Sli15(INCENP) dephosphorylation prevents mitotic checkpoint reengagement due to loss of tension at anaphase onset.
ABSTRACT: The mitotic checkpoint, also known as the spindle assembly checkpoint, delays anaphase onset until all chromosomes have reached bipolar tension on the mitotic spindle [1-3]. Once this is achieved, the protease separase is activated to cleave the chromosomal cohesin complex, thereby triggering anaphase. Cohesin cleavage releases tension between sister chromatids, but why the mitotic checkpoint now remains silent is poorly understood. Here, using budding yeast as a model, we show that loss of sister chromatid cohesion at anaphase onset would engage the mitotic checkpoint if this was not prevented by concomitant separase-dependent activation of the Cdc14 phosphatase. Cdc14, in turn, inactivates the mitotic checkpoint by dephosphorylating Sli15(INCENP), a subunit of the conserved Aurora B kinase complex that forms part of the proposed chromosomal tension sensor. Dephosphorylation-dependent relocation of Sli15(INCENP) from centromeres to the central spindle during anaphase is seen in organisms from yeast to human [4-8]. Our results suggest that Sli15(INCENP) dephosphorylation is part of an evolutionarily conserved mechanism that prevents the mitotic checkpoint from reengaging when tension between sister chromatids is lost at anaphase onset.
Project description:Accurate chromosome segregation requires the capture of sister kinetochores by microtubules from opposite spindle poles prior to the initiation of anaphase, a state termed chromosome biorientation. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the conserved protein kinase Ipl1 (Aurora B in metazoans) is critical for ensuring correct chromosomal alignment. Ipl1 associates with its activators Sli15 (INCENP), Nbl1 (Borealin), and Bir1 (Survivin), but while Sli15 clearly functions with Ipl1 to promote chromosome biorientation, the role of Bir1 has been uncertain. Using a temperature-sensitive bir1 mutant (bir1-17), we show that Bir1 is needed to permit efficient chromosome biorientation. However, once established, chromosome biorientation is maintained in bir1-17 cells at the restrictive temperature. Ipl1 is partially delocalized in bir1-17 cells, and its protein kinase activity is markedly reduced under nonpermissive conditions. bir1-17 cells arrest normally in response to microtubule depolymerization but fail to delay anaphase when sister kinetochore tension is reduced. Thus, Bir1 is required for the tension checkpoint. Despite their robust mitotic arrest in response to nocodazole, bir1-17 cells are hypersensitive to microtubule-depolymerizing drugs and show a more severe biorientation defect on recovery from nocodazole treatment. The role of Bir1 therefore may become more critical when spindle formation is delayed.
Project description:The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is an evolutionarily conserved surveillance mechanism that delays anaphase onset and mitotic exit in response to the lack of kinetochore attachment. The target of the SAC is the E3 ubiquitin ligase anaphase-promoting complex (APC) bound to its Cdc20 activator. The Cdc20/APC complex is in turn required for sister chromatid separation and mitotic exit through ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis of securin, thus relieving inhibition of separase that unties sister chromatids. Separase is also involved in the Cdc-fourteen early anaphase release (FEAR) pathway of nucleolar release and activation of the Cdc14 phosphatase, which regulates several microtubule-linked processes at the metaphase/anaphase transition and also drives mitotic exit. Here, we report that the SAC prevents separation of microtubule-organizing centers (spindle pole bodies [SPBs]) when spindle assembly is defective. Under these circumstances, failure of SAC activation causes unscheduled SPB separation, which requires Cdc20/APC, the FEAR pathway, cytoplasmic dynein, and the actin cytoskeleton. We propose that, besides inhibiting sister chromatid separation, the SAC preserves the accurate transmission of chromosomes also by preventing SPBs to migrate far apart until the conditions to assemble a bipolar spindle are satisfied.
Project description:Microtubules of the mitotic spindle form the structural basis for chromosome segregation. In metaphase, microtubules show high dynamic instability, which is thought to aid the 'search and capture' of chromosomes for bipolar alignment on the spindle. Microtubules suddenly become more stable at the onset of anaphase, but how this change in microtubule behaviour is regulated and how important it is for the ensuing chromosome segregation are unknown. Here we show that in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, activation of the phosphatase Cdc14 at anaphase onset is both necessary and sufficient for silencing microtubule dynamics. Cdc14 is activated by separase, the protease that triggers sister chromatid separation, linking the onset of anaphase to microtubule stabilization. If sister chromatids separate in the absence of Cdc14 activity, microtubules maintain high dynamic instability; this correlates with defects in both the movement of chromosomes to the spindle poles (anaphase A) and the elongation of the anaphase spindle (anaphase B). Cdc14 promotes localization of microtubule-stabilizing proteins to the anaphase spindle, and dephosphorylation of the kinetochore component Ask1 contributes to both the silencing of microtubule turnover and successful anaphase A.
Project description:Separase is a protease that triggers chromosome segregation at anaphase onset by cleaving cohesin, the chromosomal protein complex responsible for sister chromatid cohesion. After anaphase, cells exit from mitosis; that is, they complete downregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase activity, undergo cytokinesis and enter G1 of the next cell cycle. Here we show that separase activation at the onset of anaphase is sufficient to promote release from the nucleolus and activation of the budding yeast phosphatase, Cdc14, a key step in mitotic exit. The ability of separase to activate Cdc14 is independent of its protease function but may involve promoting phosphorylation of the Cdc14 inhibitor Net1. This novel separase function is coregulated with its proteolytic activity by the separase inhibitor securin. This helps to explain the coupling of anaphase and mitotic exit--after securin degradation at anaphase onset, separase cleaves cohesin to trigger chromosome segregation and concurrently uses a non-proteolytic mechanism to initiate mitotic exit.
Project description:Sister chromatid separation creates a sudden loss of tension on kinetochores, which could, in principle, re-activate the spindle checkpoint in anaphase. This so-called "anaphase problem" is probably avoided by timely inactivation of cyclin B1-Cdk1, which may prevent the spindle tension sensing Aurora B kinase from destabilizing kinetochore-microtubule interactions as they lose tension in anaphase. However, exactly how spindle checkpoint re-activation is prevented remains unclear. Here, we investigated how different degrees of cyclin B1 stabilization affected the spindle checkpoint in metaphase and anaphase. Cells expressing a strongly stabilized (R42A) mutant of cyclin B1 degraded APC/C(Cdc20) substrates normally, showing that checkpoint release was not inhibited by high cyclin B1-Cdk1 activity. However, after this initial wave of APC/C(Cdc20) activity, the spindle checkpoint returned in cells with uncohesed sister chromatids. Expression of a lysine mutant of cyclin B1 that is degraded only slightly inefficiently allowed a normal metaphase-to-anaphase transition. Strikingly, however, the spindle checkpoint returned in cells that had not degraded the cyclin B1 mutant 10-15 min after anaphase onset. When cyclin B1 remained in late anaphase, cytokinesis stalled, and translocation of INCENP from separated sister chromatids to the spindle midzone was blocked. This late anaphase arrest required the activity of Aurora B and Mps1. In conclusion, our results reveal that complete removal of cyclin B1 is essential to prevent the return of the spindle checkpoint following sister chromatid disjunction. Speculatively, increasing activity of APC/C(Cdc20) in late anaphase helps to keep cyclin B1 levels low.
Project description:Two mechanisms safeguard the bipolar attachment of chromosomes in mitosis. A correction mechanism destabilizes erroneous attachments that do not generate tension across sister kinetochores . In response to unattached kinetochores, the mitotic checkpoint delays anaphase onset by inhibiting the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C(Cdc20)) . Upon satisfaction of both pathways, the APC/C(Cdc20) elicits the degradation of securin and cyclin B . This liberates separase triggering sister chromatid disjunction and inactivates cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) causing mitotic exit. How eukaryotic cells avoid the engagement of attachment monitoring mechanisms when sister chromatids split and tension is lost at anaphase is poorly understood . Here we show that Cdk1 inactivation disables mitotic checkpoint surveillance at anaphase onset in human cells. Preventing cyclin B1 proteolysis at the time of sister chromatid disjunction destabilizes kinetochore-microtubule attachments and triggers the engagement of the mitotic checkpoint. As a consequence, mitotic checkpoint proteins accumulate at anaphase kinetochores, the APC/C(Cdc20) is inhibited, and securin reaccumulates. Conversely, acute pharmacological inhibition of Cdk1 abrogates the engagement and maintenance of the mitotic checkpoint upon microtubule depolymerization. We propose that the simultaneous destruction of securin and cyclin B elicited by the APC/C(Cdc20) couples chromosome segregation to the dissolution of attachment monitoring mechanisms during mitotic exit.
Project description:The Sli15-Ipl1-Bir1 chromosomal passenger complex is essential for proper kinetochore-microtubule attachment and spindle stability in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. During early anaphase, release of the Cdc14 protein phosphatase from the nucleolus leads to the dephosphorylation of Sli15 and redistribution of this complex from kinetochores to the spindle. We show here that the predominantly nucleolar ribosome biogenesis protein Utp7 is also present at kinetochores and is required for normal organization of kinetochore proteins and proper chromosome segregation. Utp7 associates with and regulates the localization of Sli15 and Cdc14. Before anaphase onset, it prevents the premature nucleolar release of Cdc14 and the premature concentration of Sli15 on the spindle. Furthermore, Utp7 can regulate the localization and phosphorylation status of Sli15 independent of its effect on Cdc14 function. Thus, Utp7 is a multifunctional protein that plays essential roles in the vital cellular processes of ribosome biogenesis, chromosome segregation, and cell cycle control.
Project description:Incenp is an essential mitotic protein that, together with Aurora B, Survivin, and Borealin, forms the core of the chromosomal passenger protein complex (CPC). The CPC regulates various mitotic processes and functions to maintain genomic stability. The proper subcellular localization of the CPC and its full catalytic activity require the presence of each core subunit in the complex. We have investigated the mitotic tasks of the CPC using a function blocking antibody against Incenp microinjected into cells at different mitotic phases. This method allowed temporal analysis of CPC functions without perturbation of complex assembly or activity prior to injection. We have also studied the dynamic properties of Incenp and Aurora B using fusion protein photobleaching. We found that in early mitotic cells, Incenp and Aurora B exhibit dynamic turnover at centromeres, which is prevented by the anti-Incenp antibody. In these cells, the loss of centromeric CPC turnover is accompanied by forced mitotic exit without the execution of cytokinesis. Introduction of anti-Incenp antibody into early anaphase cells causes abnormalities in sister chromatid separation through defects in anaphase spindle functions. In summary, our data uncovers new mitotic roles for the CPC in anaphase and proposes that CPC turnover at centromeres modulates spindle assembly checkpoint signaling.
Project description:At the onset of anaphase, sister-chromatid cohesion is dissolved abruptly and irreversibly, ensuring that all chromosome pairs disjoin almost simultaneously. The regulatory mechanisms that generate this switch-like behaviour are unclear. Anaphase is initiated when a ubiquitin ligase, the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), triggers the destruction of securin, thereby allowing separase, a protease, to disrupt sister-chromatid cohesion. Here we demonstrate that the cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1)-dependent phosphorylation of securin near its destruction-box motif inhibits securin ubiquitination by the APC. The phosphatase Cdc14 reverses securin phosphorylation, thereby increasing the rate of securin ubiquitination. Because separase is known to activate Cdc14 (refs 5 and 6), our results support the existence of a positive feedback loop that increases the abruptness of anaphase. Consistent with this model, we show that mutations that disrupt securin phosphoregulation decrease the synchrony of chromosome segregation. Our results also suggest that coupling securin degradation with changes in Cdk1 and Cdc14 activities helps coordinate the initiation of sister-chromatid separation with changes in spindle dynamics.
Project description:Accurate segregation of the replicated genome requires chromosome biorientation on the spindle. Biorientation is ensured by Aurora B kinase (Ipl1), a member of the four-subunit chromosomal passenger complex (CPC). Localization of the CPC to the inner centromere is central to the current model for how tension ensures chromosome biorientation: kinetochore-spindle attachments that are not under tension remain close to the inner centromere and are destabilized by Aurora B phosphorylation, whereas kinetochores under tension are pulled away from the influence of Aurora B, stabilizing their microtubule attachments. Here we show that an engineered truncation of the Sli15 (known as INCENP in humans) subunit of budding yeast CPC that eliminates association with the inner centromere nevertheless supports proper chromosome segregation during both mitosis and meiosis. Truncated Sli15 suppresses the deletion phenotypes of the inner-centromere-targeting proteins survivin (Bir1), borealin (Nbl1), Bub1 and Sgo1 (ref. 6). Unlike wild-type Sli15, truncated Sli15 localizes to pre-anaphase spindle microtubules. Premature targeting of full-length Sli15 to microtubules by preventing Cdk1 (also known as Cdc28) phosphorylation also suppresses the inviability of Bir1 deletion. These results suggest that activation of Aurora B kinase by clustering either on chromatin or on microtubules is sufficient for chromosome biorientation.