Group X secretory phospholipase A2 negatively regulates ABCA1 and ABCG1 expression and cholesterol efflux in macrophages.
ABSTRACT: GX sPLA(2) potently hydrolyzes plasma membranes to generate lysophospholipids and free fatty acids; it has been implicated in inflammatory diseases, including atherosclerosis. To identify a novel role for group X (GX) secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)) in modulating ATP binding casette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and ATP binding casette transporter G1 (ABCG1) expression and, therefore, macrophage cholesterol efflux.The overexpression or exogenous addition of GX sPLA(2) significantly reduced ABCA1 and ABCG1 expression in J774 macrophage-like cells, whereas GX sPLA(2) deficiency in mouse peritoneal macrophages was associated with enhanced expression. Altered ABC transporter expression led to reduced cholesterol efflux in GX sPLA(2)-overexpressing J774 cells and increased efflux in GX sPLA(2)-deficient mouse peritoneal macrophages. Gene regulation was dependent on GX sPLA(2) catalytic activity, mimicked by arachidonic acid and abrogated when liver X receptor (LXR)?/? expression was suppressed, and partially reversed by the LXR agonist T0901317. Reporter assays indicated that GX sPLA(2) suppresses the ability of LXR to transactivate its promoters through a mechanism involving the C-terminal portion of LXR spanning the ligand-binding domain.GX sPLA(2) modulates gene expression in macrophages by generating lipolytic products that suppress LXR activation. GX sPLA(2) may play a previously unrecognized role in atherosclerotic lipid accumulation by negatively regulating the genes critical for cellular cholesterol efflux.
Project description:Secretory phospholipase A(2)s (sPLA(2)) hydrolyze glycerophospholipids to liberate lysophospholipids and free fatty acids. Although group X (GX) sPLA(2) is recognized as the most potent mammalian sPLA(2) in vitro, its precise physiological function(s) remains unclear. We recently reported that GX sPLA(2) suppresses activation of the liver X receptor in macrophages, resulting in reduced expression of liver X receptor-responsive genes including ATP-binding cassette transporters A1 (ABCA1) and G1 (ABCG1), and a consequent decrease in cellular cholesterol efflux and increase in cellular cholesterol content (Shridas et al. 2010. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 30: 2014-2021). In this study, we provide evidence that GX sPLA(2) modulates macrophage inflammatory responses by altering cellular cholesterol homeostasis. Transgenic expression or exogenous addition of GX sPLA(2) resulted in a significantly higher induction of TNF-?, IL-6, and cyclooxygenase-2 in J774 macrophage-like cells in response to LPS. This effect required GX sPLA(2) catalytic activity, and was abolished in macrophages that lack either TLR4 or MyD88. The hypersensitivity to LPS in cells overexpressing GX sPLA(2) was reversed when cellular free cholesterol was normalized using cyclodextrin. Consistent with results from gain-of-function studies, peritoneal macrophages from GX sPLA(2)-deficient mice exhibited a significantly dampened response to LPS. Plasma concentrations of inflammatory cytokines were significantly lower in GX sPLA(2)-deficient mice compared with wild-type mice after LPS administration. Thus, GX sPLA(2) amplifies signaling through TLR4 by a mechanism that is dependent on its catalytic activity. Our data indicate this effect is mediated through alterations in plasma membrane free cholesterol and lipid raft content.
Project description:To determine the effects and potential mechanisms of ibrolipim on ATP-binding membrane cassette transporter A-1 (ABCA1) and ATP-binding membrane cassette transporter G-1 (ABCG1) expression from human macrophage foam cells, which may play a critical role in atherogenesis.Human THP-1 cells pre-incubated with ox-LDL served as foam cell models. Specific mRNA was quantified using real-time RT-PCR and protein expression using Western blotting. Cellular cholesterol handling was studied using cholesterol efflux experiments and high performance liquid chromatography assays.Ibrolipim 5 and 50 ?mol/L significantly increased cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells to apoA-I or HDL. Moreover, it upregulated the expression of ABCA1 and ABCG1. In addition, LXR? was also upregulated by the ibrolipim treatment. In addition, LXR? small interfering RNA completely abolished the promotion effect that was induced by ibrolipim.Ibrolipim increased ABCA1 and ABCG1 expression and promoted cholesterol efflux, which was mediated by the LXR? signaling pathway.
Project description:Foam cell formation because of excessive accumulation of cholesterol by macrophages is a pathological hallmark of atherosclerosis, the major cause of morbidity and mortality in Western societies. Liver X nuclear receptors (LXRs) regulate the expression of the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, including adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1). ABCA1 and ABCG1 facilitate the efflux of cholesterol from macrophages and regulate high-density lipoprotein (HDL) biogenesis. Increasing evidence supports the role of microRNA (miRNAs) in regulating cholesterol metabolism through ABC transporters.We aimed to identify novel miRNAs that regulate cholesterol metabolism in macrophages stimulated with LXR agonists.To map the miRNA expression signature of macrophages stimulated with LXR agonists, we performed an miRNA profiling microarray analysis in primary mouse peritoneal macrophages stimulated with LXR ligands. We report that LXR ligands increase miR-144 expression in macrophages and mouse livers. Overexpression of miR-144 reduces ABCA1 expression and attenuates cholesterol efflux to apolipoproteinA1 in macrophages. Delivery of miR-144 oligonucleotides to mice attenuates ABCA1 expression in the liver, reducing HDL levels. Conversely, silencing of miR-144 in mice increases the expression of ABCA1 and plasma HDL levels. Thus, miR-144 seems to regulate both macrophage cholesterol efflux and HDL biogenesis in the liver.miR-144 regulates cholesterol metabolism via suppressing ABCA1 expression and modulation of miRNAs may represent a potential therapeutical intervention for treating dyslipidemia and atherosclerotic vascular disease.
Project description:HDL cholesterol levels are decreased in Crohn's disease, a tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-driven chronic inflammatory condition involving the gastrointestinal tract. ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), one of several liver X receptor (LXR) target genes, is a cell surface transporter that mediates the rate-controlling step in HDL synthesis. The regulation of ABCA1 and HDL cholesterol efflux by TNF-alpha was investigated in the human intestinal cell line Caco-2. In response to cholesterol micelles or T0901317, an LXR nonsterol agonist, TNF-alpha decreased the basolateral efflux of cholesterol to apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1). TNF-alpha, by attenuating ABCA1 promoter activity, markedly decreased ABCA1 gene expression without attenuating the expression of LXR-alpha, LXR-beta, and most other LXR target genes, such as ABCG1, FAS, ABCG8, scavenger receptor-B1 (SR-B1), and apoC1. TNF-alpha also decreased ABCA1 mass by markedly enhancing the rate of ABCA1 degradation and modestly inhibiting its rate of synthesis. Inhibitors of the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) pathway, which is activated by TNF-alpha, partially reverse the effect of TNF-alpha on ABCA1 protein expression. The results suggest that TNF-alpha, the major cytokine implicated in the inflammation of Crohn's disease, decreases HDL cholesterol levels by attenuating the expression of intestinal ABCA1 and cholesterol efflux to apoA1.
Project description:Liver X receptor (LXR) activators decrease atherosclerosis in mice. LXR activators (1) directly upregulate genes involved in reverse cholesterol transport and (2) exert anti-inflammatory effects mediated by transrepression of nuclear factor-?B target genes. We investigated whether myeloid cell deficiency of ATP-binding cassette transporters A1 and G1 (ABCA1/G1), principal targets of LXR that promote macrophage cholesterol efflux and initiate reverse cholesterol transport, would abolish the beneficial effects of LXR activation on atherosclerosis.LXR activator T0901317 substantially reduced inflammatory gene expression in macrophages lacking ABCA1/G1. Ldlr(-/-) mice were transplanted with Abca1(-/-)Abcg1(-/-) or wild-type bone marrow (BM) and fed a Western-type diet for 6 weeks with or without T0901317 supplementation. Abca1/g1 BM deficiency increased atherosclerotic lesion complexity and inflammatory cell infiltration into the adventitia and myocardium. T0901317 markedly decreased lesion area, complexity, and inflammatory cell infiltration in the Abca1(-/-)Abcg1(-/-) BM-transplanted mice. To investigate whether this was because of macrophage Abca1/g1 deficiency, Ldlr(-/-) mice were transplanted with LysmCreAbca1(fl/fl)Abcg1(fl/fl) or Abca1(fl/fl)Abcg1(fl/fl) BM and fed Western-type diet with or without the more specific LXR agonist GW3965 for 12 weeks. GW3965 decreased lesion size in both groups, and the decrease was more prominent in the LysmCreAbca1(fl/fl)Abcg1(fl/fl) group.The results suggest that anti-inflammatory effects of LXR activators are of key importance to their antiatherosclerotic effects in vivo independent of cholesterol efflux pathways mediated by macrophage ABCA1/G1. This has implications for the development of LXR activators that lack adverse effects on lipogenic genes while maintaining the ability to transrepress inflammatory genes.
Project description:High cholesterol and diabetes are major risk factors for atherosclerosis. Regression of atherosclerosis is mediated in part by the Liver X Receptor (LXR) through the induction of genes involved in cholesterol transport and efflux. In the context of diabetes, regression of atherosclerosis is impaired. We proposed that changes in glucose levels modulate LXR-dependent gene expression. Using a mouse macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) and primary bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) cultured in normal or diabetes relevant high glucose conditions we found that high glucose inhibits the LXR-dependent expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), but not ABCG1. To probe for this mechanism, we surveyed the expression of a host of chromatin-modifying enzymes and found that Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 2 (PRMT2) was reduced in high compared to normal glucose conditions. Importantly, ABCA1 expression and ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux were reduced in Prmt2-/- compared to wild type BMDMs. Monocytes from diabetic mice also showed decreased expression of Prmt2 compared to non-diabetic counterparts. Thus, PRMT2 represents a glucose-sensitive factor that plays a role in LXR-mediated ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux and lends insight to the presence of increased atherosclerosis in diabetic patients.
Project description:Activation of pregnane X receptor (PXR) elevates circulating 4?-hydroxycholesterol (4?HC), an agonist of liver X receptor (LXR). PXR may also regulate 25-hydroxycholesterol and 27-hydroxycholesterol. Our aim was to elucidate the roles of PXR and oxysterols in the regulation of cholesterol transporters. We measured oxysterols in serum of volunteers dosed with PXR agonist rifampicin 600 mg/day versus placebo for a week and analyzed the expression of cholesterol transporters in mononuclear cells. The effect of 4?HC on the transport of cholesterol and the expression of cholesterol transporters was studied in human primary monocyte-derived macrophages and foam cells in vitro. The expression of cholesterol transporters was measured also in rat tissues after dosing with a PXR agonist. The levels of 4?HC were elevated, while 25-hydroxycholesterol and 27-hydroxycholesterol remained unchanged in volunteers dosed with rifampicin. The expression of ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) was induced in human mononuclear cells in vivo. The influx of cholesterol was repressed by 4?HC, as was the expression of influx transporter lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 in vitro. The cholesterol efflux and the expression of efflux transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1 were induced. The expression of inducible degrader of the LDL receptor was induced. In rats, PXR agonist increased circulating 4?HC and expression of LXR targets in peripheral tissues, especially ABCA1 and ABCG1 in heart. In conclusion, PXR activation-elevated 4?HC is a signaling molecule that represses cholesterol influx and induces efflux. The PXR-4?HC-LXR pathway could link the hepatic xenobiotic exposure and the regulation of cholesterol transport in peripheral tissues.
Project description:To study the mechanisms of hepatic HDL formation, we investigated the roles of ABCA1, ABCG1, and SR-BI in nascent HDL formation in primary hepatocytes isolated from mice deficient in ABCA1, ABCG1, or SR-BI and from wild-type (WT) mice. Under basal conditions, in WT hepatocytes, cholesterol efflux to exogenous apoA-I was accompanied by conversion of apoA-I to HDL-sized particles. LXR activation by T0901317 markedly enhanced the formation of larger HDL-sized particles as well as cellular cholesterol efflux to apoA-I. Glyburide treatment completely abolished the formation of 7.4 nm diameter and greater particles but led to the formation of novel 7.2 nm-sized particles. However, cells lacking ABCA1 failed to form such particles. ABCG1-deficient cells showed similar capacity to efflux cholesterol to apoA-I and to form nascent HDL particles compared with WT cells. Cholesterol efflux to apoA-I and nascent HDL formation were slightly but significantly enhanced in SR-BI-deficient cells compared with WT cells under basal but not LXR activated conditions. As in WT but not in ABCA1-deficient hepatocytes, 7.2 nm-sized particles generated by glyburide treatment were also detected in ABCG1-deficient and SR-BI-deficient hepatocytes. Our data indicate that hepatic nascent HDL formation is highly dependent on ABCA1 but not on ABCG1 or SR-BI.
Project description:The sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 (SREBP-2) and the liver X receptor (LXR) control antagonistic transcriptional programs that stimulate cellular cholesterol uptake and synthesis, and cholesterol efflux, respectively. The clinical importance of SREBP-2 is revealed in patients with hypercholesterolemia treated with statins, which reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels by increasing hepatic expression of SREBP-2 and its target, the LDL receptor. Here we show that miR-33 is encoded within SREBP-2 and that both mRNAs are coexpressed. We also identify sequences in the 3' UTR of ABCA1 and ABCG1, sterol transporter genes both previously shown to be regulated by LXR, as targets for miR-33-mediated silencing. Our data show that LXR-dependent cholesterol efflux to both ApoAI and serum is ameliorated by miR-33 overexpression and, conversely, stimulated by miR-33 silencing. Finally, we show that ABCA1 mRNA and protein and plasma HDL levels decline after hepatic overexpression of miR-33, whereas they increase after hepatic miR-33 silencing. These results suggest novel ways to manage hypercholesterolemic patients.
Project description:The goal of this study was to examine the effects of thyroid hormone status on the ability of serum to accept cellular cholesterol.Sera from hypophysectomized rats treated ± T(3) was used to evaluate the role of thyroid hormone on serum efflux capacity. 2D-DIGE analysis of serum proteins showed that T(3) treated rats had increased ApoA-I, ApoA-IV and fetuin A levels with decreased Apo E levels. Microarray and real-time RT-PCR analysis of rat liver revealed large increases in ApoA-I, ApoA-IV, ABCG5, and ABCG8 in response to T(3). J774 macrophages, BHK cells, and Fu5AH rat hepatoma cells were used to measure cholesterol efflux mediated by ABCA1, ABCG1 transporters or SR-BI. Sera from T(3)-treated rats stimulated efflux via ABCA1 but not by ABCG1 or SR-BI. Gel filtration chromatography revealed that T(3) treatment caused a decrease in HDL particle size accompanied by higher levels of lipid-poor ApoA-I.Thyroid hormone enhances the ability of serum to accept cellular cholesterol via the ABCA1 transporter. This effect is most likely attributable to increases in small HDL and lipid poor ApoA-I in response to T(3).