ABSTRACT: The title compound, C(16)H(20)N(2)O(2), was synthesized from (S)-tryptophan methyl ester hydro-chloride and butyraldehyde. The absolute configuration 9S,10S was assigned on the basis of the unchanging chirality of the C9 centre. The NH group of the indole ring is involved in inter-molecular N-H?O hydrogen bonding, while the NH group of the six-membered ring is not. This latter ring has a half-chair conformation.
Project description:We characterize the allylic epoxyalcohols and their trihydroxy hydrolysis products generated from 9R- and 9S-hydroperoxy-octadecenoic acid (HPODE) under non-enzymatic conditions, reaction with hematin and subsequent acid hydrolysis, and enzymatic conditions, incubation with Beta vulgaris containing a hydroperoxide isomerase and epoxide hydrolase. The products were resolved by HPLC and the regio and stereo-chemistry of the transformations were determined through a combination of (1)H NMR and GC-MS analysis of dimethoxypropane derivatives. Four trihydroxy isomers were identified upon mild acid hydrolysis of 9S,10S-trans-epoxy-11E-13S-hydroxyoctadecenoate: 9S,10R,13S, 9S,12R,13S, 9S,10S,13S and 9S,12S,13S-trihydroxy-octadecenoic acids, in the ratio 40:26:22:12. We also identified a prominent ?-ketol rearrangement product from the hydrolysis as mainly the 9-hydroxy-10E-13-oxo isomer. Short incubation (5 min) of 9R- and 9S-HPODE with B. vulgaris extract yielded the 9R- and 9S-hydroxy-10E-12R,13S-cis-epoxy products respectively. Longer incubation (60 min) gave one specific hydrolysis product via epoxide hydrolase, the 9R/S,12S,13S-trihydroxyoctadecenoate. These studies provide a practical approach for the isolation and characterization of allylic epoxy alcohol and trihydroxy products using a combination of HPLC, GC-MS and (1)H NMR.
Project description:(9S,13S,14S)-3-Meth-oxy-17-methyl-morphinan (dextromethorphan) forms two isostructural salts with (a) tetra-chlorido-cobaltate, namely bis-[(9S,13S,14S)-3-meth-oxy-17-methyl-morphinanium] tetra-chlorido-cobaltate, (C18H26NO)2[CoCl4], and (b) tetra-chlorido-cuprate, namely bis-[(9S,13S,14S)-3-meth-oxy-17-methyl-morphinanium] tetra-chlorido-cuprate, (C18H26NO)2[CuCl4]. The distorted tetra-hedral anions are located on twofold rotational axes. The dextromethorphan cation can be described as being composed of two ring systems, a tetra-hydro-naphthalene system A+B and a deca-hydro-isoquinolinium subunit C+D, that are nearly perpendicular to one another: the angle between mean planes of the A+B and C+D moieties is 78.8?(1)° for (a) and 79.0?(1)° for (b). Two symmetry-related cations of protonated dextromethorphan are connected to the tetra-chlorido-cobaltate (or tetra-chlorido-cuprate) anions via strong N-H?Cl hydrogen bonds, forming neutral ion associates. These associates are packed in the (001) plane with no strong attractive bonding between them. Both compounds are attractive crystalline forms for unambiguous identification of the dextromethorphan and, presumably, of its optical isomer, levomethorphan.
Project description:The mycelium of the rice stem pathogen, Magnaporthe salvinii, secreted linoleate 9S-lipoxygenase (9S-LOX) and epoxy alcohol synthase (EAS). The EAS rapidly transformed 9S-hydroperoxy-octadeca-10E,12Z-dienoic acid (9S-HPODE) to threo 10 (11)-epoxy-9S-hydroxy-12Z-octadecenoic acid, but other hydroperoxy FAs were poor substrates. 9S-LOX was expressed in Pichia pastoris. Recombinant 9S-LOX oxidized 18:2n-6 directly to 9S-HPODE, the end product, and also to two intermediates, 11S-hydroperoxy-9Z,12Z-octadecenoic acid (11S-HPODE; ?5%) and 13R-hydroperoxy-9Z,11E-octadecadienoic acid (13R-HPODE; ?1%). 11S- and 13R-HPODE were isomerized to 9S-HPODE, probably after oxidation to peroxyl radicals, ?-fragmentation, and oxygen insertion at C-9. The 18:3n-3 was oxidized at C-9, C-11, and C-13, and to 9,16-dihydroxy-10E,12,14E-octadecatrienoic acid. 9S-LOX contained catalytic manganese (Mn:protein ?0.2:1; Mn/Fe, 1:0.05), and its sequence could be aligned with 77% identity to 13R-LOX with catalytic manganese lipoxygenase (13R-MnLOX) of the Take-all fungus. The Leu350Met mutant of 9S-LOX shifted oxidation of 18:2n-6 from C-9 to C-13, and the Phe347Leu, Phe347Val, and Phe347Ala mutants of 13R-MnLOX from C-13 to C-9. In conclusion, M. salvinii secretes 9S-LOX with catalytic manganese along with a specific EAS. Alterations in the Sloane determinant of 9S-LOX and 13R-MnLOX with larger and smaller hydrophobic residues interconverted the regiospecific oxidation of 18:2n-6, presumably by altering the substrate position in relation to oxygen insertion.
Project description:In the course of exploring the scope of catalase-related hemoprotein reactivity toward fatty acid hydroperoxides, we detected a novel candidate in the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme PCC 73102. The immediate neighboring upstream gene, annotated as "cyclooxygenase-2," appeared to be a potential fatty acid heme dioxygenase. We cloned both genes and expressed the cDNAs in Escherichia coli, confirming their hemoprotein character. Oxygen electrode recordings demonstrated a rapid (>100 turnovers/s) reaction of the heme dioxygenase with oleic and linoleic acids. HPLC, including chiral column analysis, UV, and GC-MS of the oxygenated products, identified a novel 10S-dioxygenase activity. The catalase-related hemoprotein reacted rapidly and specifically with linoleate 10S-hydroperoxide (>2,500 turnovers/s) with a hydroperoxide lyase activity specific for the 10S-hydroperoxy enantiomer. The products were identified by NMR as (8E)10-oxo-decenoic acid and the C8 fragments, 1-octen-3-ol and 2Z-octen-1-ol, in ∼3:1 ratio. Chiral HPLC analysis established strict enzymatic control in formation of the 3R alcohol configuration (99% enantiomeric excess) and contrasted with racemic 1-octen-3-ol formed in reaction of linoleate 10S-hydroperoxide with hematin or ferrous ions. The Nostoc linoleate 10S-dioxygenase, the sequence of which contains the signature catalytic sequence of cyclooxygenases and fungal linoleate dioxygenases (YRWH), appears to be a heme dioxygenase ancestor. The novel activity of the lyase expands the known reactions of catalase-related proteins and functions in Nostoc in specific transformation of the 10S-hydroperoxylinoleate.
Project description:A pair of stereoisomers possessing novel structures with 6/6/5 fused-ring systems, neo-debromoaplysiatoxin E (1) and neo-debromoaplysiatoxin F (2), were isolated from the marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya sp. Their structures were elucidated using various spectroscopic techniques including high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (HRESIMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The absolute stereochemistry was determined by calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) and gauge-independent atomic orbital (GIAO) NMR shift calculation followed by DP4+ analysis. Significantly, this is the first report on aplysiatoxin derivatives with different absolute configurations at C9-C12 (1: 9S, 10R, 11S, 12S; 2: 9R, 10S, 11R, 12R). Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited potent blocking activities against Kv1.5 with IC50 values of 1.22 ± 0.22 ?M and 2.85 ± 0.29 ?M, respectively.
Project description:The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C16H24Cl2O2, contains two independent mol-ecules (A and B) which are built from three fused rings, viz. a seven-membered heptane ring, a six-membered cyclo-hexyl ring bearing a ketone and an alcohol group, and a cyclo-propane ring bearing two Cl atoms. In the crystal, the two mol-ecules are linked via two O-H?O hydrogen bonds, forming an A-B dimer with an R 2 (2)(10) ring motif. The A mol-ecules of these dimers are linked via a C-H?O hydrogen bond, forming chains propagating along the a-axis direction. Both mol-ecules have the same absolute configuration, i.e. 1S,3R,8R,10S, which is based on the synthetic pathway and further confirmed by resonant scattering [Flack parameter = 0.03?(5)].
Project description:The major C(18) cutin monomers are 18-hydroxy-9,10-epoxystearic and 9,10,18-trihydroxystearic acids. These compounds are also known messengers in plant-pathogen interactions. We have previously shown that their common precursor 9,10-epoxystearic acid was formed by the epoxidation of oleic acid in Vicia sativa microsomes (Pinot, Salaün, Bosch, Lesot, Mioskowski and Durst (1992) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 184, 183-193). Here we determine the chirality of the epoxide produced as (9R,10S) and (9S,10R) in the ratio 90:10 respectively. We further show that microsomes from yeast expressing the cytochrome P450 CYP94A1 are capable of hydroxylating the methyl terminus of 9,10-epoxystearic and 9,10-dihydroxystearic acids in the presence of NADPH to form the corresponding 18-hydroxy derivatives. The reactions were not catalysed by microsomes from yeast transformed with a void plasmid or in absence of NADPH. After incubation of a synthetic racemic mixture of 9,10-epoxystearic acid with microsomes of yeast expressing CYP94A1, the chirality of the residual epoxide was shifted to 66:34 in favour of the (9S,10R) enantiomer. Both enantiomers were incubated separately and V(max)/K(m) values of 16 and 3.42 ml/min per nmol of P450 for (9R, 10S) and (9S,10R) respectively were determined, demonstrating that CYP94A1 is enantioselective for the (9R,10S) enantiomer, which is preferentially formed in V. sativa microsomes. Compared with the epoxide, the diol 9,10-dihydroxystearic acid was a much poorer substrate for the omega-hydroxylase, with a measured V(max)/K(m) of 0.33 ml/min per nmol of P450. Our results indicate that the activity of CYP94A1 is strongly influenced by the stereochemistry of the 9, 10-epoxide and the nature of substituents on carbons 9 and 10, with V(max)/K(m) values for epoxide>>oleic acid>diol.
Project description:The title compound, C30H42N2O7 [systematic name: (1S,4S,5S,7S,8S,9S,10S,11S,13R,14S,16S,17R)-20-ethyl-4,8,9-trihy-droxy-1,14,16-tri-meth-oxy-aconitan-4-yl 2-amino-benzoate], isolated from roots of Aconitum sinomontanum Nakai, is a typical aconitane-type C19-diterpenoid alkaloid, which crystallizes with two independent mol-ecules in the asymmetric unit. The conformations of the two independent mol-ecules are closely similar. Each mol-ecule comprises four six-membered rings (A, B, D and E) including one six-membered N-containing heterocyclic ring (E), and two five-membered rings (C and F). Rings A, B and E adopt chair conformations, while ring D displays a boat conformation. Five-membered rings C and F exhibit envelope conformations. IntramolecularN-H?O hydrogen bonds between the amino group and carbonyl O atom help to stabilize molecular structure. In the crystal, O-H?O hydrogen bonds link the mol-ecules into zigzag chains propagating in .
Project description:The title compound, C(18)H(14)Cl(10), is a decachlorinated commercial flame retardant. The structure determination confirms the relative stereochemistry. The central eight-membered ring is in a chair-type conformation. In the crystal structure, there are no significant inter-molecular inter-actions and mol-ecules are separated by normal van der Waals distances.
Project description:The 10S self-inhibited monomeric conformation of myosin II has been characterized extensively in vitro. Based upon its structural and functional characteristics, it has been proposed to be an assembly-competent myosin pool in equilibrium with filaments in cells. It is known that myosin filaments can assemble and disassemble in nonmuscle cells, and in some smooth muscle cells, but whether or not the disassembled pool contains functional 10S myosin has not been determined. Here we address this question using human airway smooth muscle cells (hASMCs). Using two antibodies against different epitopes on smooth muscle myosin II (SMM), two distinct pools of SMM, diffuse, and stress-fiber-associated, were visualized by immunocytochemical staining. The two SMM pools were functional in that they could be interconverted in two ways: (i) by exposure to 10S- versus filament-promoting buffer conditions, and (ii) by exposure to a peptide that shifts the filament-10S equilibrium toward filaments in vitro by a known mechanism that requires the presence of the 10S conformation. The effect of the peptide was not due to a trivial increase in SMM phosphorylation, and its specificity was demonstrated by use of a scrambled peptide, which had no effect. Based upon these data, we conclude that hASMCs contain a significant pool of functional SMM in the 10S conformation that can assemble into filaments upon changing cellular conditions. This study provides unique direct evidence for the presence of a significant pool of functional myosin in the 10S conformation in cells.