The carboxyl-terminal end of Cox1 is required for feedback assembly regulation of Cox1 synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria.
ABSTRACT: Synthesis of the largest cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) subunit, Cox1, on yeast mitochondrial ribosomes is coupled to assembly of CcO. The translational activator Mss51 is sequestered in early assembly intermediate complexes by an interaction with Cox14 that depends on the presence of newly synthesized Cox1. If CcO assembly is prevented, the level of Mss51 available for translational activation is reduced. We deleted the C-terminal 11 or 15 residues of Cox1 by site-directed mutagenesis of mtDNA. Although these deletions did not prevent respiratory growth of yeast, they eliminated the assembly-feedback control of Cox1 synthesis. Furthermore, these deletions reduced the strength of the Mss51-Cox14 interaction as detected by co-immunoprecipitation, confirming the importance of the Cox1 C-terminal residues for Mss51 sequestration. We surveyed a panel of mutations that block CcO assembly for the strength of their effect on Cox1 synthesis, both by pulse labeling and expression of the ARG8(m) reporter fused to COX1. Deletion of the nuclear gene encoding Cox6, one of the first subunits to be added to assembling CcO, caused the most severe reduction in Cox1 synthesis. Deletion of the C-terminal 15 amino acids of Cox1 increased Cox1 synthesis in the presence of each of these mutations, except pet54. Our data suggest a novel activity of Pet54 required for normal synthesis of Cox1 that is independent of the Cox1 C-terminal end.
Project description:The assembly of cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) in yeast mitochondria is shown to be dependent on a new assembly factor designated Coa1 that associates with the mitochondrial inner membrane. Translation of the mitochondrial-encoded subunits of CcO occurs normally in coa1Delta cells, but these subunits fail to accumulate. The respiratory defect in coa1Delta cells is suppressed by high-copy MSS51, MDJ1 and COX10. Mss51 functions in Cox1 translation and elongation, whereas Cox10 participates in the biosynthesis of heme a, a key cofactor of CcO. Respiration in coa1Delta and shy1Delta cells is enhanced when Mss51 and Cox10 are coexpressed. Shy1 has been implicated in formation of the heme a3-Cu(B) site in Cox1. The interaction between Coa1 and Cox1, and the physical and genetic interactions between Coa1 and Mss51, Shy1 and Cox14 suggest that Coa1 coordinates the transition of newly synthesized Cox1 from the Mss51:Cox14 complex to the heme a cofactor insertion involving Shy1. coa1Delta cells also display a mitochondrial copper defect suggesting that Coa1 may have a direct link to copper metallation of CcO.
Project description:Regulation of eukaryotic cytochrome oxidase assembly occurs at the level of Cox1 translation, its central mitochondria-encoded subunit. Translation of COX1 messenger RNA is coupled to complex assembly in a negative feedback loop: the translational activator Mss51 is thought to be sequestered to assembly intermediates, rendering it incompetent to promote translation. In this study, we identify Coa3 (cytochrome oxidase assembly factor 3; Yjl062w-A), a novel regulator of mitochondrial COX1 translation and cytochrome oxidase assembly. We show that Coa3 and Cox14 form assembly intermediates with newly synthesized Cox1 and are required for Mss51 association with these complexes. Mss51 exists in equilibrium between a latent, translational resting, and a committed, translation-effective, state that are represented as distinct complexes. Coa3 and Cox14 promote formation of the latent state and thus down-regulate COX1 expression. Consequently, lack of Coa3 or Cox14 function traps Mss51 in the committed state and promotes Cox1 synthesis. Our data indicate that Coa1 binding to sequestered Mss51 in complex with Cox14, Coa3, and Cox1 is essential for full inactivation.
Project description:In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (COX) biogenesis is translationally regulated. Mss51, a specific COX1 mRNA translational activator and Cox1 chaperone, drives the regulatory mechanism. During translation and post-translationally, newly synthesized Cox1 physically interacts with a complex of proteins involving Ssc1, Mss51, and Cox14, which eventually hand over Cox1 to the assembly pathway. This step is probably catalyzed by assembly chaperones such as Shy1 in a process coupled to the release of Ssc1-Mss51 from the complex. Impaired COX assembly results in the trapping of Mss51 in the complex, thus limiting its availability for COX1 mRNA translation. An exception is a null mutation in COX14 that does not affect Cox1 synthesis because the Mss51 trapping complexes become unstable, and Mss51 is readily available for translation. Here we present evidence showing that Cox25 is a new essential COX assembly factor that plays some roles similar to Cox14. A null mutation in COX25 by itself or in combination with other COX mutations does not affect Cox1 synthesis. Cox25 is an inner mitochondrial membrane intrinsic protein with a hydrophilic C terminus protruding into the matrix. Cox25 is an essential component of the complexes containing newly synthesized Cox1, Ssc1, Mss51, and Cox14. In addition, Cox25 is also found to interact with Shy1 and Cox5 in a complex that does not contain Mss51. These results suggest that once Ssc1-Mss51 are released from the Cox1 stabilization complex, Cox25 continues to interact with Cox14 and Cox1 to facilitate the formation of multisubunit COX assembly intermediates.
Project description:Cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV) of the respiratory chain is assembled from nuclear and mitochondrially-encoded subunits. Defects in the assembly process lead to severe human disorders such as Leigh syndrome. Shy1 is an assembly factor for complex IV in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mutations of its human homolog, SURF1, are the most frequent cause for Leigh syndrome. We report that Shy1 promotes complex IV biogenesis through association with different protein modules; Shy1 interacts with Mss51 and Cox14, translational regulators of Cox1. Additionally, Shy1 associates with the subcomplexes of complex IV that are potential assembly intermediates. Formation of these subcomplexes depends on Coa1 (YIL157c), a novel assembly factor that cooperates with Shy1. Moreover, partially assembled forms of complex IV bound to Shy1 and Cox14 can associate with the bc1 complex to form transitional supercomplexes. We suggest that Shy1 links Cox1 translational regulation to complex IV assembly and supercomplex formation.
Project description:The post-transcriptional role of Mss51p in mitochondrial gene expression is of great interest since MSS51 mutations suppress the respiratory defect caused by shy1 mutations. SHY1 is a Saccharomyces cerevisiae homolog of human SURF1, which when mutated causes a cytochrome oxidase assembly defect. We found that MSS51 is required for expression of the mitochondrial reporter gene ARG8(m) when it is inserted at the COX1 locus, but not when it is at COX2 or COX3. Unlike the COX1 mRNA-specific translational activator PET309, MSS51 has at least two targets in COX1 mRNA. MSS51 acts in the untranslated regions of the COX1 mRNA, since it was required to synthesize Arg8p when ARG8(m) completely replaced the COX1 codons. MSS51 also acts on a target specified by the COX1 coding region, since it was required to translate either COX1 or COX1:: ARG8(m) coding sequences from an ectopic COX2 locus. Mss51p was found to interact physically with newly synthesized Cox1p, suggesting that it could coordinate Cox1p synthesis with insertion into the inner membrane or cytochrome oxidase assembly.
Project description:Cox23 is a known conserved assembly factor for cytochrome <i>c</i> oxidase, although its role in cytochrome <i>c</i> oxidase (CcO) biogenesis remains unresolved. To gain additional insights into its role, we isolated spontaneous suppressors of the respiratory growth defect in <i>cox23</i>? yeast cells. We recovered independent colonies that propagated on glycerol/lactate medium for <i>cox23</i>? cells at 37°C. We mapped these mutations to the mitochondrial genome and specifically to <i>COX1</i> yielding an I<sup>101</sup>F substitution. The I<sup>101</sup>F Cox1 allele is a gain-of-function mutation enabling yeast to respire in the absence of Cox23. CcO subunit steady-state levels were restored with the I<sup>101</sup>F Cox1 suppressor mutation and oxygen consumption and CcO activity were likewise restored. Cells harboring the mitochondrial genome encoding I<sup>101</sup>F Cox1 were used to delete genes for other CcO assembly factors to test the specificity of the Cox1 mutation as a suppressor of <i>cox23</i>? cells. The Cox1 mutant allele fails to support respiratory growth in yeast lacking Cox17, Cox19, Coa1, Coa2, Cox14 or Shy1, demonstrating its specific suppressor activity for <i>cox23</i>? cells.
Project description:The mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase assembles in the inner membrane from subunits of dual genetic origin. The assembly process of the enzyme is initiated by membrane insertion of the mitochondria-encoded Cox1 subunit. During complex maturation, transient assembly intermediates, consisting of structural subunits and specialized chaperone-like assembly factors, are formed. In addition, cofactors such as heme and copper have to be inserted into the nascent complex. To regulate the assembly process, the availability of Cox1 is under control of a regulatory feedback cycle in which translation of COX1 mRNA is stalled when assembly intermediates of Cox1 accumulate through inactivation of the translational activator Mss51. Here we isolate a cytochrome c oxidase assembly intermediate in preparatory scale from coa1? mutant cells, using Mss51 as bait. We demonstrate that at this stage of assembly, the complex has not yet incorporated the heme a cofactors. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we define the protein composition of the assembly intermediate and unexpectedly identify the putative methyltransferase Oms1 as a constituent. Our analyses show that Oms1 participates in cytochrome c oxidase assembly by stabilizing newly synthesized Cox1.
Project description:Defects in mitochondrial respiratory chain complex IV (CIV) frequently cause encephalocardiomyopathies. Human CIV assembly involves 14 subunits of dual genetic origin and multiple nucleus-encoded ancillary factors. Biogenesis of the mitochondrion-encoded copper/heme-containing COX1 subunit initiates the CIV assembly process. Here, we show that the intermembrane space twin CX9C protein CMC1 forms an early CIV assembly intermediate with COX1 and two assembly factors, the cardiomyopathy proteins COA3 and COX14. A TALEN-mediated CMC1 knockout HEK293T cell line displayed normal COX1 synthesis but decreased CIV activity owing to the instability of newly synthetized COX1. We demonstrate that CMC1 stabilizes a COX1-COA3-COX14 complex before the incorporation of COX4 and COX5a subunits. Additionally, we show that CMC1 acts independently of CIV assembly factors relevant to COX1 metallation (COX10, COX11, and SURF1) or late stability (MITRAC7). Furthermore, whereas human COX14 and COA3 have been proposed to affect COX1 mRNA translation, our data indicate that CMC1 regulates turnover of newly synthesized COX1 prior to and during COX1 maturation, without affecting the rate of COX1 synthesis.
Project description:Heme plays fundamental roles as cofactor and signaling molecule in multiple pathways devoted to oxygen sensing and utilization in aerobic organisms. For cellular respiration, heme serves as a prosthetic group in electron transfer proteins and redox enzymes. Here we report that in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a heme-sensing mechanism translationally controls the biogenesis of cytochrome c oxidase (COX), the terminal mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme. We show that Mss51, a COX1 mRNA-specific translational activator and Cox1 chaperone, which coordinates Cox1 synthesis in mitoribosomes with its assembly in COX, is a heme-binding protein. Mss51 contains two heme regulatory motifs or Cys-Pro-X domains located in its N terminus. Using a combination of in vitro and in vivo approaches, we have demonstrated that these motifs are important for heme binding and efficient performance of Mss51 functions. We conclude that heme sensing by Mss51 regulates COX biogenesis and aerobic energy production.
Project description:The synthesis of Cox1, the conserved catalytic-core subunit of Complex IV, a multisubunit machinery of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system under environmental stress, has not been sufficiently addressed. In this study, we show that the putative YihA superfamily GTPase, Mrx8, is a bona fide mitochondrial protein required for Cox1 translation initiation and elongation during suboptimal growth condition at 16°C. Mrx8 was found in a complex with mitochondrial ribosomes, consistent with a role in protein synthesis. Cells expressing mutant Mrx8 predicted to be defective in guanine nucleotide binding and hydrolysis were compromised for robust cellular respiration. We show that the requirement of Pet309 and Mss51 for cellular respiration is not bypassed by overexpression of Mrx8 and vice versa. Consistently the ribosomal association of Mss51 is independent of Mrx8. Significantly, we find that <i>GTPBP8</i>, the human orthologue, complements the loss of cellular respiration in <i>Δmrx8</i> cells and GTPBP8 localizes to the mitochondria in mammalian cells. This strongly suggests a universal role of the <i>MRX8</i> family of proteins in regulating mitochondrial function.