Nucleoplasmin binds histone H2A-H2B dimers through its distal face.
ABSTRACT: Nucleoplasmin (NP) is a pentameric chaperone that regulates the condensation state of chromatin extracting specific basic proteins from sperm chromatin and depositing H2A-H2B histone dimers. It has been proposed that histones could bind to either the lateral or distal face of the pentameric structure. Here, we combine different biochemical and biophysical techniques to show that natural, hyperphosphorylated NP can bind five H2A-H2B dimers and that the amount of bound ligand depends on the overall charge (phosphorylation level) of the chaperone. Three-dimensional reconstruction of NP/H2A-H2B complex carried out by electron microscopy reveals that histones interact with the chaperone distal face. Limited proteolysis and mass spectrometry indicate that the interaction results in protection of the histone fold and most of the H2A and H2B C-terminal tails. This structural information can help to understand the function of NP as a histone chaperone.
Project description:Nucleoplasmin (NP) is an abundant histone chaperone in vertebrate oocytes and embryos involved in storing and releasing maternal histones to establish and maintain the zygotic epigenome. NP has been considered a H2A-H2B histone chaperone, and recently it has been shown that it can also interact with H3-H4. However, its interaction with different types of histones has not been quantitatively studied so far. We show here that NP binds H2A-H2B, H3-H4 and linker histones with Kd values in the subnanomolar range, forming different complexes. Post-translational modifications of NP regulate exposure of the polyGlu tract at the disordered distal face of the protein and induce an increase in chaperone affinity for all histones. The relative affinity of NP for H2A-H2B and linker histones and the fact that they interact with the distal face of the chaperone could explain their competition for chaperone binding, a relevant process in NP-mediated sperm chromatin remodelling during fertilization. Our data show that NP binds H3-H4 tetramers in a nucleosomal conformation and dimers, transferring them to DNA to form disomes and tetrasomes. This finding might be relevant to elucidate the role of NP in chromatin disassembly and assembly during replication and transcription.
Project description:The role of Nucleoplasmin (NP) as a H2A-H2B histone chaperone has been extensively characterized. To understand its putative interaction with other histone ligands, we have characterized its ability to bind H3-H4 and histone octamers. We find that the chaperone forms distinct complexes with histones, which differ in the number of molecules that build the assembly and in their spatial distribution. When complexed with H3-H4 tetramers or histone octamers, two NP pentamers form an ellipsoidal particle with the histones located at the center of the assembly, in stark contrast with the NP/H2A-H2B complex that contains up to five histone dimers bound to one chaperone pentamer. This particular assembly relies on the ability of H3-H4 to form tetramers either in solution or as part of the octamer, and it is not observed when a variant of H3 (H3C110E), unable to form stable tetramers, is used instead of the wild-type protein. Our data also suggest that the distal face of the chaperone is involved in the interaction with distinct types of histones, as supported by electron microscopy analysis of the different NP/histone complexes. The use of the same structural region to accommodate all type of histones could favor histone exchange and nucleosome dynamics.
Project description:Human Npm2 is an ortholog of Xenopus nucleoplasmin (Np), a chaperone that binds histones. We have determined the crystal structure of a truncated Npm2-core at 1.9 Å resolution and show that the N-terminal domains of Npm2 and Np form similar pentamers. This allowed us to model an Npm2 decamer which may be formed by hydrogen bonds between quasi-conserved residues in the interface between two pentamers. Interestingly, the Npm2 pentamer lacks a prototypical A1-acidic tract in each of its subunits. This feature may be responsible for the inability of Npm2-core to bind histones. However, Npm2 with a large acidic tract in its C-terminal tail (Npm2-A2) is able to bind histones and form large complexes. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiments and biochemical analysis of loop mutations support the premise that nucleoplasmins form decamers when they bind H2A-H2B dimers and H3-H4 tetramers simultaneously. In the absence of histone tetramers, these chaperones bind H2A-H2B dimers with a single pentamer forming the central hub. When taken together, our data provide insights into the mechanism of histone binding by nucleoplasmins.
Project description:Nucleoplasmin (Npm) is a highly conserved histone chaperone responsible for the maternal storage and zygotic release of histones H2A/H2B. Npm contains a pentameric N-terminal core domain and an intrinsically disordered C-terminal tail domain. Though intrinsically disordered regions are common among histone chaperones, their roles in histone binding and chaperoning remain unclear. Using an NMR-based approach, here we demonstrate that the Xenopus laevis Npm tail domain controls the binding of histones at its largest acidic stretch (A2) via direct competition with both the C-terminal basic stretch and basic nuclear localization signal. NMR and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) structural analyses allowed us to construct models of both the tail domain and the pentameric complex. Functional analyses demonstrate that these competitive intramolecular interactions negatively regulate Npm histone chaperone activity in vitro. Together these data establish a potentially generalizable mechanism of histone chaperone regulation via dynamic and specific intramolecular shielding of histone interaction sites.
Project description:Mouse nucleoplasmin M.NPM2 was recombinantly expressed and the protein consisting of the complete sequence was purified and characterized. Similar to its Xenopus laevis X.NPM2 counterpart, the protein forms stable pentameric complexes and exhibits an almost undistinguishable hydrodynamic ionic strength-dependent unfolding behavior. The interaction of N.PM2 with histones and mouse P1/P2 protamines revealed that these chromosomal proteins bind preferentially to the distal part of the nucleoplasmin pentamer. Moreover, the present work highlights the critical role played by histones H2B and H4 in the association of the histone H2A-H2B dimers and histone octamer with nucleoplasmin.
Project description:FKBP53 is one of the seven multi-domain FK506-binding proteins present in Arabidopsis thaliana, and it is known to get targeted to the nucleus. It has a conserved PPIase domain at the C-terminus and a highly charged N-terminal stretch, which has been reported to bind to histone H3 and perform the function of a histone chaperone. To better understand the molecular details of this PPIase with histone chaperoning activity, we have solved the crystal structures of its terminal domains and functionally characterized them. The C-terminal domain showed strong PPIase activity, no role in histone chaperoning and revealed a monomeric five-beta palm-like fold that wrapped over a helix, typical of an FK506-binding domain. The N-terminal domain had a pentameric nucleoplasmin-fold; making this the first report of a plant nucleoplasmin structure. Further characterization revealed the N-terminal nucleoplasmin domain to interact with H2A/H2B and H3/H4 histone oligomers, individually, as well as simultaneously, suggesting two different binding sites for H2A/H2B and H3/H4. The pentameric domain assists nucleosome assembly and forms a discrete complex with pre-formed nucleosomes; wherein two pentamers bind to a nucleosome.
Project description:The properties of the nucleosomes of a salt-soluble, transcriptionally active gene-enriched fraction of chicken erythrocyte chromatin were evaluated by hydroxyapatite dissociation chromatography. We have demonstrated previously that the salt-soluble, transcriptionally active gene-enriched polynucleosomes are enriched in dynamically acetylated and ubiquitinated histones, and in an atypical U-shaped nucleosome that possessed about 20% less protein than a typical nucleosome. Further, newly synthesized histones H2A and H2B exchange preferentially with the nucleosomal histones H2A and H2B of this salt-soluble chromatin fraction. Analysis of the histones eluting from the hydroxyapatite-bound chromatin demonstrated that hyperacetylated and ubiquitinated (u), including multi-ubiquitinated, H2A-H2B.1 dimers dissociated at lower concentrations of NaCl than unmodified dimers or dimers with histone variants H2A.Z and/or H2B.2. Cross-linking studies revealed that at least 50% of uH2B.1 was paired with uH2A. uH2A-uH2B.1 dimers dissociated at lower NaCl concentrations than H2A-uH2B.1 dimers. Hyperacetylated histone (H3-H4)2 tetramers also eluted at lower concentrations of NaCl than unmodified tetramers. Our results support the idea that acetylation and ubiquitination of histones H2A and H2B.1 increase the lability of H2A-H2B.1 dimers in transcriptionally active nucleosomes. In contrast, our observations suggest that histone variants H2A.Z and H2B.2. stabilize the association of the H2A-H2B dimer in nucleosomes. The elevated lability of the H2A-H2B dimer may facilitate processes such as the exchange of these dimers with newly synthesized histones, the elongation process of transcription and transcription factor binding.
Project description:Nucleosome assembly in vivo requires assembly factors, such as histone chaperones, to bind to histones and mediate their deposition onto DNA. In yeast, the essential histone chaperone FACT (FAcilitates Chromatin Transcription) functions in nucleosome assembly and H2A-H2B deposition during transcription elongation and DNA replication. Recent studies have identified candidate histone residues that mediate FACT binding to histones, but it is not known which histone residues are important for FACT to deposit histones onto DNA during nucleosome assembly. In this study, we report that the histone H2B repression (HBR) domain within the H2B N-terminal tail is important for histone deposition by FACT. Deletion of the HBR domain causes significant defects in histone occupancy in the yeast genome, particularly at HBR-repressed genes, and a pronounced increase in H2A-H2B dimers that remain bound to FACT in vivo Moreover, the HBR domain is required for purified FACT to efficiently assemble recombinant nucleosomes in vitro We propose that the interaction between the highly basic HBR domain and DNA plays an important role in stabilizing the nascent nucleosome during the process of histone H2A-H2B deposition by FACT.
Project description:We report the crystal structure of nuclear import receptor Importin-9 bound to its cargo, the histones H2A-H2B. Importin-9 wraps around the core, globular region of H2A-H2B to form an extensive interface. The nature of this interface coupled with quantitative analysis of deletion mutants of H2A-H2B suggests that the NLS-like sequences in the H2A-H2B tails play a minor role in import. Importin-9•H2A-H2B is reminiscent of interactions between histones and histone chaperones in that it precludes H2A-H2B interactions with DNA and H3-H4 as seen in the nucleosome. Like many histone chaperones, which prevent inappropriate non-nucleosomal interactions, Importin-9 also sequesters H2A-H2B from DNA. Importin-9 appears to act as a storage chaperone for H2A-H2B while escorting it to the nucleus. Surprisingly, RanGTP does not dissociate Importin-9•H2A-H2B but assembles into a RanGTP•Importin-9•H2A-H2B complex. The presence of Ran in the complex, however, modulates Imp9-H2A-H2B interactions to facilitate its dissociation by DNA and assembly into a nucleosome.
Project description:Nucleoplasmin (NP) is a pentameric histone chaperone that regulates the condensation state of chromatin in different cellular processes. We focus here on the interaction of NP with the histone octamer, showing that NP could bind sequentially the histone components to assemble an octamer-like particle, and crosslinked octamers with high affinity. The three-dimensional reconstruction of the NP/octamer complex generated by single-particle cryoelectron microscopy, revealed that several intrinsically disordered tail domains of two NP pentamers, facing each other through their distal face, encage the histone octamer in a nucleosome-like conformation and prevent its dissociation. Formation of this complex depended on post-translational modification and exposure of the acidic tract at the tail domain of NP. Finally, NP was capable of transferring the histone octamers to DNA in vitro, assembling nucleosomes. This activity may have biological relevance for processes in which the histone octamer must be rapidly removed from or deposited onto the DNA.