Mammalian target of rapamycin controls dendritic cell development downstream of Flt3 ligand signaling.
ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DCs) comprise distinct functional subsets including CD8? and CD8(+) classical DCs (cDCs) and interferon-secreting plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs). The cytokine Flt3 ligand (Flt3L) controls the development of DCs and is particularly important for the pDC and CD8(+) cDC and their CD103(+) tissue counterparts. We report that mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor rapamycin impaired Flt3L-driven DC development in vitro, with the pDCs and CD8(+)-like cDCs most profoundly affected. Conversely, deletion of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-mTOR negative regulator Pten facilitated Flt3L-driven DC development in culture. DC-specific Pten targeting in vivo caused the expansion of CD8(+) and CD103(+) cDC numbers, which was reversible by rapamycin. The increased CD8(+) cDC numbers caused by Pten deletion correlated with increased susceptibility to the intracellular pathogen Listeria. Thus, PI3K-mTOR signaling downstream of Flt3L controls DC development, and its restriction by Pten ensures optimal DC pool size and subset composition.
Project description:Dendritic cells (DCs) have critical roles in the induction of the adaptive immune response. The transcription factors Id2, Batf3 and Irf-8 are required for many aspects of murine DC differentiation including development of CD8?(+) and CD103(+) DCs. How they regulate DC subset specification is not completely understood. Using an Id2-GFP reporter system, we show that Id2 is broadly expressed in all cDC subsets with the highest expression in CD103(+) and CD8?(+) lineages. Notably, CD103(+) DCs were the only DC able to constitutively cross-present cell-associated antigens in vitro. Irf-8 deficiency affected loss of development of virtually all conventional DCs (cDCs) while Batf3 deficiency resulted in the development of Sirp-?(-) DCs that had impaired survival. Exposure to GM-CSF during differentiation induced expression of CD103 in Id2-GFP(+) DCs. It did not restore cross-presenting capacity to Batf3(-/-) or CD103(-)Sirp-?(-)DCs in vitro. Thus, Irf-8 and Batf3 regulate distinct stages in DC differentiation during the development of cDCs. Genetic mapping DC subset differentiation using Id2-GFP may have broad implications in understanding the interplay of DC subsets during protective and pathological immune responses.
Project description:Conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) derive from bone marrow (BM) precursors that undergo cascades of developmental programs to terminally differentiate in peripheral tissues. Pre-cDC1s and pre-cDC2s commit in the BM to each differentiate into CD8?+/CD103+ cDC1s and CD11b+ cDC2s, respectively. Although both cDCs rely on the cytokine FLT3L during development, mechanisms that ensure cDC accessibility to FLT3L have yet to be elucidated. Here, we generated mice that lacked a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) 10 in DCs (Itgax-cre × Adam10-fl/fl; ADAM10?DC) and found that ADAM10 deletion markedly impacted splenic cDC2 development. Pre-cDC2s accumulated in the spleen with transcriptomic alterations that reflected their inability to differentiate and exhibited abrupt failure to survive as terminally differentiated cDC2s. Induced ADAM10 ablation also led to the reduction of terminally differentiated cDC2s, and restoration of Notch signaling, a major pathway downstream of ADAM10, only modestly rescued them. ADAM10?DC BM failed to generate cDC2s in BM chimeric mice with or without cotransferred ADAM10-sufficient BM, indicating that cDC2 development required cell-autonomous ADAM10. We determined cDC2s to be sources of soluble FLT3L, as supported by decreased serum FLT3L concentration and the retention of membrane-bound FLT3L on cDC2 surfaces in ADAM10?DC mice, and by demonstrating the release of soluble FLT3L by cDC2 in ex vivo culture supernatants. Through in vitro studies utilizing murine embryonic fibroblasts, we determined FLT3L to be a substrate for ADAM10. These data collectively reveal cDC2s as FLT3L sources and highlight a cell-autonomous mechanism that may enhance FLT3L accessibility for cDC2 development and survival.
Project description:Skin-derived dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen-presenting cells with critical roles in both adaptive immunity and tolerance to self. Skin DCs carry antigens and constitutively migrate to the skin-draining lymph nodes (LNs). In mice, Langerin-CD11b- dermal DCs are a low-frequency, heterogeneous, migratory DC subset that traffics to LNs (Langerin-CD11b- migDCs). Here, we build on the observation that Langerin-CD11b- migDCs are Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L) dependent and strongly Flt3L responsive, which may relate them to classical DCs. Examination of DC capture of FITC from painted skin, DC isolation from skin explant culture, and from the skin of CCR7 knockout mice, which accumulate migDCs, demonstrate these cells are cutaneous residents. Langerin-CD11b- Flt3L-responsive DCs are largely CD24(+) and CX3CR1(low) and can be depleted from Zbtb46-DTR mice, suggesting classical DC lineage. Langerin-CD11b- migDCs present antigen with equal efficiency to other DC subsets ex vivo, including classical CD8? cDCs and Langerin+CD103+ dermal DCs. Finally, transcriptome analysis suggests a close relationship with other skin DCs, and a lineage relationship with other classical DCs. This work demonstrates that Langerin- CD11b- dermal DCs, a previously overlooked cell subset, may be an important contributor to the cutaneous immune environment.
Project description:Dendritic cells (DCs) initiate immune responses in barrier tissues including lung and skin. Conventional DC (cDC) subsets, CD11b(-) (cDC1s) or CD11b(+) (cDC2s), arise via distinct networks of transcription factors involving IFN regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) and IRF8, and are specialized for unique functional responses. Using mice in which a conditional Irf4 or Irf8 allele is deleted in CD11c(+) cells, we determined whether IRF4 or IRF8 deficiency beginning in CD11c(+) cDC precursors (pre-cDCs) changed the homeostasis of mature DCs or pre-DCs in the lung, dermis, and spleen. CD11c-cre-Irf4(-/-) mice selectively lacked a lung-resident CD11c(hi)CD11b(+)SIRP?(+)CD24(+) DC subset, but not other lung CD11b(+) DCs or alveolar macrophages. Numbers of CD11b(+)CD4(+) splenic DCs, but not CD11b(+) dermal DCs, were reduced, indicating cDC2s in the lung and dermis develop via different pathways. Irf4 deficiency did not alter numbers of cDC1s. CD11c-cre-Irf8(-/-) mice lacked lung-resident CD103(+) DCs and splenic CD8?(+) DCs, yet harbored increased IRF4-dependent DCs. This correlated with a reduced number of Irf8(-/-) pre-cDCs, which contained elevated IRF4, suggesting that Irf8 deficiency diverts pre-cDC fate. Analyses of Irf4 and Irf8 haploinsufficient mice showed that, although one Irf4 allele was sufficient for lung cDC2 development, two functional Irf8 alleles were required for differentiation of lung cDC1s. Thus, IRF8 and IRF4 act in pre-cDCs to direct the terminal differentiation of cDC1 and cDC2 subsets in the lung and spleen. These data suggest that variation in IRF4 or IRF8 levels resulting from genetic polymorphisms or environmental cues will govern tissue DC numbers and, therefore, regulate the magnitude of DC functional responses.
Project description:Dendritic cells (DCs) subsets differ in precursor cell of origin, functional properties, requirements for growth factors, and dependence on transcription factors. Lymphoid-tissue resident CD8?(+) conventional DCs (cDCs) and CD11b(low/-)CD103(+) non-lymphoid DCs are developmentally related, each being dependent on FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L), and requiring the transcription factors Batf3, Irf8, and Id2 for development. It was recently suggested that granulocyte/macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) was required for the development of dermal CD11b(low/-)Langerin(+)CD103(+) DCs, and that this dermal DC subset was required for priming autoreactive T cells in experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE). Here, we compared development of peripheral tissue DCs and susceptibility to EAE in GM-CSF receptor deficient (Csf2rb(-/-)) and Batf3(-/-) mice. We find that Batf3-dependent dermal CD11b(low/-)Langerin(+) DCs do develop in Csf2rb(-/-) mice, but that they express reduced, but not absent, levels of CD103. Further, Batf3(-/-) mice lacking all peripheral CD11b(low/-) DCs show robust Th cell priming after subcutaneous immunization and are susceptible to EAE. Our results suggest that defective T effector priming and resistance to EAE exhibited by Csf2rb(-/-) mice does not result from the absence of dermal CD11b(low/-)Langerin(+)CD103(+) DCs.
Project description:The IRF8-dependent subset of classical dendritic cells (cDCs), termed cDC1, is important for cross-priming cytotoxic T cell responses against pathogens and tumors. Culture of hematopoietic progenitors with DC growth factor FLT3 ligand (FLT3L) yields very few cDC1s (in humans) or only immature "cDC1-like" cells (in the mouse). We report that OP9 stromal cells expressing the Notch ligand Delta-like 1 (OP9-DL1) optimize FLT3L-driven development of cDC1s from murine immortalized progenitors and primary bone marrow cells. Co-culture with OP9-DL1 induced IRF8-dependent cDC1s with a phenotype (CD103+ Dec205+ CD8?+) and expression profile resembling primary splenic cDC1s. OP9-DL1-induced cDC1s showed preferential migration toward CCR7 ligands in vitro and superior T cell cross-priming and antitumor vaccination in vivo. Co-culture with OP9-DL1 also greatly increased the yield of IRF8-dependent CD141+ cDC1s from human bone marrow progenitors cultured with FLT3L. Thus, Notch signaling optimizes cDC generation in vitro and yields authentic cDC1s for functional studies and translational applications.
Project description:The transcription factors Batf3 and IRF8 are required for the development of CD8?(+) conventional dendritic cells (cDCs), but the basis for their actions has remained unclear. Here we identified two progenitor cells positive for the transcription factor Zbtb46 that separately generated CD8?(+) cDCs and CD4(+) cDCs and arose directly from the common DC progenitor (CDP). Irf8 expression in CDPs required prior autoactivation of Irf8 that was dependent on the transcription factor PU.1. Specification of the clonogenic progenitor of CD8?(+) cDCs (the pre-CD8 DC) required IRF8 but not Batf3. However, after specification of pre-CD8 DCs, autoactivation of Irf8 became Batf3 dependent at a CD8?(+) cDC-specific enhancer with multiple transcription factor AP1-IRF composite elements (AICEs) within the Irf8 superenhancer. CDPs from Batf3(-/-) mice that were specified toward development into pre-CD8 DCs failed to complete their development into CD8?(+) cDCs due to decay of Irf8 autoactivation and diverted to the CD4(+) cDC lineage.
Project description:Antigen presentation by mature dendritic cells (DCs) is the first step for initiating adaptive immune responses. DCs are composed of heterogeneous functional subsets; however, the molecular mechanisms that regulate differentiation of specific DC subsets are not understood. Here, we report that the basic leucine zipper transcription factor NFIL3/E4BP4 is essential for the development of CD8?(+) conventional DCs (cDCs). Nfil3(-/-) mice specifically lack CD8?(+) cDCs but not CD8?(-) cDCs or plasmacytoid DCs in lymphoid tissues. Flt3 ligand-dependent generation of CD8?(+) cDCs in lymphoid tissues and CD8?(+)-equivalent cDCs from Nfil3(-/-) bone marrow cells was also impaired. NFIL3 regulates CD8?(+) cDC development in part through Batf3 expression. Importantly, Nfil3(-/-) mice exhibited impaired cross-priming of CD8(+) T cells against cell-associated antigen, a process normally performed by CD8?(+) cDCs, and failed to produce IL-12 after TLR3 stimulation. Thus, NFIL3 plays an essential role in the development of CD8?(+) cDCs.
Project description:DCs are critical for initiating immunity. The current paradigm in vaccine biology is that DCs migrating from peripheral tissue and classical lymphoid-resident DCs (cDCs) cooperate in the draining LNs to initiate priming and proliferation of T cells. Here, we observe subcutaneous immunity is Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L) dependent. Flt3L is rapidly secreted after immunization; Flt3 deletion reduces T cell responses by 50%. Flt3L enhances global T cell and humoral immunity as well as both the numbers and antigen capture capacity of migratory DCs (migDCs) and LN-resident cDCs. Surprisingly, however, we find immunity is controlled by cDCs and actively tempered in vivo by migDCs. Deletion of Langerin(+) DC or blockade of DC migration improves immunity. Consistent with an immune-regulatory role, transcriptomic analyses reveals different skin migDC subsets in both mouse and human cluster together, and share immune-suppressing gene expression and regulatory pathways. These data reveal that protective immunity to protein vaccines is controlled by Flt3L-dependent, LN-resident cDCs.
Project description:Although CD103-expressing dendritic cells (DCs) are widely present in nonlymphoid tissues, the transcription factors controlling their development and their relationship to other DC subsets remain unclear. Mice lacking the transcription factor Batf3 have a defect in the development of CD8alpha+ conventional DCs (cDCs) within lymphoid tissues. We demonstrate that Batf3(-/-) mice also lack CD103+CD11b- DCs in the lung, intestine, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), dermis, and skin-draining lymph nodes. Notably, Batf3(-/-) mice displayed reduced priming of CD8 T cells after pulmonary Sendai virus infection, with increased pulmonary inflammation. In the MLNs and intestine, Batf3 deficiency resulted in the specific lack of CD103+CD11b- DCs, with the population of CD103+CD11b+ DCs remaining intact. Batf3(-/-) mice showed no evidence of spontaneous gastrointestinal inflammation and had a normal contact hypersensitivity (CHS) response, despite previous suggestions that CD103+ DCs were required for immune homeostasis in the gut and CHS. The relationship between CD8alpha+ cDCs and nonlymphoid CD103+ DCs implied by their shared dependence on Batf3 was further supported by similar patterns of gene expression and their shared developmental dependence on the transcription factor Irf8. These data provide evidence for a developmental relationship between lymphoid organ-resident CD8alpha+ cDCs and nonlymphoid CD103+ DCs.