Double strand break unwinding and resection by the mycobacterial helicase-nuclease AdnAB in the presence of single strand DNA-binding protein (SSB).
ABSTRACT: Mycobacterial AdnAB is a heterodimeric DNA helicase-nuclease and 3' to 5' DNA translocase implicated in the repair of double strand breaks (DSBs). The AdnA and AdnB subunits are each composed of an N-terminal motor domain and a C-terminal nuclease domain. Inclusion of mycobacterial single strand DNA-binding protein (SSB) in reactions containing linear plasmid dsDNA allowed us to study the AdnAB helicase under conditions in which the unwound single strands are coated by SSB and thereby prevented from reannealing or promoting ongoing ATP hydrolysis. We found that the AdnAB motor catalyzed processive unwinding of 2.7-11.2-kbp linear duplex DNAs at a rate of ?250 bp s(-1), while hydrolyzing ?5 ATPs per bp unwound. Crippling the AdnA phosphohydrolase active site did not affect the rate of unwinding but lowered energy consumption slightly, to ?4.2 ATPs bp(-1). Mutation of the AdnB phosphohydrolase abolished duplex unwinding, consistent with a model in which the "leading" AdnB motor propagates a Y-fork by translocation along the 3' DNA strand, ahead of the "lagging" AdnA motor domain. By tracking the resection of the 5' and 3' strands at the DSB ends, we illuminated a division of labor among the AdnA and AdnB nuclease modules during dsDNA unwinding, whereby the AdnA nuclease processes the unwound 5' strand to liberate a short oligonucleotide product, and the AdnB nuclease incises the 3' strand on which the motor translocates. These results extend our understanding of presynaptic DSB processing by AdnAB and engender instructive comparisons with the RecBCD and AddAB clades of bacterial helicase-nuclease machines.
Project description:Mycobacterial AdnAB is a heterodimeric helicase-nuclease that initiates homologous recombination by resecting DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The AdnA and AdnB subunits are each composed of an N-terminal motor domain and a C-terminal nuclease domain. Here we report cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of AdnAB in three functional states: in the absence of DNA and in complex with forked duplex DNAs before and after cleavage of the 5' single-strand DNA (ssDNA) tail by the AdnA nuclease. The structures reveal the path of the 5' ssDNA through the AdnA nuclease domain and the mechanism of 5' strand cleavage; the path of the 3' tracking strand through the AdnB motor and the DNA contacts that couple ATP hydrolysis to mechanical work; the position of the AdnA iron-sulfur cluster subdomain at the Y junction and its likely role in maintaining the split trajectories of the unwound 5' and 3' strands. Single-molecule DNA curtain analysis of DSB resection reveals that AdnAB is highly processive but prone to spontaneous pausing at random sites on duplex DNA. A striking property of AdnAB is that the velocity of DSB resection slows after the enzyme experiences a spontaneous pause. Our results highlight shared as well as distinctive properties of AdnAB vis-à-vis the RecBCD and AddAB clades of bacterial DSB-resecting motor nucleases.
Project description:Mycobacterial AdnAB exemplifies a family of heterodimeric motor-nucleases involved in processing DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). The AdnA and AdnB subunits are each composed of an N-terminal UvrD-like motor domain and a C-terminal RecB-like nuclease module. Here we conducted a biochemical characterization of the AdnAB motor, using a nuclease-inactivated heterodimer. AdnAB is a vigorous single strand DNA (ssDNA)-dependent ATPase (k(cat) 415 s(-1)), and the affinity of the motor for the ssDNA cofactor increases 140-fold as DNA length is extended from 12 to 44 nucleotides. Using a streptavidin displacement assay, we demonstrate that AdnAB is a 3' --> 5' translocase on ssDNA. AdnAB binds stably to DSB ends. In the presence of ATP, the motor unwinds the DNA duplex without requiring an ssDNA loading strand. We integrate these findings into a model of DSB unwinding in which the "leading" AdnB and "lagging" AdnA motor domains track in tandem, 3' to 5', along the same DNA single strand. This contrasts with RecBCD, in which the RecB and RecD motors track in parallel along the two separated DNA single strands. The effects of 5' and 3' terminal obstacles on ssDNA cleavage by wild-type AdnAB suggest that the AdnA nuclease receives and processes the displaced 5' strand, while the AdnB nuclease cleaves the displaced 3' strand. We present evidence that the distinctive "molecular ruler" function of the ATP-dependent single strand DNase, whereby AdnAB measures the distance from the 5'-end to the sites of incision, reflects directional pumping of the ssDNA through the AdnAB motor into the AdnB nuclease. These and other findings suggest a scenario for the descent of the RecBCD- and AddAB-type DSB-processing machines from an ancestral AdnAB-like enzyme.
Project description:The resection of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in bacteria is a motor-driven process performed by a multisubunit helicase-nuclease complex: either an Escherichia coli-type RecBCD enzyme or a Bacillus-type AddAB enzyme. Here we identify mycobacterial AdnAB as the founder of a new family of heterodimeric helicase-nucleases with distinctive properties. The AdnA and AdnB subunits are each composed of an N-terminal UvrD-like motor domain and a C-terminal nuclease module. The AdnAB ATPase is triggered by dsDNA with free ends and the energy of ATP hydrolysis is coupled to DSB end resection by the AdnAB nuclease. The mycobacterial nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) protein Ku protects DSBs from resection by AdnAB. We find that AdnAB incises ssDNA by measuring the distance from the free 5' end to dictate the sites of cleavage, which are predominantly 5 or 6 nucleotides (nt) from the 5' end. The "molecular ruler" of AdnAB is regulated by ATP, which elicits an increase in ssDNA cleavage rate and a distal displacement of the cleavage sites 16-17 nt from the 5' terminus. AdnAB is a dual nuclease with a clear division of labor between the subunits. Mutations in the nuclease active site of the AdnB subunit ablate the ATP-inducible cleavages; the corresponding changes in AdnA abolish ATP-independent cleavage. Complete suppression of DSB end resection requires simultaneous mutation of both subunit nucleases. The nuclease-null AdnAB is a helicase that unwinds linear plasmid DNA without degrading the displaced single strands. Mutations of the phosphohydrolase active site of the AdnB subunit ablate DNA-dependent ATPase activity, DSB end resection, and ATP-inducible ssDNA cleavage; the equivalent mutations of the AdnA subunit have comparatively little effect. AdnAB is a novel signature of the Actinomycetales taxon. Mycobacteria are exceptional in that they encode both AdnAB and RecBCD, suggesting the existence of alternative end-resecting motor-nuclease complexes.
Project description:Homologous recombination is a crucial mechanism that repairs a wide range of DNA lesions, including the most deleterious ones, double-strand breaks (DSBs). This multistep process is initiated by the resection of the broken DNA ends by a multisubunit helicase-nuclease complex exemplified by Escherichia coli RecBCD, Bacillus subtilis AddAB, and newly discovered Mycobacterium tuberculosis AdnAB. Here we show that in Streptomyces, neither recBCD nor addAB homologues could be detected. The only putative helicase-nuclease-encoding genes identified were homologous to M. tuberculosis adnAB genes. These genes are conserved as a single copy in all sequenced genomes of Streptomyces. The disruption of adnAB in Streptomyces ambofaciens and Streptomyces coelicolor could not be achieved unless an ectopic copy was provided, indicating that adnAB is essential for growth. Both adnA and adnB genes were shown to be inducible in response to DNA damage (mitomycin C) and to be independently transcribed. Introduction of S. ambofaciens adnAB genes in an E. coli recB mutant restored viability and resistance to UV light, suggesting that Streptomyces AdnAB could be a functional homologue of RecBCD and be involved in DNA damage resistance.
Project description:Mycobacterial AdnAB is a heterodimeric helicase-nuclease that initiates homologous recombination by resecting DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The N-terminal motor domain of the AdnB subunit hydrolyzes ATP to drive rapid and processive 3' to 5' translocation of AdnAB on the tracking DNA strand. ATP hydrolysis is mechanically productive when oscillating protein domain motions synchronized with the ATPase cycle propel the DNA tracking strand forward by a single-nucleotide step, in what is thought to entail a pawl-and-ratchet-like fashion. By gauging the effects of alanine mutations of the 16 amino acids at the AdnB-DNA interface on DNA-dependent ATP hydrolysis, DNA translocation, and DSB resection in ensemble and single-molecule assays, we gained key insights into which DNA contacts couple ATP hydrolysis to motor activity. The results implicate AdnB Trp325, which intercalates into the tracking strand and stacks on a nucleobase, as the singular essential constituent of the ratchet pawl, without which ATP hydrolysis on ssDNA is mechanically futile. Loss of Thr663 and Thr118 contacts with tracking strand phosphates and of His665 with a nucleobase drastically slows the AdnAB motor during DSB resection. Our findings for AdnAB prompt us to analogize its mechanism to that of an automobile clutch.
Project description:Mycobacterial AdnAB is a heterodimeric helicase-nuclease that initiates homologous recombination by resecting DNA double-strand breaks. The AdnB subunit hydrolyzes ATP to drive single-nucleotide steps of 3'-to-5' translocation of AdnAB on the tracking DNA strand via a ratchet-like mechanism. Trp325 in AdnB motif III, which intercalates into the tracking strand and makes a π stack on a nucleobase 5' of a flipped-out nucleoside, is the putative ratchet pawl without which ATP hydrolysis is mechanically futile. Here, we report that AdnAB mutants wherein Trp325 was replaced with phenylalanine, tyrosine, histidine, leucine, or alanine retained activity in ssDNA-dependent ATP hydrolysis but displayed a gradient of effects on DSB resection. The resection velocities of Phe325 and Tyr325 mutants were 90% and 85% of the wild-type AdnAB velocity. His325 slowed resection rate to 3% of wild-type and Leu325 and Ala325 abolished DNA resection. A cryo-EM structure of the DNA-bound Ala325 mutant revealed that the AdnB motif III peptide was disordered and the erstwhile flipped out tracking strand nucleobase reverted to a continuous base-stacked arrangement with its neighbors. We conclude that π stacking of Trp325 on a DNA nucleobase triggers and stabilizes the flipped-out conformation of the neighboring nucleoside that underlies formation of a ratchet pawl.
Project description:In bacterial cells, processing of double-stranded DNA breaks for repair by homologous recombination is catalysed by AddAB, AdnAB or RecBCD-type helicase-nucleases. These enzyme complexes are highly processive, duplex unwinding and degrading machines that require tight regulation. Here, we report the structure of E.coli RecBCD, determined by cryoEM at 3.8 Å resolution, with a DNA substrate that reveals how the nuclease activity of the complex is activated once unwinding progresses. Extension of the 5'-tail of the unwound duplex induces a large conformational change in the RecD subunit, that is transferred through the RecC subunit to activate the nuclease domain of the RecB subunit. The process involves a SH3 domain that binds to a region of the RecB subunit in a binding mode that is distinct from others observed previously in SH3 domains and, to our knowledge, this is the first example of peptide-binding of an SH3 domain in a bacterial system.
Project description:By simultaneously measuring DNA synthesis and dNTP hydrolysis, we show that T7 DNA polymerase and T7 gp4 helicase move in sync during leading-strand synthesis, taking one-nucleotide steps and hydrolyzing one dNTP per base-pair unwound/copied. The cooperative catalysis enables the helicase and polymerase to move at a uniformly fast rate without guanine:cytosine (GC) dependency or idling with futile NTP hydrolysis. We show that the helicase and polymerase are located close to the replication fork junction. This architecture enables the polymerase to use its strand-displacement synthesis to increase the unwinding rate, whereas the helicase aids this process by translocating along single-stranded DNA and trapping the unwound bases. Thus, in contrast to the helicase-only unwinding model, our results suggest a model in which the helicase and polymerase are moving in one-nucleotide steps, DNA synthesis drives fork unwinding, and a role of the helicase is to trap the unwound bases and prevent DNA reannealing.
Project description:Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus nonstructural protein 13 (SCV nsP13), a superfamily 1 helicase, plays a central role in viral RNA replication through the unwinding of duplex RNA and DNA with a 5' single-stranded tail in a 5' to 3' direction. Despite its putative role in viral RNA replication, nsP13 readily unwinds duplex DNA by cooperative translocation. Herein, nsP13 exhibited different characteristics in duplex RNA unwinding than that in duplex DNA. nsP13 showed very poor processivity on duplex RNA compared with that on duplex DNA. More importantly, nsP13 inefficiently unwinds duplex RNA by increasing the 5'-ss tail length. As the concentration of nsP13 increased, the amount of unwound duplex DNA increased and that of unwound duplex RNA decreased. The accumulation of duplex RNA/nsP13 complexes increased as the concentration of nsP13 increased. An increased ATP concentration in the unwinding of duplex RNA relieved the decrease in duplex RNA unwinding. Thus, nsP13 has a strong affinity for duplex RNA as a substrate for the unwinding reaction, which requires increased ATPs to processively unwind duplex RNA. Our results suggest that duplex RNA is a preferred substrate for the helicase activity of nsP13 than duplex DNA at high ATP concentrations.
Project description:Phage T7 helicase unwinds double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) by encircling one strand while excluding the complementary strand from its central channel. When T7 helicase translocates on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), it has kilobase processivity; yet, it is unable to processively unwind linear dsDNA, even 60 base-pairs long. Particularly, the GC-rich dsDNAs are unwound with lower amplitudes under single-turnover conditions. Here, we provide evidence that T7 helicase switches from ssDNA to dsDNA during DNA unwinding. The switching propensity is higher when dsDNA is GC-rich or when the 3'-overhang of forked DNA is <15 bases. Once helicase encircles dsDNA, it travels along dsDNA and dissociates from the end of linear DNA without strand separation, which explains the low unwinding amplitude of these substrates. Trapping the displaced strand with ssDNA binding protein or changing its composition to morpholino oligomer that does not interact with helicase increases the unwinding amplitude. We conclude that the displaced strand must be continuously excluded and kept away from the central channel for processive DNA unwinding. The finding that T7 helicase can switch from ssDNA to dsDNA binding mode during unwinding provides new insights into ways of limiting DNA unwinding and triggering fork regression when stalled forks need to be restarted.