Hi2-1, a QTL which improves harvest index, earliness and alters metabolite accumulation of processing tomatoes.
ABSTRACT: Harvest index, defined as the ratio of reproductive yield to total plant biomass, and early ripening are traits with important agronomic value in processing tomatoes. The Solanum pennellii introgression-line (IL) population shows variation for harvest index and earliness. Most of the QTL mapped for these traits display negative agronomic effects; however, hi2-1 is a unique QTL displaying improved harvest index and earliness. This introgression was tested over several years and under different genetic backgrounds. Thirty-one nearly isogenic sub-lines segregating for the 18 cM TG33-TG276 interval were used for fine mapping of this multi-phenotypic QTL. Based on this analysis the phenotypic effects for plant weight, Brix, total yield and earliness were co-mapped to the same region. In a different mapping experiment these sub-lines were tested as heterozygotes in order to map the harvest index QTL which were only expressed in the heterozygous state. These QTL mapped to the same candidate region, suggesting that hi2-1 is either a single gene with pleiotropic effects or represents linked genes independently affecting these traits. Metabolite profiling of the fruit pericarp revealed that a number of metabolic QTL co-segregate with the harvest index trait including those for important transport assimilates such as sugars and amino acids. Analysis of the flowering pattern of these lines revealed induced flowering at IL2-1 plants, suggest that hi2-1 may also affect harvest index and early ripening by changing plant architecture and flowering rate.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Collections of nearly isogenic lines where each line carries a delimited portion of a donor source genome into a common recipient genetic background are known as introgression libraries and have already shown to be instrumental for the dissection of quantitative traits. By means of marker-assisted backcrossing, we have produced an introgression library using the extremely early-flowering maize (Zea mays L.) variety Gaspé Flint and the elite line B73 as donor and recipient genotypes, respectively, and utilized this collection to investigate the genetic basis of flowering time and related traits of adaptive and agronomic importance in maize. RESULTS: The collection includes 75 lines with an average Gaspé Flint introgression length of 43.1 cM. The collection was evaluated for flowering time, internode length, number of ears, number of nodes (phytomeres), number of nodes above the ear, number and proportion of nodes below the ear and plant height. Five QTLs for flowering time were mapped, all corresponding to major QTLs for number of nodes. Three additional QTLs for number of nodes were mapped. Besides flowering time, the QTLs for number of nodes drove phenotypic variation for plant height and number of nodes below and above the top ear, but not for internode length. A number of apparently Mendelian-inherited phenotypes were also observed. CONCLUSIONS: While the inheritance of flowering time was dominated by the well-known QTL Vgt1, a number of other important flowering time QTLs were identified and, thanks to the type of plant material here utilized, immediately isogenized and made available for fine mapping. At each flowering time QTL, early flowering correlated with fewer vegetative phytomeres, indicating the latter as a key developmental strategy to adapt the maize crop from the original tropical environment to the northern border of the temperate zone (southern Canada), where Gaspé Flint was originally cultivated. Because of the trait differences between the two parental genotypes, this collection will serve as a permanent source of nearly isogenic materials for multiple studies of QTL analysis and cloning.
Project description:Flowering time is a key agronomic trait that plays an important role in crop yield. There is growing interest in dissecting the developmental subphases of flowering to better understand and fine-tune plant development and maximize yield. To do this, we used the wild barley nested association mapping (NAM) population HEB-25, comprising 1420 BC1S3 lines, to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling five developmental traits, plant height, and thousand grain weight. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) enabled us to locate a total of 89 QTLs that genetically regulate the seven investigated traits. Several exotic QTL alleles proved to be highly effective and potentially useful in barley breeding. For instance, thousand grain weight was increased by 4.5 g and flowering time was reduced by 9.3 days by substituting Barke elite QTL alleles for exotic QTL alleles at the denso/sdw1 and the Ppd-H1 loci, respectively. We showed that the exotic allele at the semi-dwarf locus denso/sdw1 can be used to increase grain weight since it uncouples the negative correlation between shoot elongation and the ripening phase. Our study demonstrates that nested association mapping of HEB-25 can help unravel the genetic regulation of plant development and yield formation in barley. Moreover, since we detected numerous useful exotic QTL alleles in HEB-25, we conclude that the introgression of these wild barley alleles into the elite barley gene pool may enable developmental phases to be specifically fine-tuned in order to maximize thousand grain weight and, potentially, yield in the long term.
Project description:Life cycle timing is critical for yield and productivity of Brassica napus (rapeseed) cultivars grown in different environments. To facilitate breeding for earliness traits in rapeseed, SNP loci and underlying candidate genes associated with the timing of initial flowering, maturity and final flowering, as well as flowering period (FP) were investigated in two environments in a diversity panel comprising 300 B. napus inbred lines. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) using 201,817 SNP markers previously developed from SLAF-seq (specific locus amplified fragment sequencing) revealed a total of 131 SNPs strongly linked (P?<?4.96E-07) to the investigated traits. Of these 131 SNPs, 40 fell into confidence intervals or were physically adjacent to previously published flowering time QTL or SNPs. Phenotypic effect analysis detected 35 elite allelic variants for early maturing, and 90 for long FP. Candidate genes present in the same linkage disequilibrium blocks (r2>0.6) or in 100 kb regions around significant trait-associated SNPs were screened, revealing 57 B. napus genes (33 SNPs) orthologous to 39 Arabidopsis thaliana flowering time genes. These results support the practical and scientific value of novel large-scale SNP data generation in uncovering the genetic control of agronomic traits in B. napus, and also provide a theoretical basis for molecular marker-assisted selection of earliness breeding in rapeseed.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Rolling of leaves (RL) is a phenomenon commonly found in grasses. Morphology of the leaf is an important agronomic trait in field crops especially in rice; therefore, majority of the rice breeders are interested in RL. There are only few studies with respect to RL of wheat and barley; however, the information regarding the genetic base of RL with respect to the shape of leaf in rye is lacking. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on the localization of loci controlling RL on high density consensus genetic map of rye. RESULTS:Genotypic analysis led to the identification of 43 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for RL, grouped into 28 intervals, which confirms the multigenic base of the trait stated for wheat and rice. Four stable QTLs were located on chromosomes 3R, 5R, and 7R. Co-localization of QTL for RL and for different morphological, biochemical and physiological traits may suggests pleiotropic effects of some QTLs. QTLs for RL were associated with QTLs for such morphological traits as: grain number and weight, spike number per plant, compactness of spike, and plant height. Two QTLs for RL were found to coincide with QTLs for drought tolerance (4R, 7R), two with QTLs for heading earliness (2R, 7R), one with ?-amylase activity QTL (7R) and three for pre-harvest sprouting QTL (1R, 4R, 7R). The set of molecular markers strongly linked to RL was selected, and the putative candidate genes controlling the process of RL were identified. Twelve QTLs are considered as linked to candidate genes on the base of DArT sequences alignment, which is a new information for rye. CONCLUSIONS:Our results expand the knowledge about the network of QTLs for different morphological, biochemical and physiological traits and can be a starting point to studies on particular genes controlling RL and other important agronomic traits (yield, earliness, pre-harvest sprouting, reaction to water deficit) and to appoint markers useful in marker assisted selection (MAS). A better knowledge of the rye genome and genes could both facilitate rye improvement itself and increase the efficiency of utilizing rye genes in wheat breeding.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Human demand for wheat will continue to increase together with the continuous global population growth. Agronomic traits in wheat are susceptible to environmental conditions. Therefore, in breeding practice, priority is given to QTLs of agronomic traits that can be stably detected across multiple environments and over many years. RESULTS:In this study, QTL analysis was conducted for eight agronomic traits using an introgression line population across eight environments (drought stressed and well-watered) for 5 years. In total, 44 additive QTLs for the above agronomic traits were detected on 15 chromosomes. Among these, qPH-6A, qHD-1A, qSL-2A, qHD-2D and qSL-6A were detected across seven, six, five, five and four environments, respectively. The means in the phenotypic variation explained by these five QTLs were 12.26, 9.51, 7.77, 7.23, and 8.49%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:We identified five stable QTLs, which includes qPH-6A, qHD-1A, qSL-2A, qHD-2D and qSL-6A. They play a critical role in wheat agronomic traits. One of the dwarf genes Rht14, Rht16, Rht18 and Rht25 on chromosome 6A might be the candidate gene for qPH-6A. The qHD-1A and qHD-2D were novel stable QTLs for heading date and they differed from known vernalization genes, photoperiod genes and earliness per se genes.
Project description:We recently reported three earliness per se quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with flowering and maturity in a recombinant inbred lines (RILs) population derived from a cross between the spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars 'Cutler' and 'AC Barrie' using 488 microsatellite and diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers. Here, we present QTLs associated with flowering time, maturity, plant height, and grain yield using high density single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers in the same population. A mapping population of 158 RILs and the two parents were evaluated at five environments for flowering, maturity, plant height and grain yield under field conditions, at two greenhouse environments for flowering, and genotyped with a subset of 1809 SNPs out of the 90K SNP array and 2 functional markers (Ppd-D1 and Rht-D1). Using composite interval mapping on the combined phenotype data across all environments, we identified a total of 19 QTLs associated with flowering time in greenhouse (5), and field (6) conditions, maturity (5), grain yield (2) and plant height (1). We mapped these QTLs on 8 chromosomes and they individually explained between 6.3 and 37.8% of the phenotypic variation. Four of the 19 QTLs were associated with multiple traits, including a QTL on 2D associated with flowering, maturity and grain yield; two QTLs on 4A and 7A associated with flowering and maturity, and another QTL on 4D associated with maturity and plant height. However, only the QTLs on both 2D and 4D had major effects, and they mapped adjacent to well-known photoperiod response Ppd-D1 and height reducing Rht-D1 genes, respectively. The QTL on 2D reduced flowering and maturity time up to 5 days with a yield penalty of 436 kg ha-1, while the QTL on 4D reduced plant height by 13 cm, but increased maturity by 2 days. The high density SNPs allowed us to map eight moderate effect, two major effect, and nine minor effect QTLs that were not identified in our previous study using microsatellite and DArT markers. Results from this study provide additional information to wheat researchers developing early maturing and short stature spring wheat cultivars.
Project description:In the recent past, genetic analyses of grapevine focused mainly on the identification of resistance loci for major diseases such as powdery and downy mildew. Currently, breeding programs make intensive use of these results by applying molecular markers linked to the resistance traits. However, modern genetics also allows to address additional agronomic traits that have considerable impact on the selection of grapevine cultivars. In this study, we have used linkage mapping for the identification and characterization of flowering time and ripening traits in a mapping population from a cross of V3125 ('Schiava Grossa' × 'Riesling') and the interspecific rootstock cultivar 'Börner' (Vitis riparia × Vitis cinerea). Comparison of the flowering time QTL mapping with data derived from a second independent segregating population identified several common QTLs. Especially a large region on linkage group 1 proved to be of special interest given the genetic divergence of the parents of the two populations. The proximity of the QTL region contains two CONSTANS-like genes. In accordance with data from other plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa, we hypothesize that these genes are major contributors to control the time of flowering in Vitis.
Project description:Heading date (HD) of cereals is an important trait for adaptation to diverse environments and is critical for determining yield and quality and the number of genes and gene combinations that confer earliness in barley under short days is limited. In our study, a QTL for early flowering was identified from the cross between an Australian malting barley cultivar and a Chinese landrace. Four sets of near isogenic lines (NILs) were developed with a QTL located on chromosome 5H at the interval of 122.0-129.0 cM. Further experiments were conducted to investigate how this gene was regulated by photoperiod using the NILs with three sowing dates from autumn to summer. The NILs carrying the earliness allele were significantly earlier than the late genotype at all sowing dates. This gene was different from previously reported vernalisation genes that are located at a similar position as no vernalisation was required for all the NILs. The difference between this gene and Eam5 (HvPHYC) locus which also located between two co-segregated markers (3398516S5, 122.5 cM, and 4014046D5, 126.1 cM), is that with the existence of Ppd-H1 (Eam1), Eam5 has no effect on ear emergence under long days while the gene from TX9425 still reduced the time to ear emergency. The locus showed no pleiotropic effects on grain pasting properties and agronomic traits except for spike length and number of spikelets per spike, and thus can be effectively used in breeding programs. The array of early heading dates caused by interactions of Eam5 gene with other maturity genes provides an opportunity to better fine tune heading dates with production environments, which can be critical factor in barley breeding.
Project description:Stay-green trait enhances sorghum adaptation to post-flowering drought. Six stay-green backcross introgression lines (BILs) carrying one or more stay-green QTLs (Stg1-4) and their parents were characterized under non-stress (W100: 100% of soil field capacity (FC)) and two levels of post-flowering drought (W75: 75% FC; W50: 50% FC) in a controlled condition. We aimed to study the response and identify the drought threshold of these QTLs under different levels of post-flowering drought and find traits closely contributing to grain yield (GY) under different drought severity. W50 caused the highest reduction in BILs performance. From W100 to W50, the GY of the recurrent parent reduced by 70%, whereas that of the BILs reduced by only 36%. W75 and W50 induce different behavior/response compared to W100. Harvest index contributed to the GY under the three water regimes. For high GY under drought transpiration rate at the beginning of drought and mid-grain filling was important at W75, whereas it was important at mid-grain filling and late-grain filling at W50. Stay-green trait can be scored simply with the relative number of green leaves/plants under both irrigated and stress environments. QTL pyramiding might not always be necessary to stabilize or increase the GY under post-flowering drought. The stay-green QTLs increase GY under drought by manipulating water utilization depending on drought severity.
Project description:Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) mapping is a powerful technique for dissecting the genetic basis of traits and species differences. Established tomato mapping populations between domesticated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and its more distant interfertile relatives typically follow a near isogenic line (NIL) design, such as the S. pennellii Introgression Line (IL) population, with a single wild introgression per line in an otherwise domesticated genetic background. Here, we report on a new advanced backcross QTL mapping resource for tomato, derived from a cross between the M82 tomato cultivar and S. pennellii This so-called Backcrossed Inbred Line (BIL) population is comprised of a mix of BC2 and BC3 lines, with domesticated tomato as the recurrent parent. The BIL population is complementary to the existing S. pennellii IL population, with which it shares parents. Using the BILs, we mapped traits for leaf complexity, leaflet shape, and flowering time. We demonstrate the utility of the BILs for fine-mapping QTL, particularly QTL initially mapped in the ILs, by fine-mapping several QTL to single or few candidate genes. Moreover, we confirm the value of a backcrossed population with multiple introgressions per line, such as the BILs, for epistatic QTL mapping. Our work was further enabled by the development of our own statistical inference and visualization tools, namely a heterogeneous hidden Markov model for genotyping the lines, and by using state-of-the-art sparse regression techniques for QTL mapping.