Cytokinesis failure occurs in Fanconi anemia pathway-deficient murine and human bone marrow hematopoietic cells.
ABSTRACT: Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genomic instability disorder characterized by bone marrow failure and cancer predisposition. FA is caused by mutations in any one of several genes that encode proteins cooperating in a repair pathway and is required for cellular resistance to DNA crosslinking agents. Recent studies suggest that the FA pathway may also play a role in mitosis, since FANCD2 and FANCI, the 2 key FA proteins, are localized to the extremities of ultrafine DNA bridges (UFBs), which link sister chromatids during cell division. However, whether FA proteins regulate cell division remains unclear. Here we have shown that FA pathway-deficient cells display an increased number of UFBs compared with FA pathway-proficient cells. The UFBs were coated by BLM (the RecQ helicase mutated in Bloom syndrome) in early mitosis. In contrast, the FA protein FANCM was recruited to the UFBs at a later stage. The increased number of bridges in FA pathway-deficient cells correlated with a higher rate of cytokinesis failure resulting in binucleated cells. Binucleated cells were also detectable in primary murine FA pathway-deficient hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and bone marrow stromal cells from human patients with FA. Based on these observations, we suggest that cytokinesis failure followed by apoptosis may contribute to bone marrow failure in patients with FA.
Project description:PICH is an SNF2-family DNA translocase that appears to play a role specifically in mitosis. Characterization of PICH in human cells led to the initial discovery of "ultra-fine DNA bridges" (UFBs) that connect the 2 segregating DNA masses in the anaphase of mitosis. These bridge structures, which arise from specific regions of the genome, are a normal feature of anaphase but had escaped detection previously because they do not stain with commonly used DNA dyes. Nevertheless, UFBs are important for genome maintenance because defects in UFB resolution can lead to cytokinesis failure. We reported recently that PICH stimulates the unlinking (decatenation) of entangled DNA by Topoisomerase IIα (Topo IIα), and is important for the resolution of UFBs. We also demonstrated that PICH and Topo IIα co-localize at the rDNA (rDNA). In this Extra View article, we discuss the mitotic roles of PICH and explore further the role of PICH in the timely segregation of the rDNA locus.
Project description:Most cancer cells accumulate genomic abnormalities at a remarkably rapid rate, as they are unable to maintain their chromosome structure and number. Excessively short telomeres, a known source of chromosome instability, are observed in early human-cancer lesions. Besides telomere dysfunction, it has been suggested that a transient phase of polyploidization, in most cases tetraploidization, has a causative role in cancer. Proliferation of tetraploids can gradually generate subtetraploid lineages of unstable cells that might fire the carcinogenic process by promoting further aneuploidy and genomic instability. Given the significance of telomere dysfunction and tetraploidy in the early stages of carcinogenesis, we investigated whether there is a connection between these two important promoters of chromosomal instability. We report that human mammary epithelial cells exhibiting progressive telomere dysfunction, in a pRb deficient and wild-type p53 background, fail to complete the cytoplasmatic cell division due to the persistence of chromatin bridges in the midzone. Flow cytometry together with fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrated an accumulation of binucleated polyploid cells upon serial passaging cells. Restoration of telomere function through hTERT transduction, which lessens the formation of anaphase bridges by recapping the chromosome ends, rescued the polyploid phenotype. Live-cell imaging revealed that these polyploid cells emerged after abortive cytokinesis due to the persistence of anaphase bridges with large intervening chromatin in the cleavage plane. In agreement with a primary role of anaphase bridge intermediates in the polyploidization process, treatment of HMEC-hTERT cells with bleomycin, which produces chromatin bridges through illegimitate repair, resulted in tetraploid binucleated cells. Taken together, we demonstrate that human epithelial cells exhibiting physiological telomere dysfunction engender tetraploid cells through interference of anaphase bridges with the completion of cytokinesis. These observations shed light on the mechanisms operating during the initial stages of human carcinogenesis, as they provide a link between progressive telomere dysfunction and tetraploidy.
Project description:Tetraploidy has been proposed as an intermediate state in neoplastic transformation due to the intrinsic chromosome instability of tetraploid cells. Despite the identification of p53 as a major factor in growth arrest of tetraploid cells, it is still unclear whether the p53-dependent mechanism for proliferation restriction is intrinsic to the tetraploid status or dependent on the origin of tetraploidy. Substrate adherence is fundamental for cytokinesis completion in adherent untransformed cells. Here we show that untransformed fibroblast cells undergoing mitosis in suspension produce binucleated tetraploid cells due to defective cleavage furrow constriction that leads to incomplete cell abscission. Binucleated cells obtained after loss of substrate adhesion maintain an inactive p53 status and are able to progress into G1 and S phase. However, binucleated cells arrest in G2, accumulate p53 and are not able to enter mitosis as no tetraploid metaphases were recorded after one cell cycle time. In contrast, tetraploid metaphases were found following pharmacological inhibition of Chk1 kinase, suggesting the involvement of the ATR/Chk1 pathway in the G2 arrest of binucleated cells. Interestingly, after persistence in the G2 phase of the cell cycle, a large fraction of binucleated cells become senescent. These findings identify a new pathway of proliferation restriction for tetraploid untransformed cells that seems to be specific for loss of adhesion-dependent cytokinesis failure. This involves Chk1 and p53 activation during G2. Inhibition of growth and entrance into senescence after cytokinesis in suspension may represent an important mechanism to control tumor growth. In fact, anchorage independent growth is a hallmark of cancer and it has been demonstrated that binucleated transformed cells can enter a cycle of anchorage independent growth.
Project description:Fanconi anemia (FA) is a human genetic disease characterized by a DNA repair defect and progressive bone marrow failure. Central events in the FA pathway are the monoubiquitination of the Fancd2 protein and the removal of ubiquitin by the deubiquitinating enzyme, Usp1. Here, we have investigated the role of Fancd2 and Usp1 in the maintenance and function of murine hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Bone marrow from Fancd2-/- mice and Usp1-/- mice exhibited marked hematopoietic defects. A decreased frequency of the HSC populations including Lin-Sca-1+Kit+ cells and cells enriched for dormant HSCs expressing signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) markers, was observed in the bone marrow of Fancd2-deficient mice. In addition, bone marrow from Fancd2-/- mice contained significantly reduced frequencies of late-developing cobblestone area-forming cell activity in vitro compared to the bone marrow from wild-type mice. Furthermore, Fancd2-deficient and Usp1-deficient bone marrow had defective long-term in vivo repopulating ability. Collectively, our data reveal novel functions of Fancd2 and Usp1 in maintaining the bone marrow HSC compartment and suggest that FA pathway disruption may account for bone marrow failure in FA patients.
Project description:PICH is a SNF2 family DNA translocase that binds to ultra-fine DNA bridges (UFBs) in mitosis. Numerous roles for PICH have been proposed from protein depletion experiments, but a consensus has failed to emerge. Here, we report that deletion of PICH in avian cells causes chromosome structural abnormalities, and hypersensitivity to an inhibitor of Topoisomerase II (Topo II), ICRF-193. ICRF-193-treated PICH(-/-) cells undergo sister chromatid non-disjunction in anaphase, and frequently abort cytokinesis. PICH co-localizes with Topo II? on UFBs and at the ribosomal DNA locus, and the timely resolution of both structures depends on the ATPase activity of PICH. Purified PICH protein strongly stimulates the catalytic activity of Topo II in vitro. Consistent with this, a human PICH(-/-) cell line exhibits chromosome instability and chromosome condensation and decatenation defects similar to those of ICRF-193-treated cells. We propose that PICH and Topo II cooperate to prevent chromosome missegregation events in mitosis.
Project description:The resolution of joint molecules that link recombining sister chromatids is essential for chromosome segregation. Here, we determine the fate of unresolved recombination intermediates arising in cells lacking two nucleases required for resolution (GEN1 -/- knockout cells depleted of MUS81). We find that intermediates persist until mitosis and form a distinct class of anaphase bridges, which we term homologous recombination ultra-fine bridges (HR-UFBs). HR-UFBs are distinct from replication stress-associated UFBs, which arise at common fragile sites, and from centromeric UFBs. HR-UFBs are processed by BLM helicase to generate single-stranded RPA-coated bridges that are broken during mitosis. In the next cell cycle, DNA breaks activate the DNA damage checkpoint response, and chromosome fusions arise by non-homologous end joining. Consequently, the cells undergo cell cycle delay and massive cell death. These results lead us to present a model detailing how unresolved recombination intermediates can promote DNA damage and chromosomal instability.
Project description:DNA replication stress can cause chromosomal instability and tumor progression. One key pathway that counteracts replication stress and promotes faithful DNA replication consists of the Fanconi anemia (FA) proteins. However, how these proteins limit replication stress remains largely elusive. Here we show that conflicts between replication and transcription activate the FA pathway. Inhibition of transcription or enzymatic degradation of transcription-associated R-loops (DNA:RNA hybrids) suppresses replication fork arrest and DNA damage occurring in the absence of a functional FA pathway. Furthermore, we show that simple aldehydes, known to cause leukemia in FA-deficient mice, induce DNA:RNA hybrids in FA-depleted cells. Finally, we demonstrate that the molecular mechanism by which the FA pathway limits R-loop accumulation requires FANCM translocase activity. Failure to activate a response to physiologically occurring DNA:RNA hybrids may critically contribute to the heightened cancer predisposition and bone marrow failure of individuals with mutated FA proteins.
Project description:DNA anaphase bridges are a potential source of genome instability that may lead to chromosome breakage or nondisjunction during mitosis. Two classes of anaphase bridges can be distinguished: DAPI-positive chromatin bridges and DAPI-negative ultrafine DNA bridges (UFBs). Here, we establish budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the avian DT40 cell line as model systems for studying DNA anaphase bridges and show that TopBP1/Dpb11 plays an evolutionarily conserved role in their metabolism. Together with the single-stranded DNA binding protein RPA, TopBP1/Dpb11 binds to UFBs, and depletion of TopBP1/Dpb11 led to an accumulation of chromatin bridges. Importantly, the NoCut checkpoint that delays progression from anaphase to abscission in yeast was activated by both UFBs and chromatin bridges independently of Dpb11, and disruption of the NoCut checkpoint in Dpb11-depleted cells led to genome instability. In conclusion, we propose that TopBP1/Dpb11 prevents accumulation of anaphase bridges via stimulation of the Mec1/ATR kinase and suppression of homologous recombination.
Project description:Fanconi anemia (FA) is a disorder of DNA repair that manifests as bone marrow (BM) failure. The lack of accurate murine models of FA has refocused efforts toward differentiation of patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs) to hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs). However, an intact FA DNA repair pathway is required for efficient IPSC derivation, hindering these efforts. To overcome this barrier, we used inducible complementation of FANCA-deficient IPSCs, which permitted robust maintenance of IPSCs. Modulation of FANCA during directed differentiation to HPCs enabled the production of FANCA-deficient human HPCs that recapitulated FA genotoxicity and hematopoietic phenotypes relative to isogenic FANCA-expressing HPCs. FANCA-deficient human HPCs underwent accelerated terminal differentiation driven by activation of p53/p21. We identified growth arrest specific 6 (GAS6) as a novel target of activated p53 in FANCA-deficient HPCs and modulate GAS6 signaling to rescue hematopoiesis in FANCA-deficient cells. This study validates our strategy to derive a sustainable, highly faithful human model of FA, uncovers a mechanism of HPC exhaustion in FA, and advances toward future cell therapy in FA.
Project description:TSPO2 (translocator protein 2) is a transmembrane protein specifically expressed in late erythroblasts and has been postulated to mediate intracellular redistribution of cholesterol. We identified TSPO2 as the causative gene for the HK (high-K+) trait with immature red cell phenotypes in dogs and investigated the effects of the TSPO2 defects on erythropoiesis in HK dogs with the TSPO2 mutation and Tspo2 knockout (Tspo2 -/-) mouse models. Bone marrow-derived erythroblasts from HK dogs showed increased binucleated and apoptotic cells at various stages of maturation and shed large nuclei with incomplete condensation when cultured in the presence of erythropoietin, indicating impaired maturation and cytokinesis. The canine TSPO2 induces cholesterol accumulation in the endoplasmic reticulum and could thereby regulate cholesterol availability by changing intracellular cholesterol distribution in erythroblasts. Tspo2 -/- mice consistently showed impaired cytokinesis with increased binucleated erythroblasts, resulting in compensated anemia, and their red cell membranes had increased Na,K-ATPase, resembling the HK phenotype in dogs. Tspo2-deficient mouse embryonic stem cell-derived erythroid progenitor (MEDEP) cells exhibited similar morphological defects associated with a cell-cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, resulting in decreased cell proliferation and had a depletion in intracellular unesterified and esterified cholesterol. When the terminal maturation was induced, Tspo2 -/- MEDEP cells showed delays in hemoglobinization; maturation-associated phenotypic changes in CD44, CD71, and TER119 expression; and cell-cycle progression. Taken together, these findings imply that TSPO2 is essential for coordination of maturation and proliferation of erythroblasts during normal erythropoiesis.