Coordinate suppression of B cell lymphoma by PTEN and SHIP phosphatases.
ABSTRACT: The inositol phosphatases phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) and Src homology 2 domain-containing inositol phosphatase (SHIP) negatively regulate phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)-mediated growth, survival, and proliferation of hematopoietic cells. Although deletion of PTEN in mouse T cells results in lethal T cell lymphomas, we find that animals lacking PTEN or SHIP in B cells show no evidence of malignancy. However, concomitant deletion of PTEN and SHIP (bPTEN/SHIP(-/-)) results in spontaneous and lethal mature B cell neoplasms consistent with marginal zone lymphoma or, less frequently, follicular or centroblastic lymphoma. bPTEN/SHIP(-/-) B cells exhibit enhanced survival and express more MCL1 and less Bim. These cells also express low amounts of p27(kip1) and high amounts of cyclin D3 and thus appear poised to undergo proliferative expansion. Unlike normal B cells, bPTEN/SHIP(-/-) B cells proliferate to the prosurvival factor B cell activating factor (BAFF). Interestingly, although BAFF availability may promote lymphoma progression, we demonstrate that BAFF is not required for the expansion of transferred bPTEN/SHIP(-/-) B cells. This study reveals that PTEN and SHIP act cooperatively to suppress B cell lymphoma and provides the first direct evidence that SHIP is a tumor suppressor. As such, assessment of both PTEN and SHIP function are relevant to understanding the etiology of human B cell malignancies that exhibit augmented activation of the PI3K pathway.
Project description:BAFF is a soluble factor required for B cell maturation and survival. BAFF-R signals via the noncanonical NF-?B pathway regulated by the TRAF3/NIK/IKK1 axis. We show that deletion of Ikk1 during early B cell development causes a partial impairment in B cell maturation and BAFF-dependent survival, but inactivation of Ikk1 in mature B cells does not affect survival. We further show that BAFF-R employs CD19 to promote survival via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), and that coinactivation of Cd19 and Ikk1 causes a profound block in B cell maturation at the transitional stage. Consistent with a role for PI3K in BAFF-R function, inactivation of PTEN mediates a partial rescue of B cell maturation and function in Baff(-/-) animals. Elevated PI3K signaling also circumvents BAFF-dependent survival in a spontaneous B cell lymphoma model. These findings indicate that the combined activities of PI3K and IKK1 drive peripheral B cell differentiation and survival in a context-dependent manner.
Project description:The inositol lipid phosphatases PTEN and SHIP-1 play a crucial role in maintaining B cell anergy and are reduced in expression in B cells from systemic lupus erythematosus and type 1 diabetes patients, consequent to aberrant regulation by miRNA-7 and 155. With an eye toward eventual use in precision medicine therapeutic approaches in autoimmunity, we explored the ability of p110? inhibition to compensate for PI3K pathway dysregulation in mouse models of autoimmunity. Low dosages of the p110? inhibitor idelalisib, which spare the ability to mount an immune response to exogenous immunogens, are able to block the development of autoimmunity driven by compromised PI3K pathway regulation resultant from acutely induced B cell-targeted haploinsufficiency of PTEN and SHIP-1. These conditions do not block autoimmunity driven by B cell loss of the regulatory tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1. Finally, we show that B cells in NOD mice express reduced PTEN, and low-dosage p110? inhibitor therapy blocks disease progression in this model of type 1 diabetes. These studies may aid in the development of precision treatments that act by enforcing PI3K pathway regulation in patients carrying specific risk alleles.
Project description:Adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) has been characterized as one of the most aggressive human neoplasias and its incidence is thought to be caused by both genetic and epigenetic alterations to the host cellular genes of T cells infected with human T cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I). A multilobulated nuclear appearance is an important diagnostic marker of ATLL, and we have now identified that the molecular mechanisms underlying these formations occur through microtubule rearrangement via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) activation by AILIM/ICOS signaling. We also show that PTEN and/or SHIP-1, which are PIP3 inositol phosphatases that inhibit the activation of downstream effectors of the PI3-kinase cascade, are disrupted in both ATLL neoplasias and in multilobulated nuclei-forming Jurkat cells. This down-regulation of PTEN was found to be essential for the formation of ATLL-type nuclear lobules. Furthermore, PI3-kinase and PTEN activities were observed to be closely associated with cellular proliferation. Thus, our results suggest that alteration of PI3-kinase signaling cascades, as a result of the down-regulation of inositol phosphatases, induces ATLL-type multilobulated nuclear formation and is also associated with the cellular proliferation of malignant T cell leukemias/lymphomas.
Project description:The SH2-containing inositol phosphatase-1 (SHIP-1) is a 5' inositol phosphatase known to negatively regulate the product of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K), phosphatidylinositol-3.4,5-trisphosphate. SHIP-1 can be recruited to a large number of inhibitory receptors expressed on natural killer (NK) cells. However, its role in NK cell development, maturation, and functions is not well defined. In this study, we found that the absence of SHIP-1 results in a loss of peripheral NK cells. However, using chimeric mice we demonstrated that SHIP-1 expression is not required intrinsically for NK cell lineage development. In contrast, SHIP-1 is required cell autonomously for NK cell terminal differentiation. These findings reveal both a direct and indirect role for SHIP-1 at different NK cell development checkpoints. Notably, SHIP-1-deficient NK cells display an impaired ability to secrete IFN-? during cytokine receptor-mediated responses, whereas immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif containing receptor-mediated responses is not affected. Taken together, our results provide novel insights on how SHIP-1 participates in the development, maturation, and effector functions of NK cells.
Project description:In macrophages, enzymes that synthesize or hydrolyze phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate [PI(3,4,5)P(3)] regulate Fcgamma receptor-mediated phagocytosis. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) or overexpression of the lipid phosphatases phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) and Src homology 2 domain-containing inositol phosphatase (SHIP-1), which hydrolyze PI(3,4,5)P(3) to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate [PI(3,4)P(2)], respectively, inhibit phagocytosis in macrophages. To examine how these enzymes regulate phagosome formation, the distributions of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) chimeras of enzymes and pleckstrin homology (PH) domains specific for their substrates and products were analyzed quantitatively. PTEN-YFP did not localize to phagosomes, suggesting that PTEN regulates phagocytosis globally within the macrophage. SHIP1-YFP and p85-YFP were recruited to forming phagosomes. SHIP1-YFP sequestered to the leading edge and dissociated from phagocytic cups earlier than did p85-cyan fluorescent protein, indicating that SHIP-1 inhibitory activities are restricted to the early stages of phagocytosis. PH domain chimeras indicated that early during phagocytosis, PI(3,4,5)P(3) was slightly more abundant than PI(3,4)P(2) at the leading edge of the forming cup. These results support a model in which phagosomal PI3K generates PI(3,4,5)P(3) necessary for later stages of phagocytosis, PTEN determines whether those late stages can occur, and SHIP-1 regulates when and where they occur by transiently suppressing PI(3,4,5)P(3)-dependent activities necessary for completion of phagocytosis.
Project description:The PI-3 kinase (PI3K) pathway is critical for T-cell development and activation. Several negative regulators of this pathway have already been described and characterized: the lipid phosphatases SHIP, inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase, type II (INPP4B), and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), the latter of which are tumor suppressors. PIK3IP1 (PI3K interacting protein 1) is a recently described transmembrane protein that has the ability to bind the catalytic protein p110 and prevent its activation by the p85 family adaptor proteins. Thus far, nothing is known about the possible role of PIK3IP1 in the regulation of lymphocyte development or activation. Here, we show for the first time that PIK3IP1 is expressed in T cells. Ectopic expression of PIK3IP1 in Jurkat or D10 T-cell lines inhibited activation of an NFAT/AP-1 transcriptional reporter. Conversely, siRNA-mediated silencing of PIK3IP1 in the same cell lines modestly augmented Akt phosphorylation, T-cell activation, and production of IL-2. These results suggest that the novel PI3K regulator PIK3IP1 plays an inhibitory role in T-cell activation.
Project description:B-cell activating factor-receptor (BAFF-R) is the primary BAFF receptor that is responsible for promoting B-cell development and survival. Malignant B-cells exploit the BAFF/BAFF-R system, and high serum BAFF levels or genetic alterations in BAFF receptors have been found in B-cell cancers. BAFF signaling impacts pro-survival pathways. However, other than nuclear factor-?B2 (NF-?B2), little is known about the specific pathways activated by individual BAFF receptors. Using a novel BAFF-R expression model we have demonstrated that activation of BAFF-R, independent of transmembrane activator and cytophilin ligand interactor (TACI) and B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA), can induce phosphorylation of Akt and glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?). Expression of an activated form of BAFF-R also enhanced a pro-survival gene expression pattern, including the novel BAFF-regulated gene Pin1, whose expression was phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent. Additionally, we showed that TRAF6 is essential for mediating BAFF-R dependent activation of Akt. Together these data describe a novel role for TRAF6 in BAFF-R-specific activation of the PI3K pathway and provide evidence suggesting a new role for Pin1 in BAFF-R signaling.
Project description:v-Abl protein tyrosine kinase encoded by Abelson murine leukemia virus (Ab-MLV) transforms pre-B cells. Transformation requires the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway. This pathway is antagonized by SH2-containing inositol 5'-phosphatase (SHIP), raising the possibility that v-Abl modulates PI3K signaling through SHIP. Consistent with this, we show that v-Abl expression reduces levels of full-length p145 SHIP in a v-Abl kinase activity-dependent fashion. This event requires signals from the Abl SH2 domain but not the carboxyl terminus. Forced expression of full-length SHIP significantly reduces Ab-MLV pre-B-cell transformation. Therefore, reduction of SHIP protein by v-Abl is a critical component in Ab-MLV transformation.
Project description:The predominant expression of the γ and δ isoforms of PI3K in cells of hematopoietic lineage prompted speculation that inhibitors of these isoforms could offer opportunities for selective targeting of PI3K in the immune system in a range of immune-related pathologies. While there has been some success in developing PI3Kδ inhibitors, progress in developing selective inhibitors of PI3Kγ has been rather disappointing. This has prompted the search for alternative targets with which to modulate PI3K signaling specifically in the immune system. One such target is the SH2 domain-containing inositol-5-phosphatase-1 (SHIP-1) which de-phosphorylates PI(3,4,5)P(3) at the D5 position of the inositol ring to create PI(3,4)P(2). In this article, we first describe the current state of PI3K isoform-selective inhibitor development. We then focus on the structure of SHIP-1 and its function in the immune system. Finally, we consider the current state of development of small molecule compounds that potently and selectively modulate SHIP activity and which offer novel opportunities to manipulate PI3K mediated signaling in the immune system.
Project description:SH2-containing inositol-5'-phosphatase-1 (SHIP-1) controls the phosphatidylinositol-3'-kinase (PI3K) initiated signaling pathway by limiting cell membrane recruitment and activation of Akt. Despite the fact that many of the growth factors important to cartilage development and functions are able to activate the PI3K signal transduction pathway, little is known about the role of PI3K signaling in chondrocyte biology and its contribution to mammalian skeletogenesis. Here, we report that the lipid phosphatase SHIP-1 regulates chondrocyte hypertrophy and skeletal development through its expression in osteochondroprogenitor cells. Global SHIP-1 knockout led to accelerated chondrocyte hypertrophy and premature formation of the secondary ossification center in the bones of postnatal mice. Drastically higher vascularization and greater number of c-kit?+?progenitors associated with sinusoids in the bone marrow also indicated more advanced chondrocyte hypertrophic differentiation in SHIP-1 knockout mice than in wild-type mice. In corroboration with the in vivo phenotype, SHIP-1 deficient PDGFR??+?Sca-1?+?osteochondroprogenitor cells exhibited rapid differentiation into hypertrophic chondrocytes under chondrogenic culture conditions in vitro. Furthermore, SHIP-1 deficiency inhibited hypoxia-induced cellular activation of Akt and extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (Erk) and suppressed hypoxia-induced cell proliferation. These results suggest that SHIP-1 is required for hypoxia-induced growth signaling under physiological hypoxia in the bone marrow. In conclusion, the lipid phosphatase SHIP-1 regulates skeletal development by modulating chondrogenesis and the hypoxia response of the osteochondroprogenitors during endochondral bone formation.