Mapping of a quantitative trait locus for blood pressure on rat chromosome 2.
ABSTRACT: A genetic map for rat chromosome 2 that includes five candidate genes for blood pressure regulation was constructed in a region containing a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for blood pressure. Two F2 populations of male rats raised on high salt (8% NaCI) diet from weaning were studied: F2(WKY x S), derived from a cross of Dahl salt-sensitive rats (S) and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY); and F2(MNS x S), derived from a cross of S rats and Milan normotensive strain (MNS). In both populations a blood pressure QTL was localized between Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 isoform and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-delta loci. The LOD score for existence of this blood pressure QTL based on the combined populations (n = 330) was 5.66 and accounted for 9.2% of the total variance and 26% of the genetic variance.
Project description:Alleles of the inducible nitric oxide synthase locus (Nos2) cosegregated highly significantly (P < 0.0001) with blood pressure in an F2 population [F2(S x MNS), n = 171] derived from a cross of inbred Dahl salt-sensitive (S) rats with Milan normotensive rats (MNS). In contrast, alleles at the constitutive brain nitric oxide synthase locus (Nos1) did not cosegregate with blood pressure in several F2 populations. Nos2 was mapped on rat chromosome 10. Nine genetic markers, including the angiotensin-converting enzyme (Ace) and Nos2 loci spanning roughly 46 cM on rat chromosome 10, all cosegregated strongly with blood pressure in the F2(S x MNS) population. Nos2 showed the highest LOD score of 6.3. Ace and Nos2 are 30 cM apart. In an F2 population [F2(S x WKY), n = 159] derived from a cross of S rats with Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, Nos2 alleles did (P = 0.0070), but Ace alleles did not (P = 0.91), cosegregate with blood pressure. We conclude that the Nos2 locus rather than the Nos1 locus is a candidate for influencing blood pressure in the S rat. There are probably two separate but linked quantitative trait loci (QTL) for blood pressure on rat chromosome 10, one marked by Ace and the other marked by Nos2. In F2(S x MNS) functionally variant alleles at both QTL influence blood pressure, but in F2(S x WKY) only the QTL marked by Nos2 is segregating alleles influencing blood pressure.
Project description:A genetic map for rat chromosome 1 was constructed using 66 microsatellite markers typed on either or both of two populations derived from inbred Dahl salt-sensitive (S) rats: F2(LEW x S) n = 151, and F2(WKY x S) n = 159. These populations had been raised on a high salt (8% NaCl) diet. Systolic blood pressure and heart weight were found to be genetically linked to two separate regions on rat chromosome 1 in the F2(LEW x S) population. One region was centered around the anonymous SA locus and accounted for 24 mmHg of blood pressure. The other region was 55 cM from the SA locus centered around a cluster of cytochromes P450 loci, and accounted for 30 mmHg of blood pressure. Since blood pressure and heart weight were highly correlated these same regions were also linked to heart weight. These results were cross-specific as linkage of these chromosome 1 regions to blood pressure and heart weight was not observed in several other F2 populations derived by crossing S and other normotensive control strains. This is presumably due to different alleles and/or different genetic backgrounds in the various populations. The SA region of chromosome 1 was found to influence body weight in F2(LEW x S) rats. Combining the present data with our previously published data on the F2(LEW x S) population showed that four separate quantitative trait loci with additive effects accounted for 106 mmHg and 38% of the total variance of blood pressure and for 506 mg and 34% of the total variance of heart wt.
Project description:We have investigated serum levels of immunoreactive marinobufagenin (MBG) in 16- to 20-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs)-A3 and in the normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat strain in the absence of salt loading, and we have investigated the genetic control of serum MBG.We genotyped the F2 progeny of an SHR-A3×WKY intercross using a genome-wide panel of 253 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers that were dimorphic between SHR-A3 and WKY and measured serum MBG by ELISA. Serum MBG levels were lower in SHR-A3 than WKY rats (0.39±0.07 and 1.27±0.40 nmol/L, respectively), suggesting that MBG may not play a role in the markedly divergent blood pressure measured by telemetry in rats of these 2 strains (SHR-A3 and WKY, 198.3±4.43 and 116.8±1.51 mm Hg, respectively). The strain difference in serum MBG was investigated to determine whether genomic regions influencing MBG might be identified by genetic mapping. Quantitative trait locus mapping indicated a single locus influencing serum MBG in the region of chromosome 6q12. Homozygosity of WKY alleles at this locus was associated with increased serum MBG levels. We surveyed whole genome sequences from our SHR-A3 and WKY lines, seeking coding sequence variation between SHR-A3 and WKY within the mapped locus that might explain the inherited strain difference in serum MBG.We identified amino acid substitution in the sterol transport protein Abcg5, present in SHR-A3, but absent in WKY, that is a potential mechanism influencing MBG levels.
Project description:A genome-wide scan was carried out on a segregating F2 population of rats derived from reciprocal intercrosses between two inbred strains of rats, Fisher 344 (F344) and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) that differ significantly in their behavioral coping responses to stress measured by the defensive burying (DB) test. The DB test measures differences in coping strategies by assaying an animal's behavioral response to an immediate threat. We have previously identified three X-linked loci contributing to the phenotypic variance in behavioral coping. Here we report on six significant autosomal quantitative trait loci (QTL) related to different behaviors in the DB test:one for the number of shocks received, three for number of prod approaches, one for latency to bury, and one pleiotropic locus affecting both approach and latency. These QTL contributing to different aspects of coping behaviors show that the effect of genotype on phenotype is highly dependent on lineage. The WKY lineage was particularly influential, with five out of the six QTL affecting coping behavior only in rats of the WKY lineage, and one locus affecting only those in the F344 lineage. Thus, epigenetic factors, primarily of WKY origin, may significantly modulate the genetic contribution to variance in behavioral responses to stress in the DB test.
Project description:Through linkage analysis of the Dahl salt-sensitive (S) rat and the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), a blood pressure (BP) quantitative trait locus (QTL) was previously located on rat chromosome 9. Subsequent substitution mapping studies of this QTL revealed multiple BP QTLs within the originally identified logarithm of odds plot by linkage analysis. The focus of this study was on a 14.39 Mb region, the distal portion of which remained unmapped in our previous studies. High-resolution substitution mapping for a BP QTL in the setting of a high-salt diet indicated that an SHR-derived congenic segment of 787.9 kb containing the gene secreted phosphoprotein-2 (Spp2) lowered BP and urinary protein excretion. A nonsynonymous G/T polymorphism in the Spp2 gene was detected between the S and S.SHR congenic rats. A survey of 45 strains showed that the T allele was rare, being detected only in some substrains of SHR and WKY. Protein modeling prediction through SWISSPROT indicated that the predicted protein product of this variant was significantly altered. Importantly, in addition to improved cardiovascular and renal function, high salt-fed congenic animals carrying the SHR T variant of Spp2 had significantly lower bone mass and altered bone microarchitecture. Total bone volume and volume of trabecular bone, cortical thickness, and degree of mineralization of cortical bone were all significantly reduced in congenic rats. Our study points to opposing effects of a congenic segment containing the prioritized candidate gene Spp2 on BP and bone mass.
Project description:Kidney samples from three Dahl Salt-sensitive S rats were compared with kidney samples from three S.R(9)x3A congenic rats. Keywords = Blood Pressure Keywords = Quantitative trait locus Keywords = QTL Keywords = hypertension Keywords = rat Keywords = congenic Keywords: parallel sample
Project description:We have previously identified a locus on rat chromosome 10 as carrying a major hypertension gene, BP/SP-1. The 100:1 odds support interval for this gene extended over a 35-centimorgan (cM) region of the chromosome that included the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) locus as demonstrated in a cross between the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSPHD) and the normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY-0HD) rat. Here we report on the further characterization of BP/SP-1, using a congenic strain, WKY-1HD. WKY-1HD animals carry a 6-cM chromosomal fragment genotypically identical with SHRSPHD on chromosome 10, 26 cM away from the ACE locus. Higher blood pressures in the WKY-1HD strain compared with the WKY-0HD strain, as well as absence of linkage of the chromosome 10 region to blood pressure in an F2 (WKY-1HD x SHRSPHD) population suggested the existence of a quantitative trait locus, termed BP/SP-1a, that lies within the SHRSP-congenic region in WKY-1HD. Linkage analysis in the F2 (WKY-0HD x SHRSPHD) cross revealed that BP/SP-1a is linked to basal blood pressure, whereas a second locus on chromosome 10, termed BP/SP-1b, that maps closer to the ACE locus cosegregates predominantly with blood pressure after exposure to excess dietary NaCl. Thus, we hypothesize that the previously reported effect of BP/SP-1 represents a composite phenotype that can be dissected into at least two specific components on the basis of linkage data and congenic experimentation. One of the loci identified, BP/SP-1a, represents the most precisely mapped locus affecting blood pressure that has so far been characterized by random-marker genome screening.
Project description:Hypertension is a complex trait that has been studied extensively for genetic contributions of the nuclear genome. We examined mitochondrial genomes of the hypertensive strains: the Dahl Salt-Sensitive (S) rat, the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR), and the Albino Surgery (AS) rat, and the relatively normotensive strains: the Dahl Salt-Resistant (R) rat, the Milan Normotensive Strain (MNS), and the Lewis rat (LEW). These strains were used previously for linkage analysis for blood pressure (BP) in our laboratory. The results provide evidence to suggest that variations in the mitochondrial genome do not account for observed differences in blood pressure between the S and R rats. However, variants were detected among the mitochondrial genomes of the various hypertensive strains, S, SHR, and AS, and also among the normotensive strains R, MNS, and LEW. A total of 115, 114, 106, 106, and 16 variations in mtDNA were observed between the comparisons S versus LEW, S versus MNS, S versus SHR, S versus AS, and SHR versus AS, respectively. Among the 13 genes coding for proteins of the electron transport chain, 8 genes had nonsynonymous variations between S, LEW, MNS, SHR, and AS. The lack of any sequence variants between the mitochondrial genomes of S and R rats provides conclusive evidence that divergence in blood pressure between these two inbred strains is exclusively programmed through their nuclear genomes. The variations detected among the various hypertensive strains provides the basis to construct conplastic strains and further evaluate the effects of these variants on hypertension and associated phenotypes.
Project description:Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear transcription factors that regulate numerous genes influencing blood pressure. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of clofibrate, a PPARα ligand, on blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR).Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), 8-9 weeks old, were randomly allocated into groups treated with vehicle or clofibrate (250 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), ip for 21 d). Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured before and after the study period using tail-cuff plethysmography. Rats were sacrificed under anesthesia and blood, urine and tissue samples were processed for subsequent analysis.SHR rats showed significantly higher SBP compared with WKY rats (198±6 mmHg vs 93±7 mmHg), and a 3-fold increase in urinary protein excretion. Clofibrate treatment reduced SBP by 26%±2% and proteinuria by 43%±9% in SHR but not in WKY rats. The urinary nitrite/nitrate excretion in SHR rats was nearly 2-fold greater than that in WKY, and was further increased by 30%±4% and 48%±3%, respectively, following clofibrate treatment. In addition, PPARα protein expression and PPARα activity were significantly lower in SHR than that in WKY rats. Clofibrate treatment significantly increased PPARα protein expression and PPARα activity in SHR rats, but not in WKY rats. Moreover, the vasoconstrictor response of aortic ring was markedly increased in SHRs, which was blunted after clofibrate treatment.PPARα contributes to regulation of blood pressure and vascular reactivity in SHR, and clofibrate-mediated reduction in blood pressure and proteinuria is probably through increased NO production.
Project description:Acute stress responsiveness is a quantitative trait that varies in severity from one individual to another; however, the genetic component underlying the individual variation is largely unknown. Fischer 344 (F344) and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat strains show large differences in behavioral responsiveness to acute stress, such as freezing behavior in response to footshock during the conditioning phase of contextual fear conditioning (CFC). Quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified for behavioral responsiveness to acute stress in the defensive burying (DB) and open field test (OFT) from a reciprocal F2 cross of F344 and WKY rat strains. These included a significant QTL on chromosome 6 (Stresp10). Here, we hypothesized that the Stresp10 region harbors genes with sequence variation(s) that contribute to differences in multiple behavioral response phenotypes between the F344 and WKY rat strains. To test this hypothesis, first we identified differentially expressed genes within the Stresp10 QTL in the hippocampus, amygdala, and frontal cortex of F344 and WKY male rats using genome-wide microarray analyses. Genes with both expression differences and non-synonymous sequence variations in their coding regions were considered candidate quantitative trait genes (QTGs). As a proof-of-concept, the F344.WKY-Stresp10 congenic strain was generated with the Stresp10 WKY donor region into the F344 recipient strain. This congenic strain showed behavioral phenotypes similar to those of WKYs. Expression patterns of Gpatch11 (G-patch domain containing 11), Cdkl4 (Cyclin dependent kinase like 4), and Drc1 (Dynein regulatory complex subunit 1) paralleled that of WKY in the F344.WKY-Stresp10 strain matching the behavioral profiles of WKY as opposed to F344 parental strains. We propose that these genes are candidate QTGs for behavioral responsiveness to acute stress.