drug targets of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv were identified through systematically integrated comparative genome and network centrality analysis. The comparative analysis of the complete genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv against Database of Essential Genes (DEG) yields a list of proteins which are essential for the growth and survival of the pathogen. Those proteins which are nonhomologous with human were selected. The resulting proteins were then prioritized by using the four network centrality measures: degree, closeness, betweenness, and eigenvector. Proteins whose centrality value is close to the centre of gravity of the interactome network were proposed as a final list of potential drug targets for the pathogen. The use of an integrated approach is believed to increase the success of the drug target identification process. For the purpose of validation, selective comparisons have been made among the proposed targets and previously identified drug targets by various other methods. About half of these proteins have been already reported as potential drug targets. We believe that the identified proteins will be an important input to experimental study which in the way could save considerable amount of time and cost of drug target discovery.
Project description:Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium that resides in the respiratory tract of pigs and causes porcine respiratory disease complex, which leads to significant losses in the pig industry worldwide. The incidence of drug resistance in this bacterium is increasing; thus, identifying new protein/gene targets for drug and vaccine development is critical. In this study, we used an in silico approach, utilizing several databases including the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), the Database of Essential Genes (DEG), DrugBank, and Swiss-Prot to identify non-homologous essential genes and prioritize these proteins for their druggability. The results showed 20 metabolic pathways that were unique and contained 273 non-homologous proteins, of which 122 were essential. Of the 122 essential proteins, there were 95 cytoplasmic proteins and 11 transmembrane proteins, which are potentially suitable for drug and vaccine targets, respectively. Among these, 25 had at least one hit in DrugBank, and three had similarity to metabolic proteins from Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, another pathogen causing porcine respiratory disease complex; thus, they could serve as common therapeutic targets. In conclusion, we identified glyoxylate and dicarboxylate pathways as potential targets for antimicrobial therapy and tetra-acyldisaccharide 4'-kinase and 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic-acid transferase as vaccine candidates against A. pleuropneumoniae.
Project description:The emergence of multidrug-resistant strain of community-acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) strain has highlighted the urgent need for the alternative and effective therapeutic approach to combat the menace of this nosocomial pathogen. In the present work novel potential therapeutic drug targets have been identified through the metabolic pathways analysis. All the gene products involved in different metabolic pathways of CA-MRSA in KEGG database were searched against the proteome of Homo sapiens using the BLASTp program and the threshold of E-value was set to as 0.001. After database searching, 152 putative targets were identified. Among all 152 putative targets, 39 genes encoding for putative targets were identified as the essential genes from the DEG database which are indispensable for the survival of CA-MRSA. After extensive literature review, 7 targets were identified as potential therapeutic drug target. These targets are Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, Phosphoglyceromutase, Purine nucleoside phosphorylase, Uridylate kinase, Tryptophan synthase subunit beta, Acetate kinase and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 1-carboxyvinyltransferase. Except Uridylate kinase all the identified targets were involved in more than one metabolic pathways of CA-MRSA which underlines the importance of drug targets. These potential therapeutic drug targets can be exploited for the discovery of novel inhibitors for CA-MRSA using the structure based drug design (SBDD) strategy.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:We aimed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEG) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS:RNA-seq data were obtained from the Array Express database. DEG were identified using the edgeR package. A co-expression network was constructed and key modules with the highest correlation with IBD inflammatory sites were identified for analysis. The Cytoscape MCODE plugin was used to identify key sub-modules of the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. The genes in the sub-modules were considered hub genes, and functional enrichment analysis was performed. Furthermore, we constructed a drug-gene interaction network. Finally, we visualized the hub gene expression pattern between the colon and ileum of IBD using the ggpubr package and analyzed it using the Wilcoxon test. RESULTS:DEG were identified between the colon and ileum of IBD patients. Based on the co-expression network, the green module had the highest correlation with IBD inflammatory sites. In total, 379 DEG in the green module were identified for the PPI network. Nineteen hub genes were differentially expressed between the colon and ileum. The drug-gene network identified these hub genes as potential drug targets. CONCLUSION:Nineteen DEG were identified between the colon and ileum of IBD patients.
Project description:UNLABELLED:Toxoplasma gondii ME49 is an obligatory intracellular apicomplexa parasite that causes toxoplasmosis in humans, domesticated and wild animals. Waterborne outbreaks of acute toxoplasmosis worldwide reinforce the transmission of Toxoplasma gondii ME49 to humans through contaminated water and may have a greater epidemiological impact than previously believed. In the quest for drug and vaccine target identification subtractive genomics involving subtraction between the host and pathogen genome has been implemented for enlisting essential pathogen specific proteins. Using this approach, our analysis on both human and Toxoplasma gondii ME49 reveals that out of 7987 protein coding sequences of the pathogen, 950 represent essential non human-homologous proteins. Subcellular localization prediction & comparative-biochemical pathway analysis of these essential proteins gives a list of apicoplast-associated proteins having unique pathogen-specific metabolic pathway. These apicoplast-associated enzymes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis pathway of Toxoplasma gondii ME49, may be used as potential drug targets, as the pathway is vital for the protozoan's survival. Structure prediction of drug target proteins was done using fold based recognition method. Screening of the functional inhibitors against these novel targets may result in discovery of novel therapeutic compounds that can be effective against Toxoplasma gondii ME49. ABBREVIATIONS:DEG - Database of Essential Gene, KEGG - Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes, KAAS - KEGG Automated Annotation Server, PFP - Protein Function Prediction, COG - Cluster of Orthologous Genes.
Project description:Clostridium perfringens is an anaerobic pathogen known to cause vast number of diseases in mammals and birds. Various toxins and hydrolysing enzymes released by the organism are responsible for the necrosis of soft tissues. Due to serious safety issues associated with current vaccines against C. perfringens, there is a need for new drug or vaccine targets. C. perfringens is extremely dependent on its host for nutrition which can be targeted for vaccine development or drug design. Therefore, it is of interest to identify the unique transport systems used by C. perfringens involved in uptake of essential amino acids that are synthesized by the host, so that therapeutic agents can be designed to target the specific transport systems. Use of bioinformatics tools resulted in the identification of a protein component of the glutamate transport system that is not present in the host. Analysis of the conservation profile of the protein domain indicated it to be a glutamate binding protein which also stimulates the ATPase activity of ATP Binding Cassettes (ABC) transporters. Homology modelling of the protein showed two distinct lobes, which is a characteristic of substrate binding proteins. This suggests that the carboxylates of glutamate might be stabilized by electrostatic interactions with basic residues as is observed with other binding proteins. Hence, the homology model of this potential drug target can be employed for in silico docking studies by suitable inhibitors.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Wolbachia (wBm) is an obligate endosymbiotic bacterium of Brugia malayi, a parasitic filarial nematode of humans and one of the causative agents of lymphatic filariasis. There is a pressing need for new drugs against filarial parasites, such as B. malayi. As wBm is required for B. malayi development and fertility, targeting wBm is a promising approach. However, the lifecycle of neither B. malayi nor wBm can be maintained in vitro. To facilitate selection of potential drug targets we computationally ranked the wBm genome based on confidence that a particular gene is essential for the survival of the bacterium. RESULTS: wBm protein sequences were aligned using BLAST to the Database of Essential Genes (DEG) version 5.2, a collection of 5,260 experimentally identified essential genes in 15 bacterial strains. A confidence score, the Multiple Hit Score (MHS), was developed to predict each wBm gene's essentiality based on the top alignments to essential genes in each bacterial strain. This method was validated using a jackknife methodology to test the ability to recover known essential genes in a control genome. A second estimation of essentiality, the Gene Conservation Score (GCS), was calculated on the basis of phyletic conservation of genes across Wolbachia's parent order Rickettsiales. Clusters of orthologous genes were predicted within the 27 currently available complete genomes. Druggability of wBm proteins was predicted by alignment to a database of protein targets of known compounds. CONCLUSION: Ranking wBm genes by either MHS or GCS predicts and prioritizes potentially essential genes. Comparison of the MHS to GCS produces quadrants representing four types of predictions: those with high confidence of essentiality by both methods (245 genes), those highly conserved across Rickettsiales (299 genes), those similar to distant essential genes (8 genes), and those with low confidence of essentiality (253 genes). These data facilitate selection of wBm genes for entry into drug design pipelines.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Clostridium perfringens is a Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium causing severe diseases such as gas gangrene and pseudomembranosus colitis, that are generally due to the secretion of powerful extracellular toxins. The expression of toxin genes is mainly regulated by VirR, the response regulator of a two-component system. Up to now few targets only are known for this regulator and mainly in one strain (Strain 13). Due to the high genomic and phenotypic variability in toxin production by different strains, the development of effective strategies to counteract C. perfringens infections requires methodologies to reconstruct the VirR regulon from genome sequences. RESULTS: We implemented a two step computational strategy allowing to consider available information concerning VirR binding sites in a few species to scan all genomes of the same species, assuming the VirR targets are at least partially conserved across these strains. Results obtained are in agreement with previous works where experimental validation of the promoters have been performed and showed the presence of a core and an accessory regulon of VirR in C. perfringens strains with three target genes also located on plasmids. Moreover, the type E strain JGS1987 has the largest predicted regulon with as many as 10 VirR targets not found in the other genomes. CONCLUSIONS: In this work we exploited available experimental information concerning the targets of the VirR toxin regulator in one C. perfringens strain to obtain plausible predictions concerning target genes in genomes and plasmids of nearby strains. Our predictions are available for wet-lab researchers working on less characterized C. perfringens strains that can thus design focused experiments reducing the search space of their experiments and increasing the probability of characterizing positive targets with less efforts. Main result was that the VirR regulon is variable in different C. perfringens strains with 4 genes controlled in all but one strains and most genes controlled in one or two strains only.
Project description:Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the causative agent of the disease, tuberculosis and H37Rv is the most studied clinical strain. We use comparative genome analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and human for the identification of potential targets dataset. We used DEG (Database of Essential Genes) to identify essential genes in the H37Rv strain. The analysis shows that 628 of the 3989 genes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv were found to be essential of which 324 genes lack similarity to the human genome. Subsequently hypothetical proteins were removed through manual curation. This further resulted in a dataset of 135 proteins with essential function and no homology to human.