Specificity of Staphyloferrin B recognition by the SirA receptor from Staphylococcus aureus.
ABSTRACT: Many organisms use sophisticated systems to acquire growth-limiting iron. Iron limitation is especially apparent in bacterial pathogens of mammalian hosts where free iron concentrations are physiologically negligible. A common strategy is to secrete low molecular weight iron chelators, termed siderophores, and express high affinity receptors for the siderophore-iron complex. Staphylococcus aureus, a widespread pathogen, produces two siderophores, staphyloferrin A (SA) and staphyloferrin B (SB). We have determined the crystal structure of the staphyloferrin B receptor, SirA, at high resolution in both the apo and Fe(III)-SB (FeSB)-bound forms. SirA, a member of the class III binding protein family of metal receptors, has N- and C-terminal domains, each composed of mainly a ?-stranded core and ?-helical periphery. The domains are bridged by a single ?-helix and together form the FeSB binding site. SB coordinates Fe(III) through five oxygen atoms and one nitrogen atom in distorted octahedral geometry. SirA undergoes conformational change upon siderophore binding, largely securing two loops from the C-terminal domain to enclose FeSB with a low nanomolar dissociation constant. The staphyloferrin A receptor, HtsA, homologous to SirA, also encloses its cognate siderophore (FeSA); however, the largest conformational rearrangements involve a different region of the C-terminal domain. FeSB is uniquely situated in the binding pocket of SirA with few of the contacting residues being conserved with those of HtsA interacting with FeSA. Although both SirA and HtsA bind siderophores from the same ?-hydroxycarboxylate class, the unique structural features of each receptor provides an explanation for their distinct specificity.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus uses several efficient iron acquisition strategies to overcome iron limitation. Recently, the genetic locus encoding biosynthetic enzymes for the iron chelating molecule, staphyloferrin A (SA), was determined. S. aureus synthesizes and secretes SA into its environment to scavenge iron. The membrane-anchored ATP binding cassette-binding protein, HtsA, receives the ferric-chelate for import into the cell. Recently, we determined the apoHtsA crystal structure, the first siderophore receptor from gram-positive bacteria to be structurally characterized. Herein we present the x-ray crystal structure of the HtsA-ferric-SA complex. HtsA adopts a class III binding protein fold composed of separate N- and C-terminal domains bridged by a single alpha-helix. Recombinant HtsA can efficiently sequester ferric-SA from S. aureus culture supernatants where it is bound within the pocket formed between distinct N- and C-terminal domains. A basic patch composed mainly of six Arg residues contact the negatively charged siderophore, securing it within the pocket. The x-ray crystal structures from two different ligand-bound crystal forms were determined. The structures represent the first structural characterization of an endogenous alpha-hydroxycarboxylate-type siderophore-receptor complex. One structure is in an open form similar to apoHtsA, whereas the other is in a more closed conformation. The conformational change is highlighted by isolated movement of three loops within the C-terminal domain, a domain movement unique to known class III binding protein structures.
Project description:PhcA is a transcriptional regulator that activates expression of multiple virulence genes in the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum. Relative to their wild-type parents, phcA mutants overproduced iron-scavenging activity detected with chrome azurol S siderophore detection medium. Transposon mutagenesis of strain AW1-PC (phcA1) generated strain GB6, which was siderophore negative but retained weak iron-scavenging activity. The ssd gene inactivated in GB6 encodes a protein similar to group IV amino acid decarboxylases, and its transcription was repressed by iron(III) and PhcA. ssd is the terminal gene in a putative operon that also appears to encode three siderophore synthetase subunits, a integral membrane exporter, and three genes with no obvious role in siderophore production. A homologous operon was found in the genomes of Ralstonia metallidurans and Staphylococcus aureus, both of which produce the polycarboxylate siderophore staphyloferrin B. Comparison of the siderophores present in culture supernatants of R. solanacearum, R. metallidurans, and Bacillus megaterium using chemical tests, a siderophore utilization bioassay, thin-layer chromatography, and mass spectroscopy indicated that R. solanacearum produces staphyloferrin B rather than schizokinen as was reported previously. Inactivation of ssd in a wild-type AW1 background resulted in a mutant almost incapable of scavenging iron but normally virulent on tomato plants. AW1 did not produce siderophore activity when cultured in tomato xylem sap, suggesting that the main location in tomato for R. solanacearum during pathogenesis is iron replete.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus synthesizes two siderophores, staphyloferrin A and staphyloferrin B, that promote iron-restricted growth. Previous work on the biosynthesis of staphyloferrin B has focused on the role of the synthetase enzymes, encoded from within the sbnA-I operon, which build the siderophore from the precursor molecules citrate, alpha-ketoglutarate and L-2,3-diaminopropionic acid. However, no information yet exists on several other enzymes, expressed from the biosynthetic cluster, that are thought to be involved in the synthesis of the precursors (or synthetase substrates) themselves.Using mutants carrying insertions in sbnA and sbnB, we show that these two genes are essential for the synthesis of staphyloferrin B, and that supplementation of the growth medium with L-2,3-diaminopropionic acid can bypass the block in staphyloferrin B synthesis displayed by the mutants. Several mechanisms are proposed for how the enzymes SbnA, with similarity to cysteine synthase enzymes, and SbnB, with similarity to amino acid dehydrogenases and ornithine cyclodeaminases, function together in the synthesis of this unusual nonproteinogenic amino acid L-2,3-diaminopropionic acid.Mutation of either sbnA or sbnB result in abrogation of synthesis of staphyloferrin B, a siderophore that contributes to iron-restricted growth of S. aureus. The loss of staphyloferrin B synthesis is due to an inability to synthesize the unusual amino acid L-2,3-diaminopropionic acid which is an important, iron-liganding component of the siderophore structure. It is proposed that SbnA and SbnB function together as an L-Dap synthase in the S. aureus cell.
Project description:Staphyloferrin B (SB) is an iron-chelating siderophore produced by Staphylococcus aureus in invasive infections. Proteins for SB biosynthesis and export are encoded by the sbnABCDEFGHI gene cluster, in which SbnI, a member of the ParB/Srx superfamily, acts as a heme-dependent transcriptional regulator of the sbn locus. However, no structural or functional information about SbnI is available. Here, a crystal structure of SbnI revealed striking structural similarity to an ADP-dependent free serine kinase, SerK, from the archaea Thermococcus kodakarensis We found that features of the active sites are conserved, and biochemical assays and 31P NMR and HPLC analyses indicated that SbnI is also a free serine kinase but uses ATP rather than ADP as phosphate donor to generate the SB precursor O-phospho-l-serine (OPS). SbnI consists of two domains, and elevated B-factors in domain II were consistent with the open-close reaction mechanism previously reported for SerK. Mutagenesis of Glu20 and Asp58 in SbnI disclosed that they are required for kinase activity. The only known OPS source in bacteria is through the phosphoserine aminotransferase activity of SerC within the serine biosynthesis pathway, and we demonstrate that an S. aureus serC mutant is a serine auxotroph, consistent with a function in l-serine biosynthesis. However, the serC mutant strain could produce SB when provided l-serine, suggesting that SbnI produces OPS for SB biosynthesis in vivo These findings indicate that besides transcriptionally regulating the sbn locus, SbnI also has an enzymatic role in the SB biosynthetic pathway.
Project description:Iron is an essential element for all organisms, and microorganisms produce small molecule iron-chelators, siderophores, to efficiently acquire Fe(III). Gram-positive bacteria possess lipoprotein siderophore-binding proteins (SBPs) on the membrane. Some of the SBPs bind both apo-siderophores (iron-free) and Fe-siderophore (iron-chelated) and only import Fe-siderophores. When the SBP initially binds an apo-siderophore, the SBP uses the Gram-positive siderophore-shuttle mechanism (the SBPs exchange Fe(III) from a Fe-siderophore to the apo-siderophore bound to the protein) and/or displacement mechanism (the apo-siderophore bound to the SBP is released and a Fe-siderophore is then bound to the protein) to import the Fe-siderophore. Previously, we reported that the Bacillus cereus SBP, YxeB, exchanges Fe(III) from a ferrioxamine B (FO) to a desferrioxamine B (DFO) bound to YxeB using the siderophore-shuttle mechanism although the iron exchange was indirectly elucidated. Synthetic Cr-DFO (inert metal FO analog) and Ga-DFO (nonreducible FO analog) are bound to YxeB and imported via YxeB and the corresponding permeases and ATPase. YxeB exchanges Fe(III) from FO and Ga(III) from Ga-DFO to DFO bound to the protein, indicating that the metal-exchange occurs without metal reduction. YxeB also binds DFO derivatives including acetylated DFO (apo-siderophore) and acetylated FO (AcFO, Fe-siderophore). The iron from AcFO is transferred to DFO when bound to YxeB, giving direct evidence of iron exchange. Moreover, YxeB also uses the displacement mechanism when ferrichrome (Fch) is added to the DFO:YxeB complex. Uptake by the displacement mechanism is a minor pathway compared to the shuttle mechanism.
Project description:Siderophores are high-affinity iron chelators produced by microorganisms and frequently contribute to the virulence of human pathogens. Targeted inhibition of the biosynthesis of siderophores staphyloferrin B of Staphylococcus aureus and petrobactin of Bacillus anthracis hold considerable potential as a single or combined treatment for methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and anthrax infection, respectively. The biosynthetic pathways for both siderophores involve a nonribosomal peptide synthetase independent siderophore (NIS) synthetase, including SbnE in staphyloferrin B and AsbA in petrobactin. In this study, we developed a biochemical assay specific for NIS synthetases to screen for inhibitors of SbnE and AsbA against a library of marine microbial-derived natural product extracts (NPEs). Analysis of the NPE derived from Streptomyces tempisquensis led to the isolation of the novel antibiotics baulamycins A (BmcA, 6) and B (BmcB, 7). BmcA and BmcB displayed in vitro activity with IC50 values of 4.8 ?M and 19 ?M against SbnE and 180 ?M and 200 ?M against AsbA, respectively. Kinetic analysis showed that the compounds function as reversible competitive enzyme inhibitors. Liquid culture studies with S. aureus , B. anthracis , E. coli , and several other bacterial pathogens demonstrated the capacity of these natural products to penetrate bacterial barriers and inhibit growth of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative species. These studies provide proof-of-concept that natural product inhibitors targeting siderophore virulence factors can provide access to novel broad-spectrum antibiotics, which may serve as important leads for the development of potent anti-infective agents.
Project description:Siderophores are low molecular weight, high-affinity iron(III) ligands, produced by bacteria to solubilize and promote iron uptake under low iron conditions. Two prominent structural features characterize the majority of the marine siderophores discovered so far: (1) a predominance of suites of amphiphilic siderophores composed of an iron(III)-binding headgroup that is appended by one or two of a series of fatty acids and (2) a prevalence of siderophores that contain alpha-hydroxycarboxylic acid moieties (e.g., beta-hydroxyaspartic acid or citric acid) which are photoreactive when coordinated to Fe(III). Variation of the fatty acid chain length affects the relative amphiphilicity within a suite of siderophores. Catecholate sulfonation is another structural variation that would affect the hydrophilicity of a siderophore. In addition to a review of the marine amphiphilic siderophores, we report the production of petrobactin disulfonate by Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8.
Project description:Small molecule iron-chelators, siderophores, are very important in facilitating the acquisition of Fe(III), an essential element for pathogenic bacteria. Many Gram-negative outer-membrane transporters and Gram-positive lipoprotein siderophore-binding proteins have been characterized, and the binding ability of outer-membrane transporters and siderophore-binding proteins for Fe-siderophores has been determined. However, there is little information regarding the binding ability of these proteins for apo-siderophores, the iron-free chelators. Here we report that Bacillus cereus YxeB facilitates iron-exchange from Fe-siderophore to apo-siderophore bound to the protein, the first Gram-positive siderophore-shuttle system. YxeB binds ferrioxamine B (FO, Fe-siderophore)/desferrioxamine B (DFO, apo-siderophore) in vitro. Disc-diffusion assays and growth assays using the yxeB mutant reveal that YxeB is responsible for importing the FO. Cr-DFO (a FO analog) is bound by YxeB in vitro and B. cereus imports or binds Cr-DFO in vivo. In vivo uptake assays using Cr-DFO and FO and growth assays using DFO and Cr-DFO show that B. cereus selectively imports and uses FO when DFO is present. Moreover, in vitro competition assays using Cr-DFO and FO clearly demonstrate that YxeB binds only FO, not Cr-DFO, when DFO is bound to the protein. Iron-exchange from FO to DFO bound to YxeB must occur when DFO is initially bound by YxeB. Because the metal exchange rate is generally first order in replacement ligand concentration, protein binding of the apo-siderophore acts to dramatically enhance the iron exchange rate, a key component of the Gram-positive siderophore-shuttle mechanism.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus assembles the siderophore, staphyloferrin B, from l-2,3-diaminopropionic acid (l-Dap), ?-ketoglutarate, and citrate. Recently, SbnA and SbnB were shown to produce l-Dap and ?-ketoglutarate from O-phospho-l-serine (OPS) and l-glutamate. SbnA is a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme with homology to O-acetyl-l-serine sulfhydrylases; however, SbnA utilizes OPS instead of O-acetyl-l-serine (OAS), and l-glutamate serves as a nitrogen donor instead of a sulfide. In this work, we examined how SbnA dictates substrate specificity for OPS and l-glutamate using a combination of X-ray crystallography, enzyme kinetics, and site-directed mutagenesis. Analysis of SbnA crystals incubated with OPS revealed the structure of the PLP-?-aminoacrylate intermediate. Formation of the intermediate induced closure of the active site pocket by narrowing the channel leading to the active site and forming a second substrate binding pocket that likely binds l-glutamate. Three active site residues were identified: Arg132, Tyr152, Ser185 that were essential for OPS recognition and turnover. The Y152F/S185G SbnA double mutant was completely inactive, and its crystal structure revealed that the mutations induced a closed form of the enzyme in the absence of the ?-aminoacrylate intermediate. Lastly, l-cysteine was shown to be a competitive inhibitor of SbnA by forming a nonproductive external aldimine with the PLP cofactor. These results suggest a regulatory link between siderophore and l-cysteine biosynthesis, revealing a potential mechanism to reduce iron uptake under oxidative stress.
Project description:During infection, Corynebacterium diphtheriae must compete with host iron-sequestering mechanisms for iron. C. diphtheriae can acquire iron by a siderophore-dependent iron-uptake pathway, by uptake and degradation of heme, or both. Previous studies showed that production of siderophore (corynebactin) by C. diphtheriae is repressed under high-iron growth conditions by the iron-activated diphtheria toxin repressor (DtxR) and that partially purified corynebactin fails to react in chemical assays for catecholate or hydroxamate compounds. In this study, we purified corynebactin from supernatants of low-iron cultures of the siderophore-overproducing, DtxR-negative mutant strain C. diphtheriae C7(?) ?dtxR by sequential anion-exchange chromatography on AG1-X2 and Source 15Q resins, followed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) on Zorbax C8 resin. The Chrome Azurol S (CAS) chemical assay for siderophores was used to detect and measure corynebactin during purification, and the biological activity of purified corynebactin was shown by its ability to promote growth and iron uptake in siderophore-deficient mutant strains of C. diphtheriae under iron-limiting conditions. Mass spectrometry and NMR analysis demonstrated that corynebactin has a novel structure, consisting of a central lysine residue linked through its ?- and ?- amino groups by amide bonds to the terminal carboxyl groups of two different citrate residues. Corynebactin from C. diphtheriae is structurally related to staphyloferrin A from Staphylococcus aureus and rhizoferrin from Rhizopus microsporus in which d-ornithine or 1,4-diaminobutane, respectively, replaces the central lysine residue that is present in corynebactin.